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29 november

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Nov 2006 20:34    Onderwerp: 29 november Reageer met quote

1918 : American nurse Maude Fisher writes to mother of war casualty

On November 29, 1918, Maude Fisher, a nurse in the American Red Cross during World War I, writes a heartfelt letter to the mother of a young soldier named Richard Hogan to inform her of her son’s death in an army hospital.


"My dear Mrs. Hogan," Fisher began, "If I could talk to you I could tell you so much better about your son’s last sickness, and all the little things that mean so much to a mother far away from her boy." Richard Hogan, who survived his front-line service in the war unscathed, had been brought to the hospital with influenza on November 13, 1918--just two days after the armistice was declared. The influenza soon developed into pneumonia. Hogan was "brave and cheerful," Fisher assured Mrs. Hogan, "and made a good fight with the disease….He did not want you to worry about his being sick, but I told him I thought we ought to let you know, and he said all right."


Before two weeks had passed, however, Hogan was dead. Knowing the woman would only receive an official governmental notification of her son’s death, Fisher gave a more personal account of his last days, including his joking with the hospital orderly and the other nurses’ affection for him. According to Fisher, Hogan was buried in the cemetery at Commercy, in northeastern France, alongside other fallen American soldiers of the Great War.


"A big hill overshadows the place and the sun was setting behind it just as the Chaplain said the last prayer over your boy," Fisher wrote. "He prayed that the people at home might have great strength now for the battle that is before them, and we do ask that for you now. The country will always honor your boy, because he gave his life for it, and it will also love and honor you for the gift of your boy, but be assured, that the sacrifice is not in vain, and the world is better today for it."

www.history.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 29 Nov 2006 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916

Siegreiches Vordringen der Armee Falkenhayn auf der ganzen walachischen Front

General d. Inf. v. Falkenhayn

Großes Hauptquartier, 29. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Bei Givenchy, südwestlich von Lens, scheiterte der im Nebel erfolgende Vorstoß einer englischen Kompagnie.
Im Somme-Gebiet nahm in den Abendstunden das feindliche Feuer nördlich der Ancre und am St.-Pierre-Vaast-Wald zu.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Josef:
In den Waldkarpathen und an der siebenbürgischen Ostfront führte der Russe gestern an vielen Stellen gegen die deutschen und österreichisch-ungarischen Linien Angriffe. Er erlitt eine Niederlage; kleine örtliche Erfolge hat er mit blutigen Opfern erkauft. Die Armee des Generals der Infanterie v. Falkenhayn ist auf der ganzen walachischen Front in siegreichem Vordringen. Vor ihr weicht der geschlagene Feind in Unordnung nach Osten.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Die Bewegungen der Donau-Armee stehen in Übereinstimmung mit den weiter nördlich operierenden Kräften. In der Dobrudscha nur geringe Gefechtstätigkeit.
Mazedonische Front:
Nach dem Scheitern der Entlastungsoffensive der Entente von Süden her führte der Feind gestern nur Teilvorstöße nordwestlich von Monastir und bei Gruniste (östlich der Cerna) aus. Auch dabei hatte er keine Vorteile erringen können.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Pitesti in der Walachei genommen
Berlin, 29. November, abends.
Nördlich der Somme bei Serre und Sailly lebhaftes Feuer.
An der Ostfront Siebenbürgens griffen die Russen erneut an.
Abschlußmeldung fehlt. Pitesti ist genommen.
An der Monastir-Front Ruhe. 1)





Der Reichskanzler über den vaterländischen Hilfsdienst
Berlin, 29. November.
Bei Beginn der Beratung des Gesetzentwurfs über den vaterländischen Hilfsdienst hielt der Reichskanzler v. Bethmann Hollweg eine Rede, in der er unter anderem sagte: "Der unersättliche Krieg rast weiter. Unsere Feinde wollen es so. Sie feiern den vergangenen Sommer als einen für sie siegreichen. Haben sie etwa ihren Willen durchgesetzt? Unsere Linien sind ungebrochen, und Rumänien, das den großen Umschwung herbeiführen sollte, zahlt seine Buße. (Bravo.) Gott hat uns bis hierher geholfen und wird weiter helfen. (Beifall.) Die fast übermenschlichen Taten unserer Truppen, an die kein Wort des Dankes heranreicht (Sehr richtig! Sehr wahr! Beifall), und das gute Gewissen, daß wir als die Ersten und Einzigen bereit waren und bereit sind, den Krieg durch einen unser Dasein und unsere Zukunft sichernden Frieden zu beenden, gibt uns das Recht zu solcher Zuversicht. Aber, meine Herren, über dem Recht sollen wir unsere Pflicht nicht vergessen. Unsere Feinde wollen den Frieden noch nicht. An Menschenzahl sind sie uns weit überlegen, und fast die ganze Welt liefert ihnen Kriegsmaterial. Die Motive des Gesetzes, um dessen Annahme wir bitten, sind nicht am grünen Tisch erdacht, sie sind draußen im Trommelfeuer der Fronten geboren. Die Möglichkeit des Zwanges mußte vorgesehen werden. Gelingen aber kann das Werk nur, wenn es sich in seiner Ausführung nicht als ein Ergebnis des Zwanges, sondern der freien Überzeugung des ganzen Volkes darstellt (Sehr wahr!). Daß dem so sein wird, auch das dürfen wir mit Zuversicht erwarten, dafür bürgt uns der Sinn, mit dem sich das ganze Volk seit dem ersten Tage auf den Krieg eingestellt hat, dafür bürgen uns die großen Leistungen, die dieser Sinn bisher schon hervorgebracht hat. Wenn draußen im Felde Hunderttausende in der Verteidigung des Vaterlandes verbluten, dann wird der Mann in der Heimat noch nicht das letzte Opfer gebracht zu haben meinen, wenn er tatenlos die Mühen erträgt, die der Kriegszustand ihm auferlegt. Er wird es als seine Pflicht vor dem Vaterlande, vor den Kämpfern und vor den gefallenen Helden betrachten, seine Kraft an dem Platze einzusetzen, wo sie für den Kriegszweck am nützlichen wirkt. Dies Gesetz, für die Kriegszeit geschaffen, soll doch auch ein Zeugnis sein, daß wir für alle Zeit festhalten wollen den Geist gegenwärtigen Vertrauens und gegenseitiger Hilfsbereitschaft, der uns in der schwersten Not unseres Volkes zusammengeführt hat und auf dem allein sich eine Zukunft aufbauen kann, stark nach außen und fest im Innern." (Lebhaftes Bravo!) 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 29. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Josef:
Die Armee des Generals der Infanterie v. Falkenhayn ist in der Walachei in siegreichem Vordringen. Starke russische Angriffe in den Waldkarpathen und an der siebenbürgischen Ostfront scheiterten an der zähen Ausdauer der österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Truppen. Unsere Stellungen sind behauptet, um einzelne Grabenstücke wird noch gekämpft.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Italienischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Lage unverändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Die feindliche Niederlage in Mazedonien
Sofia, 29. November. (Generalstabsbericht vorn 28. November.)
Mazedonische Front:
Nach sehr starker Artillerievorbereitung griff der Feind mehrmals auf der Front Trnova (nordwestlich von Monastir) - Höhe 1248 (nördlich von Monastir in der Ebene von Monastir) - Höhe 1050 im Cerna-Bogen Höhen in der Umgebung des Dorfes Gruniste an. Die wiederholten Angriffe auf der ganzen Front wurden von den bulgarischen und deutschen Truppen unter kräftiger Mitwirkung der Artillerie blutig abgewiesen. Die Verluste des Gegners sind ungeheuer. Vor unseren Stellungen liegen Hunderte von Leichen. Vor dem Abschnitt eines einzigen Bataillons des tapferen 51. Infanterieregiments zählten wir dreihundert gefallene Feinde. Nicht minder stark waren die Angriffe des Feindes und das Artilleriefeuer im Wardar-Tale. Hier griff der Feind unsere vorgeschobenen Stellungen beim Dorfe Krschteli, südwestlich vorn Dojran-See, verzweifelt an, wurde jedoch blutig zurückgeschlagen und ließ viele Tote auf dem Schlachtfelde. Wir erbeuteten 6 Maschinengewehre, zahlreiche Gewehre und anderes Kriegsmaterial. An der Front von der Belasica Planina bis zur Struma lebhaftes Artilleriefeuer; auch hier zählten wir 125 feindliche Gefallene. Mit einem Worte, dieser Tag kann infolge seiner großartigen Kampfhandlungen als einer der heftigsten Kampftage an der mazedonischen Front gelten.
Rumänische Front:
In der Walachei setzt die Donau-Armee ihren Vormarsch ohne Unterbrechung fort und hat mit den verbündeten Truppen, die aus den Karpathen herabgestiegen sind, enge Fühlung genommen. Unsere auf dem linken Donau-Ufer vorrückenden Truppen griffen Giurgiu an und eroberten, unterstützt von unseren Einheiten, insbesondere der Artillerie, der Garnifon von Rustschuk sowie von österreichisch-ungarischen Monitoren die Stadt nach erbittertem Kampfe, der von 11 Uhr vormittags bis 4 Uhr nachmittags dauerte. Die rumänischen Truppen und die Bevölkerung flohen, von Panik ergriffen, gegen Bukarest. An der Donau, stromabwärts von Rustschuk bis Cernavoda, Artillerie- und Infanteriefeuer. In der Dobrudscha Artilleriefeuer.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 29. November.
Heeresbericht vom 28. November:
Kaukasusfront: Scharmützel zu unseren Gunsten.
Dobrudschafront: Unsere Truppen warfen durch Artillerie- und Infanteriefeuer feindliche, seit einigen Tagen mit Verschanzungsarbeiten beschäftigte Truppen aus ihren Stellungen, wobei sie ihnen schwere Verluste zufügten.
Donaufront: Unsere Truppen, die die Donau überschritten haben, besetzten am 27. November Alexandria, wo sie 1 Lokomotive, 140 Eisenbahnwagen und eine große Menge Lebensmittel erbeuteten.





Beattie britischer Flottenbefehlshaber an Stelle Jellicoes

Balfour
Admiral Jellicoe



London, 29. November. (Reuter-Meldung.)
Unterhaus. Balfour teilte mit, daß Admiral Jellicoe an Stelle von Sir Henry Jacksen zum Ersten Seelord und Präsidenten der Marineakademie in Greenwich ernannt worden ist. Beattie wurde zum Befehlshaber der großen Flotte ernannt. (Beifall.) Balfour teilte weiter mit, daß man schon seit längerer Zeit den Beschluß gefaßt habe, diese Ernennungen vorzunehmen, daß die Verlautbarung davon aber aus militärischen Gründen verzögert worden sei. Die Ernennungen würden noch weitere Veränderungen in der Admiralität zur Folge haben. 1)





Eine Flaschenpost von der "Hampshire"
"Hampshire" von einem deutschen U-Boot torpediert?

Stavanger, 29. November.
Auf Vesteraamoy im Stavangerfjord trieb eine Flasche mit einem Zettel an Land, der in englischer Sprache folgende Worte enthielt: "H. M. S. "Hampshire". Wir sind bisher wohlbehalten, aber wie lange, können wir nicht sagen. Wir sind in einem offenen Boot, welches aber stark leck ist; es wird nicht mehr lange dauern. Wir können das Land noch nicht sehen. Lebt alle wohl! Wir wissen, daß wir gerächt werden; die Jungens werden dafür sorgen. Wir wurden zweimal torpediert und hatten nicht Zeit, wiederzufeuern, ehe das U- Boot verschwand und wir sanken. Fünf von uns sind jetzt hier, alle todmüde vom Rudern und Wasserschippen. Dies ist das Letzte von uns; wenn es gefunden wird, schickt es Frau Smith, Southshields." Der Zettel ist offenbar echt und heute dem britischen Konsul übergeben worden. Die "Hampshire" war mit Lord Kitchener und seinem Stabe an Bord am 5. Juni gesunken. 1)

www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 14:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 29 November 1914

Western Front
Ypres: Strong German attack repulsed.
Argonne: French complete recovery of nearly all territory taken by the Germans 15 September - 21 October.

Eastern Front
Poland: Germans bombard Lodz.

Southern Front
Serbia: Evacuation of Belgrade by the Serbians begins.

Naval and Overseas Operations
German submarines appear about Havre, etc.

Political, etc.
The King leaves England on a visit to the Army in France.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_11_29.htm

WarChron - November 1914 - East Prussia - Poland

On 29 November, the Germans heavily bombarded Lodz in Poland.

At a Military Conference, Russian Commander in Chief Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich and his front commanders agreed to a Southwest Front plan for a Brusilov offensive in the direction of Krakau.

http://warchron.com/eastPrussiaPoland.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 14:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sint-Nicolaas te Bergen op Zoom (1914)

Eerste officiële ontvangst van Sint-Nicolaas te Bergen op Zoom Een opvallende gebeurtenis uit 1914!

Op het eind van het jaar 1914, enige maanden na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoor­log, besloten een aantal dames, voornamelijk echtgenotes van officieren, om Sint-Nico­laas officieel naar Bergen op Zoom te halen. Aanleiding was het gedwongen verblijf van veel Belgische kinderen in de vluchtelingenkampen, die na de overrompeling van België in oktober 1914, haastig op Kijk-in-de-Pot en op Plein XIII waren opgericht. Dankzij enige gegoede Belgische kindervrienden kon aan dit initiatief een gewenste uitbreiding worden gegeven, en werden ook de Bergse kinderen bij het feest betrok­ken.

Zondag 29 november 1914 was het dan zover: Sinterklaas zou met de Zeppelin uit Spanje komen (zegt men!) en via Tholen per auto naar Bergen op Zoom. Deze auto­mobiel was beschikbaar gesteld door sergeant Fick. Hier blijkt al dat de militaire be­trokkenheid bij dit gebeuren groot was, wat ook opvalt uit het feit dat Sinterklaas met militaire promptheid en precisie stipt om 12 uur de bordestrappen van het stadhuis beklom. Ondanks een overvolle Markt ("geen kei was onbezet") ontving waarnemend burgemeester Somers de Sint in de hal van het stadhuis. De raadzaal was niet beschik­baar, omdat deze in gebruik was als levensmiddelenmagazijn. Namens Sint-Nicolaas nam luitenant De Jong het woord, want Sinterklaas sprak in die tijd alleen nog maar Spaans (1 jaar later was hij trouwens het Bergs al volledig meester!). Na de officiële ontvangst werd er eerst door fotograaf Van Velsen een historische foto van het ge­zelschap voor het bordes gemaakt, waarna een vriendelijke Sint op zijn schimmel plaatsnam. Achter hem troffen we een dreigende Piet met roe aan. Er werd een stoet samengesteld waarbij de goedheilig man werd vergezeld door artilleristen te paard en soldaten van het 41e Landweerbataljon. De militairen waren voorzien van collectezak­jes aan een lange lat. De opbrengst van de collecte was bestemd voor de kinderen der Armenscholen en voor die der Belgische vluchtelingen. Pakjes en speelgoed werden door 2 zwarte knapen op een wagen in ontvangst genomen.


Afbeelding Sint en Piet 1914

Evenals nu nog het geval is, werd er ook in 1914 nog een kindermiddag georganiseerd, zoals dat toen nimmer had plaats gevonden. Het Rockefellerfonds had hiervoor 500 gulden beschikbaar gesteld. Het feest vond plaats op maandag 7 december (!) in de Gertrudiskerk, die speciaal voor deze gelegenheid was versierd met veelkleurig elek­trisch licht, dat door H. Janvier, een kermisexploitant, beschikbaar was gesteld (uniek, want de stad moest nog tot 1921 wachten op reguliere elektriciteit). Een troon voor Sint-Nicolaas, met borstbeelden van koningin Wilhelmina en prins Hendrik, en gedrapeerd met vlaggen van Nederland en België, stond opgesteld in het midden van het koor. Terwijl op lange tafels 3032 porties lekkernijen, zijnde speculaas, marsepein en sinaasappelen, stonden te wachten op de kinderen.

De kinderen kwamen om half twee in de stromende regen vanuit de scholen en uit de vluchtelingenkampen onder begeleiding van de muziekkorpsen van 3R.I. (3e Regiment Infanterie) en het 41e Landweerbataljon naar de Grote Markt. De kinderen hadden rood, wit, blauwe en oranje vlaggetjes. Op de Markt werden zij opgewacht door soldaten van alweer het 41e Landweerbataljon en de harmonieën E.M.M. (Eendracht Maakt Macht) en Arbeid Adelt. Toen iedereen gearriveerd was trok men in optocht, nog steeds in de regen, met de meisjes voorop via het Vierkantje naar de Gertrudiskerk. Daar werden liedjes gezongen die de kin­deren op school hadden geleerd. Onder een donderend hoera-geroep kwamen Sint-Nicolaas en Zwarte Piet om 3 uur de kerk binnen. De heilig man schreed langzaam langs de rijen naar zijn troon onder de stemmige klanken van het orgel. Na een aantal officiële toespraken (de organisatoren dichtten zich in die tijd (?) wel heel graag alle lof toe) en dankzegging aan de burger­lijke en militaire autoriteiten, werd de regeling van het feest bekend gemaakt (tucht en orde diende er te zijn!). Een stormachtig handgeklap viel luitenant De Jong ten deel. Vervolgens stond Sinterklaas op, maakte een zegenend gebaar en sprak enige woorden (Spaans?), die gelukkig in het gejuich verloren gingen. Daarna werd er weer gezongen, ditmaal onder pianobegeleiding van heer De Groot. Verder waren er nog optredens van Oscar Van Hemel (viool) en mevrouw Van der Heijden-Verbist (zang). Belgische liederen mochten op hoog militair bevel niet worden gezongen met het oog op onze neutraliteit. Ondertussen was de uitdeling van geschenken begonnen. De mannen van de landweer zorgden voor de nodige orde. Om 5 uur vertrok Sinterklaas weer met achterlating van gelukkige kinderen. Het feest werd door de militairen besloten door het zingen van "Wien Nederlandsch Bloed". Een jaar later zou de organisatie door een nieuw te vormen Sint-Nicolaascomité ter hand worden genomen en daarmee werd de jaarlijkse ontvangst van Sinterklaas in onze stad tot heden ten dage gegarandeerd.

Dr Frans J. van Overveld

http://www.sngnederland.com/sngnl/index.php/uit-de-oude-doos/315-sint-nicolaas-te-bergen-op-zoom-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 14:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DE SAMENSTELLING VAN DE DRIE MARINEDIVISIES

Aan onze kust zaten drie Marinedivisies.

De samenstelling ervan is op zichzelf een interessant iets om te bekijken.

1e MARINEDIVISION

Werd opgericht op 29 november 1914
Op 12 december van dat jaar bestond ze uit de volgende eenheden:

- Marine Infanterie Brigade met de Marine Infanterie Regimente 1 en 2.
- 1e Marine Brigade met het 1e Matrosen Regiment, 1e Matrosen Artillerie Regiment.
- 2e Marine Brigade met het 1e Landwehr Eskadron van het X Armee Korps,
1e Landwehr Feld Artillerie Abteilung van het X Armee Korps en de
2e Marine Pionier Kompagnie, alsook 2e Matrosen Regiment en
2e Matrosen Artillerie Regiment.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=8585&sid=daaf2e5acd178eea7d690649d87ec52f
Zie ook http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=4145
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2010 14:40, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 14:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1914)

29 november 1914 - Opnieuw werd in Baarle-Hertog een vluchtelingenkind geboren. Anna Philomena Der Kinderen schonk het leven aan Anna Catharina De Laet, dochtertje van Arthur De Laet, wagen­maker uit Borgerhout. De bevalling gebeurde in de woning van zijn broer, wagenmaker in Baarle. Als getuige tekende een andere broer, Leonard, die zijn herberg in Antwer­pen in de steek had gelaten. (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=187:05-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1914&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Third Man: Willy Trück and the German Air Effort in South West Africa in World War I
by S. Monick

Published sources refer to two aircraft and their pilots as constituting the German air strength in World War I in South West Africa. Capt Arthur Blake, in his work Vlieghelde van Suid-Afrika (1) refers to two aircraft operating against South African forces in this sphere of operations. He refers to an Aviatik, the career of which ended on 29 May, 1915, when it crashed into a thorn tree; and to an LFG Roland (Luft Fahrzeug Gesellschaft), which crashed in April 1915. The Aviatik and LFG were flown by pilots named Fiedler and Von Scheeler, respectively. There was, however, a third pilot operating in German South West Africa in 1914-15, not mentioned in published sources; one Willy Trück.
Trück was sent to Karibib by the Automobile En Aviatik aircraft factory in Germany, with the object of testing local flying conditions. His mission coincided with the outbreak of World War I, and Trück and his aircraft (an un-named military prototype bi-plane) were accordingly impressed into the German war effort. Trueck was told to report for special instructions in Windhoek. The reliability of his aircraft may be gauged by the fact that, whilst flying over Okahandja en route to Windhoek, the engine cut out and the pilot was compelled to make a forced landing in a dry river bed. (The engine failure was due on this occasion to a short circuit.)

Windhoek was contacted but the sum of his instructions was to be told to return to Karibib and await the arrival of some military commanders. Trück's problems were seriously compounded by the fact that, two weeks after receiving instructions from Windhoek, he was informed that he would not be receiving any petrol. The remainder of the twenty barrels that he had brought with him from Germany would have to suffice. This prohibition was not really surprising when one considers that there were absolutely no petrol depots in South West Africa. Indeed, there were only approximately six motor cars in the entire territory and these - not surprisingly - had also been requisitioned by the German forces.


Willy Trück (center) between two bodyguards

Airman Trück was instructed to load his aircraft and the remaining petrol on to a train and to report to the military base at Kalkfontein Zuid. In the final weeks of the war in South West Africa Trück's base was Aus, 225km from Luderitz Bay. Journey's end for the aeroplane was Tsumeb, where it was burnt to prevent its falling into South African hands at the close of the campaign. This probably occurred before the evacuation of Aus by German forces in late March 1915.

There are three interesting diary entries relating to German aircraft activity in South West Africa in November and December 1914. The diary was compiled by Cpl Douglas Scott King (2), of the Kaffrarian Rifles. The first entry, dated Thursday, 12 November 1914, reads:
'German aeroplane passed over our heads before breakfast. My piquet never saw it - althou' we heard it. Fired on by camp.'

A fuller entry, for Sunday 29 November 1914, reads:
'This morning the aeroplane paid us a second visit. Jove! but it was a lovely sight seen miles off high in the air about 4 000 ft. and getting more distinct as it neared us. On the approach to our camp - which by the way is called Haalen Burg - wejust walked a few yards away from our lines. It flew right over our camp and was greeted with a regular hail of rifle shoots [sic] but all to no purpose. It flew on and on till It appeared a mere speck over Kolman's Kop. Now the fun commenced - as it flew over us it very calmly dropped two bombs and shells on us. One exploded and the other failed - no damage was done. But laugh! Pheeeeeuw!. I've never laughed so much in all my life. The shell that exploded took 12 seconds to fall to the ground - and world's records were broken by dozens whole-sale. Fat omcers legging it for "dear life".'

One cannot help feeling that Cpl Scott King and his comrades were far less amused at the third attack, recorded in the diary entry dated Thursday, 17 December 1914, which reads:
'A very misty morning - but I'm darned if that confounded aeroplane didn't come again. It dropped two shells near our big guns - both exploded. 4 men hurt - and one killed - no guns damaged.'

There is good reason to believe that Cpl Scott King's airborne adversary was Airman Trück (if not on all three occasions, then on certain of them). This may be deduced from the fact that Cpl Scott King's diary entry for 15 December 1914 commences 'Arrived at Tschaumaib. . .' The place name bears a close resemblance to Tsumeb which, it will be recalled, was the scene of the incineration of Trück's aircraft. This would strongly suggest that the Kaffrarian Rifles came within the orbit of Trück's operational activity. (However, a note of caution should enter at this point. In his biography of Dr John Weston (3), C.G. van Niekerk comments that the two other German aircraft in the South West Africa theatre commenced bombing operations in early November.)

If, indeed, the aeroplane in question was Trück's (especially in the attack of 17 December), then the bombs which descended upon Cpl Scott King and his comrades were incredibly effective, in view of their improvised nature. For they consisted of a piece of stove pipe, a spring, and several pieces of wire. To these were attached an artillery shell. The device was released on to its target by tugging at the wire; whereupon the shell zig-zagged a course to the ground and actually exploded.

Trück and his fellow pilots had to contend with potential (if not actual) fire power more intense than small arms. South Africa's first anti-aircraft gun was employed in South West Africa. This was affectionately nicknamed 'Skinny Liz' and consisted of a converted 15 pr BLC (breech loading cannon). It is referred to on p44 of the Official History of the Great War, 1914-1918, within the context of Trekkopies. The only official record of this weapon being fired in anger is contained in a report of 2 Battery, South African Mounted Rifles, which describes an unsuccessful engagement with a troublesome German aircraft. The aircraft in question is described as being a Taube monoplane. However, as no Taubes are known to have operated in this theatre of operations, it may well have been the LFG Roland; as this aircraft contained important features of the Taube (although it was a bi-plane).

Mr. Trück, a retired farmer, is 91 years of age this year, and lives with his wife in Sea Point, Cape Town. Cpl Scott King did not survive the Great War, and died on 22 March 1915, in German East Africa, as a result of wounds sustained whilst serving with the 4th South African Horse.


Bibliography
(i) Works referred to in the text:
Blake, Arthur. Vlieghelde van Suid-Afrika. Cape Town, Nasionale Boekhandel, 1966, p 38.
Scott King, D. Diary: 4 October 1914 - 17 December 1915. Unpublished ms.
van Niekerk, C.G. Prophet in his own Country: Dr John Weston, South Africa's first Aeronautical Engineer. Pretoria, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 1979, pp 33-34.
(ii) Other works referred to:
Rand Daily Mail. Report entitled 'One-man air force'. Reprinted in Springbok, August 1980, p 11.
Markman, I. Old Airman. Unpublished typescript accompanying photograph in Museum records.
Bisset, W.M. South Africa's First Anti-Aircraft guns. Militaria Vol 8, No 1, 1978, pp 22-23.
Collyer, J.J. The campaign in German South West Africa, 1914-1915. Pretoria, Govt Printer, 1937


Die Suid-Afrikaanse Krygshistoriese Vereniging, Military History Journal, Vol 5 No 3 - June 1981, http://samilitaryhistory.org/vol053sm.html
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Naval Historical Society

29 November 1914 - HMAS UNA became the first Australian warship to carry aircraft when she transported two aircraft, and their pilots, from Sydney to New Guinea. The aircraft were not used because the German forces surrendered before their arrival.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1914-1918/page/2/
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French Naval Operations, Engagements and Ship Losses in the Adriatic in World War One
by Erwin Sieche

On 6 August 1914 an Anglo-French naval agreement was signed, giving France the general leadership of naval operations in the Mediterranean. The remaining British Mediterranean forces, namely one or two armored cruisers, four light cruisers, sixteen destroyers and the mobile defenses of Gibraltar and Malta would be placed under the orders of the C­in­C of the French fleet and both Gibraltar and Malta would be open as bases to the French.

One day after the French Declaration of War against Austria-Hungary on 11 August 1914 the French fleet under Admiral Boué de Lapeyrère entered Malta. He had orders to sail as soon as possible with all available French and British ships, pass ostentatiously in view of the Italian coast while preserving amicable relations with the Italians, and undertake whatever operation he thought best against an Austrian port.

Lapeyrère decided immediately on a sweep into the Adriatic to surprise the Austrian vessels enforcing a blockade of Montenegro. The Allied forces comprised the French battleships COURBET (flagship), JEAN BART, the cruiser JULIEN DE LA GRAVIÈRE, the French 1st battle squadron comprising DIDEROT, DANTON, VERGNIAUD, VOLTAIRE, CONDORÇET, the 2nd battle squadron comprising VÉRITÉ, RÉPUBLIQUE, PATRIE, JUSTICE, DÉMOCRATIE, the 1st cruiser squadron with JULES MICHELET, ERNEST RENAN, EDGAR QUINTET, the 2nd cruiser squadron with LÉON GAMBETTA, VICTOR HUGO, JULES FERRY and 5 destroyer squadrons, the British element comprised the armored cruisers DEFENCE and WARRIOR and three destroyer divisions. This overwhelming force succeeded in cutting off and sinking the lonely Austro-Hungarian 3rd class cruiser ZENTA off Antivari [Bar], being on perimeter patrol, on 16 August. According to the great number of Anglo-British warships there was considerable confusion in fire-control leading in an excessive amount of firepower employed in sinking the small cruiser while her consort, the destroyer ULAN, managed to escape north.

On 29 November 1914 the submarine CUGNOT managed to intrude into the Bocche di Cattaro [Boka Kotorska] as deep as into Topla Bay but was chased out by the destroyer BLITZ, the torpedo boat Tb 57T and the seaplane E.34.

Lees verder op http://www.gwpda.org/naval/fadri.htm
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Harold Chapin, letter to Calypso Chapin (29th November 1914)

We are getting if possible busier and busier. A Brigade Order arriving last night fairly late involved getting breakfast for all troops at 7.30 instead Of 7.45 and 8 (two batches) which meant up before 5 and out in the rain (it was pouring) by 5.30 all the wood sopping: the fire trench half full of water and the carts and waggons being loaded and got out all over the shop.

We are being sorted into jobs. I fancy I shall stay on cooking. This is good because it is as useful a job as is going and one that demands conscientious hard work still it does not involve going into the actual firing line - a thing I have no ambition to do. Stray shell fire and epidemics are all I want to face thank you, let those who like the firing line have all the bullets they want.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWtrenchfood.htm
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Letters from Verne

Red Sea
Sunday 29/11/14
SS Euripides

Dear Mum,
After all we are not to go to England just yet. The Colonel told us yesterday that we are to go to Egypt and stay there until the spring (about March or April) when we are to go to the front. This move is either, to give more room at home for the Canadians, or because they think there may be trouble in Egypt.

I'm a bit disappointed at not going straight through to England but it will be good experience to see Egypt, & if we see any service there it will steady us & we will be practically old soldiers when we get into action in Europe. We don't know what the arrangements are – whether we all go into camp together, or whether the Force will be split up and sent to different parts of the country. I fancy we will all go into barracks at Cairo. I hope we do, for I would like to see Cairo. I don't know just how big it is, but it is bigger than Sydney. We are at present approaching the Suez Canal, which we will probably reach tomorrow night or Tuesday morning. The New Zealand boats have gone ahead – I suppose to get thro' the canal before the rest of us arrive, and so save a good deal of time. We will probably reach Cairo Thursday or Friday. I hope the papers report our altered destination so that you will address our letters to the new address. The same address plus Egypt instead of England, ought to get us. As soon as we get settled I will write and give you our full address. We will have to forgo our English Xmas eh?

I'm told that the Egyptian winter is delightful, & it is winter there now.

The cooks very nearly disposed of some of our men the other night. They had not kept their cooking boilers over clean, & the result was that about 400 of the men had an attack of ptomaine poisoning. Luckily it was not severe enough to be fatal, but it was pretty bad. The poor beggars were lying all over the deck and were fearfully sick. Nearly every man had to be carried to the hospital. By great good luck Bert and I escaped it. It was so bad that at 2 am the Master of the ship, & all his officers, as well as all our head officers, got up & had an inspection of the cook-house, & gave the cooks the soundest shaking up ever they are likely to get. Our Brigadier told them that if any man died over it, he would hand them over to the civil power to be tried for manslaughter. I guess that after this we will get our food cooked in clean boilers.

We arrived at Aden last Wednesday 15th & put in one day there. It is a deadly looking place. They only have rain about once in five years, & they have to condense the sea water for drinking purposes. The country is nothing but a rugged jumble of rocky mountains & sand. It gives one the creeps to look at it. It is the punishment station of the British Army. We left there the following morning & were not sorry to get away from such a dry & dispiriting looking place. We entered the Red Sea Thursday afternoon & at once struck hot weather, which continued until last night when a cool Northerly sprung up, and since then the weather has been ideal. We are getting along finely at our work, & are hoping for promotion soon.

Today everything has been a bustle of preparation for landing. Washing uniforms & equipment & in general overhauling everything. We were measured tonight for fresh uniforms, so I suppose they are going to give us a lighter uniform. Well, Mum, I'll write again when we get settled, and let you know what is doing. Tell Eric I hope he is developing into an efficient signaler.

Don't forget the new address. One good thing is that it will only take your letters three weeks to reach us. Hope all at home are well & in best of spirits and happiness. Best love to all from your loving son Vernie.

[sidebar]

1 pm 1st Dec. We are now in sight of Suez (town) which is only about 6 miles ahead. We disembark on Saturday. Just closing this letter. V

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/v_3.htm
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AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 29 NOVEMBER 1917

APARIMA – SEVERE EXPLOSION – Half of Crew Missing
Advice has been received by the Prime Minister that the Aparima, a well known vessel of the Union Steam Ship Co’s fleet, was torpedoed in the English Channel, sinking in five minutes. Serious loss of life is feared. The vessel was struck aft and the explosion was severe, accounting, it is believed, for the majority of the casualties. There had been no change in the personnel of the crew since the vessel left Auckland. Her complement consisted of 22 officers and men, 30 cadets and 61 Lascars, of whom 14 officers and men, 12 cadets and 31 Lascars, are reported to have been saved. As all the boats are accounted for it is feared that there is little hope of any further survivors.

SANDERS, Lieut, V.C.
The following letter from His Majesty the King has been received by Mr E H Sanders of Takapuna.
“Buckingham Palace, September 13, 1917
“It is a matter of sincere regret to me that the death of Lieut Commander William E Sanders, V.C., D.S.O., R.N.R., deprived me of the pride of personally conferring upon him the Victoria Cross, the greatest of all rewards for valour and devotion to duty.
Signed: George, R.I.”

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn29nov1917.html
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Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

29 November 1915 - The front line at Lone Pine was heavily shelled by the Turks as the 24th Battalion (Victoria) was moving in to relieve the 23rd (Victoria) Battalion. Private Timothy Ahern, 24th Battalion, wrote:

It lasted three hours with all kinds of shell. They buried a lot of our men alive. 264 casualties in all, we were digging them out for three days. I hope I never have the same experience again.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/november-1915.html

29 November 1915 - Liman von Sanders aware of probable Allied withdrawal.

http://www.ataturktoday.com/1915GallipoliCanakkale.htm
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Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

29 november 1915 - “Felix Dufraing rijdt nog als naar gewoonte naar Turnhout. In Zondereygen gaat alles zijn gewonen gang. Hier wordt veel gebeden voor den vrede. Er zijn hier nog altijd soldaten. Bij de burgers zijn er geen. Ze hebben nu schoone planken huizen aan de grens.” (Karel Versmissen, Zondereigen aan Fons Olieslagers, Baarle-Nassau)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188%3A06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90%3Aoorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 16:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Capt. Tom Magladery - New Liskeard Speaker published Friday, December 31, 1915Note: any spelling errors, etc. are as they appear in the original article.

Monday, November 29, 1915

. . .The following interesting letters from Capt. Tom Magladery, now at Bramshott Camp, England, and Signaller Faught, will be followed by other letters from Capt. Magladery and other well known local boys in our next and subsequent issues. The general public is anxious to hear from the boys at the front, and The Speaker will be pleased to receive any letters which may come from the Overseas forces. Capt. Magladery’s first letter deals with the trip of the 37th Battalion across the water, and in extracts from his following letters will be given his impressions of Old England, and what it means to be a “Soldier of the King.”

From a Letter from Capt. Tom Magladery

S.S. Lapland, Nov. 29

. . .You will see by the heading that we are travelling, as we expected, on the Lapland, and it is really a fine boat. Large, well-heated, well-furnished and very good service. We shall all be rather spoiled I imagine by the time we get across In the morning I get up at reveille same as usual, attend roll call, have a bit of a walk, then a cold bath, which is attached to our cabin, then hot tea and toast which is brought to our cabin.

Our exercise is to walk about the deck, round after roundi and have been doing it by the hour. So far my health has been fine and not the least sign of sea-sickness. Of course, the sea has not been rough, but at that a great many of the boys have had to beat it. Last night it was a bit rough and quite a number left their places at dinner, and so when I was ready to leave I religiously kept my eyes on the ceiling, as I felt that would be about the only place where the casualties would not have strength enough to leave their mark. One amusing feature of it was that Dr. Thompson was about the first to fall by the wayside.

Tuesday-- A bit rough this morning, but still not at all bad, none of those majestic mountain-high waves the poets rave about, but of course they may arrive at any time. Sunday [missing] Monday [missing] we did 361 miles, so you see we are ploughing right along. So far I have held myself down to four meals a day, and although I am hungry all the time, I hope not to increase that number. We are only two days out and time hangs heavily although we read smoke, play euchre, whist, bridge, walk, run, etc.

Wednesday -- Yesterday afternoon and last night were very rough and in consequence the dinner table had a great many empty seats. To-day is Col. Bick’s birthday and we are going to celebrate it in some way, but just how has not been decided. Time hangs a bit heavily, although games are indulged in. One of the most popular is pitching small weights about the size of a silver dollar, through a board with holes in it. Each hole has a different value. This seems sort of foolish but the boys play by the hour, and every minute you can hear loud yells as one does badly or perhaps well. Last night I played euchre with the Colonel and a couple of others until eleven and then turned in, and although it was rolling and ploughing around in great shape, still I went right to sleep and slept until the usual hour. The salt water baths are very refreshing although they seem much colder than fresh water.

Thursday-- To-day is such a wonderfully bright day that all troops were mustered on deck, and it speaks well for the health of the units when I say that out of this large number of soldiers, only five were unable to appear. It seems remarkable that with the long tiresome journey such as they have had, there should be such a lack of sickness of any kind.

The dinner last night went off very nicely. The Colonel was presented with beautiful birthday cake, his [missing] speeches were [missing] James [missing] played and [missing] of the [missing] pleasant evening [missing] greatly pleased as The Zealot Cananaean [missing] The [missing] games [missing]

[missing] an orchestra entertained us [missing] 10.30 p. m. Then lights out [missing] all to bed. The bar on the [missing] is under the control of Col. Bick and he has forbidden the sale of everything except beer. In consequence there is practically no drinking and certainly not a man indulged too much. It seems extraordinary that when men are to get all the drink they want they do not seem to abuse the privilege, whereas when they are forbidden its use entirely, they resort to all manner of schemes to smuggle it into their quarters.

No doubt the weather in Temiskaming is snowy, cold and stormy, and here it is just a beautiful sunny evening. I have been up on top for an hour, just simply drinking in the sunshine and fresh air. How great it all is and how selfish I am to enjoy it alone! Last night in the dark we sighted a boat a long way off, but still her lights were visible. Then this morning we got a good look at another quite close, perhaps not over five miles away. It gives one a fine feeling to know that there are others out on this huge expanse of water and that we are not absolutely by ourselves. We are now in the danger zone, which means that submarines could come out this far from land to get us. Of course they don’t, and only for one reason. That reason is a good one, and is that we are flying the Union Jack, that Great Britain is Mistress of the Seas; that no one comes or goes on this great Ocean unless by courtesy of the Empire for which we are fighting to the finish, and whom we love with the enthusiasm which can only be engendered by a lifetime under the old rag. When I look at the horizon, and see the wonderful expanse of water and that we have travelled it for days, and then have only seen a small part of it, I have some conception of what a mighty thing it means, and what organization, and work and thought are required to control the ocean. We are apt and quick to criticize but we do it without giving enough thought to the stupendous problem it is.

Do pon remember Rawlett who used to be in the bank in Liskeard? He is on board with the University Co., going back to reinforce the Princess Pats. What a dandy-looking soldier he is. We are delighted to meet each other, and had quite a talk over old times.

Saturday.--This is supposed to be the last day of our voyage, as to-morrow morning we arrive in port. Immediately on arrival I I shall cable you. To-day is a nervous day for the Captain, as he has received orders that no escort will be provided, and that he must pick his way through alone. We have a guard of 200 armed men on deck all the time, as well as a machine gun section with two guns. These preparations will not be, of course, much good if were attacked by a sub-marine other than that a chance shot might get their periscope, and the splashing of bullets in the water might prevent them getting good aim, and might, also, to some extent, disconcert them.

The voyage has been a pleasant one, as the weather has been good, still, it has been monotonous and tiresome.

This morning I had my hair cut by the ship’s barber. He is an old Belgian, and was in Antwerp until one day before the arrival of the Germans. When the King of Belgium crossed the Atlantic a few years ago, this barber shaved him, and he considers it a great honor.

http://www.canadiangreatwarproject.com/transcripts/transcriptDisplay.asp?Type=L&transNo=598
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Type UC I submarine

The Type UC I submarines were a class of small coastal minelaying U-boats built in Germany during the early part of World War I. They were the first operational minelaying submarines in the world (although the Russian submarine Krab was laid down earlier). A total of fifteen boats were built. The class is sometimes also referred to as the UC-1 class after SM UC-1, the class leader. (...)

SM UC-13, ran aground and scuttled, Turkish coast, 29 November 1915

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Type_UC_I_submarine

UC-13 departed Constantinople on 12 November 1915 to operate in the Black Sea. On 29 November, while navigating using dead reckoning due to the adverse weather, she ran aground 55 mi (89 km) east of the Bosphorous, near to the Melen River. The crew subsequently scuttled UC-13 using demolition charges before being picked up by Turkish vessels.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_UC-13
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29 November 1916 → Commons Sitting

MEDICALLY REJECTED MEN.


HC Deb 29 November 1916 vol 88 cc303-4 304

Mr. R. McNEILL asked the Secretary of State for War if he is aware that William Canning, late of the Royal Irish Regiment who served in Gallipoli and was discharged from the Army as medically unfit in July, 1916, applied for and ob tained admission to the Derry Workhouse on the 18th November on the ground that he had no place to sleep in at night; and whether there is any provision made for discharged soldiers sufficient to prevent their being reduced to seek admission to the workhouse?

Mr. FORSTER In view of the terms of the medical report on this man, the Chelsea Commissioners awarded him a provisional pension of 5s. a week. They have now given instructions for him to be examined again with a view to further consideration of his case.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/29/medically-rejected-men
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29 november; 1916: De ss 576 in aanbouw op de werf Nicolaas Witsen(voorgrond). Op de achtergrond de Voormeer.



http://www.beeldbank-nh.nl/component/provider/task/search?q_dc_date=%5B1916%5D
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Robert Donald, editorial in the Daily Chronicle (29th November, 1916)

We were not originally favourable to the formation of a Coalition Ministry, but ever since it was formed we have supported it because in its very nature it can hardly be replaced during the war without national dissension and grave international peril.

The Ministry's arch-defect is inability to make up its mind. It is not so much that it reaches wrong decisions, as that for weeks and even months, it fails in crucial matter after crucial matter, to reach any decision at all.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jdonald.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Hazel, 29 November 1916

http://christchurchcitylibraries.com/Heritage/Digitised/WarsandConflicts/WorldWarI/Malthus/PDF/Malthus-1916-11-29.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sapper William HACKETT VC



Born: Nottingham - 11 June 1873

Died: Givenchy, France - 27 June 1916

Burial details: Ploegsteert Memorial, Belgium; Town Memorial, Mexborough (special plaque), Yorkshire, Manvers Colliery Memorial, Yorkshire

Corps service: Enlisted in Royal Engineers tunnelling companies in October 1915, after being rejected three times by the York and Lancaster Regiment for being over age - he was 42 years old. Before joining up he had worked as a miner for 23 years in the Nottingham and Yorkshire coalfields.

VC awarded: Won VC at Givenchy, France on 26 June 1916. (First World War 1914-18)

VC unit: 254 Tunnelling Company.

VC presented: VC presented by King George V to his widow (Alice) at Buckingham Palace on 29 November 1916.

VC citation: For most conspicuous bravery when entombed with four others in a gallery owing to the explosion of an enemy mine. After working for twenty hours a hole was made through the fallen earth and broken timber, and the outside party was met. Sapper Hackett helped three of them through the hole and could easily have followed, but refused to leave the fourth, who had been seriously injured, saying, 'I am a tunneller and must look after the others first'. Meantime the hole was getting smaller, yet he still refused to leave his injured comrade. Finally the gallery collapsed, and though the rescue party worked desperately for four days, the attempt to reach the two men failed. Sapper Hackett, well knowing the nature of sliding earth, and the chances against him, deliberately gave his life for his comrade.
(London Gazette: 5 August 1916)

Field-Marshall Sir Evelyn Wood VC later wrote that this was ‘The most divine-like act of self sacrifice.'

VC location: Royal Engineers Museum

http://www.remuseum.org.uk/vc/rem_vc_hackett.htm
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=22572&sid=bf632e6887d9540f4b2bdc9766ab93b7
_________________

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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russian Political Refugees Defence Committee
by John Maclean, Source: The Call 29th November 1919

Sir, — In the interests of justice and to at least preserve the good name of the workers of Britain in the eyes of their now triumphant comrades of Russia we desire to draw the attention of your readers to the cases of George Tchitcherine, Peter Petroff, Mrs. Irma Petroff, and other Russians unjustly interned in prisons in and around London.

In November, 1915, Petroff and his wife came to Glasgow at the invitation of the Glasgow Council of the British Socialist Party to undertake work of use to the working-class. In January, 1916, he was taken to Edinburgh Castle, the pretext being “hostile associations.”

In Parliament House Lord Dewar heard evidence from Petroff’s Scottish friends to prove that all his activities were regulated by the B.S.P.; but everyone concerned knew that the enquiry was as much of a farce as the Scottish Advisory Committee itself, and that Petroff was sure to be kept as a prisoner. He was transferred to the Islington Internment Prison where he still lies at the mercy of the Government: Shortly afterwards, his wife was put into Calton Gaol, Edinburgh, and thence transferred to Aylesbury.

This autumn, George Tchitcherine was treated similarly. The trumped-up excuse for his removal was association with Germans and pro-Germans at the London Communist Club, and anti-Ally and pro-German sentiments. The only members of the Communist Club since the war started are Russians, so readers can judge for themselves the thinness of the Government’s first pretext. The Government refused Tchitcherine an open trial and that ought to dispose of the second excuse in the eyes of fair-minded people.

Tchitcherine was the most prominent Russian in London, having at one time been in the Russian Foreign Ministry. Since 1903 he has lived in exile in many European countries, always working for International Socialism and for the victims of the brutal Tsarist regime tortured in Russian prisons or exiled in Siberia. In London he was secretary of five Russian committees, all of a working-class composition.

The real reason for his internment was his spotting of Tsarist spies in Britain and tracing their connection with Scotland Yard. This work he was doing at the instigation of M. Svatikoff, Commissioner of the Provisional Government, when he was taken to Brixton Prison.

His English secretary was Mrs. Bridges Adams, one of the best known women in this country and one who has done exceptionally fine work on behalf of the wage-earners. She is refused permission to see Tchitcherine and Petroff.

If the Government has real evidence against these persons of international reputation let that evidence be forthcoming.

As we are convinced that no evidence can be forthcoming we appeal to all Britons who have still kept their ideas of fair play to personally protest to Sir Geo. Cave and the Prime Minister, and demand the release of all interned Russian subjects. Once free we feel convinced that these Russians would be only too glad to return to help their distressed country, and prevent the growth of bitterness against the British people.

SHAMMES, Secretary,
Russian Political Refugees Defence Committee.

JOHN MACLEAN, Chairman,
42 Auldhouse Road, Newlands, Glasgow.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/maclean/works/1917-refugees.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lansdowne "Peace Letter" of 1917 and the prospect of peace by negotiation with Germany
Australian Journal of Politics and History, The, March, 2002 by Douglas Newton

What really happened in history is often obscured by what happened next. This certainly seems to be the case for Henry Petty Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, and his so-called "Peace Letter" to the editor of the London Daily Telegraph of 29 November 1917. The conventional wisdom is that Lansdowne, and his mostly Radical supporters, had ceased to believe that an Allied victory in the First World War was possible, and so, advocated a negotiated peace. The logic against them seems incontrovertible -- because of what happened next. The Allies did win in late 1918, and so Lansdowne and the Radicals can be written off as faint-hearts who got it wrong. Moreover, as Lansdowne was famously a leading reactionary in the Edwardian period, the worst can be assumed of his motives. In Trevor Wilson's Myriad Faces of War, Lansdowne is depicted as the spokesman of those who shared "an attachment to the forces of order and privilege". (2) In John Turner's comprehensive history of the politics of the war in Britain, Lansdowne is said to have stood merely for "a high-minded defeatism". (3) Similarly, David French concludes his recent survey of the Lloyd George Coalition's strategy with praise for the British leaders' decision to fight on and to reject Lansdowne's counsel. "They saw the magnitude of what was at stake", writes French, assuming the best of the government's motives. (4) This tradition of respect for the decision to fight on during the Great War, combined with the tendency to minimise the chances of any successful negotiated end to the war short of military victory, is ingrained in the British historiography. (5) Both tendencies are buttressed by parallels perceived between the First and Second World Wars. Thus, the historiography tends to reflect the retrospective revulsion against anything that might smack of "appeasement". Bethmann-Hollweg's peace offer of December 1916, Lansdowne's letter of November 1917, and the German peace offer of 1940, it seems, are all of a piece. The standard accounts of British politics during the Great War, therefore, exhibit impatience or outright hostility toward Lansdowne. The typical view is that Lansdowne was an arch-conservative seeking to end the war before the democratising influences unleashed by the struggle for freedom could unhorse such privileged aristocrats as himself. (6)

This paper aims to reassess the famous controversy over Lord Lansdowne's so-called "Peace Letter" to the Daily Telegraph of late November 1917. It seeks to place the letter in the context of the Entente and the American reaction to the quickening popular movement in support of a negotiated peace during 1917. It argues that the letter should not be seen as a sign of "defeatism" on the part of English "reactionaries", but rather a principled effort to correct the on-going mismanagement of the issue of war aims. Its purpose was to press forward the harmonisation of Entente and American war aims, in the hope that a clear, moderate and common war aims programme would encourage the German moderates and advance the prospects of a negotiated settlement of the war.

(1) I thank the Marquis of Lansdowne for his permission to publish extracts from the private papers of his great-grandfather, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne, lodged in the British Library.
(2) Trevor Wilson, The Myriad Faces of War (Oxford, 1986), p.761.
(3) John Turner, British Politics and the Great War: Coalition and Conflict, 1915-1918 (New Haven, 1992), p.248.
(4) David French, The Strategy of the Lloyd George Coalition 1916-1918 (Oxford, 1995), p.293.
(5) In this huge field, a few representative examples only must suffice. In 1966 Robert Blake concluded a series of articles on the problem of a negotiated peace by offering the argument that there was no real hope because "the compromise peace terms of each side were such that the other would only accept them at a crushing defeat"; see his "Searching for Peace, 1914-1918", Part VI, The Listener, Vol. LXXVI, No. 1946 (14 July, 1966). V. H. Rothwell, British War Aims and Peace Diplomacy, 1914-1918 (Oxford, 1971), pp.284-5, declares the hope of a negotiated peace a "chimera". C. J. Lowe and M. L. Dockrill, The Mirage of Power. Vol. 2: British Foreign Policy 1914-1922 (London, 1972), Chapter 3, endorse the British War Cabinet's determination to achieve military victory as "a considered act of policy". Also fatalistic is Wilfred Fest, "British War Aims and German Peace Feelers during the First World War (December 1916-November 1918)", Historical Journal, XV, 2 (1972), p.308.
(6) Dissenting accounts, favourable to Lansdowne, include Lord Newton, Lord Lansdowne (London, 1929), pp.463-483; Harold Kurtz, "The Lansdowne Letter", History Today, 18 (1968), pp. 84-92 and J. S. Macarthur, "The Lansdowne Peace Letter", Contemporary Review, Vol. 212 (1968), pp.85-92.


Lees verder op http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1877/is_1_48/ai_n6764517/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE EARLY YEARS OF MILITARY FLIGHT

On 29 November 1917 an Act of Parliament establishing an Air Force and an Air
Council received the Royal Assent. The Royal Air Force came into existence on
1 April 1918.
Only 9 years before, on 16 October 1908, an American named Samuel Franklin Cody
made the first officially recognized aeroplane flight in Britain - a distance of 1,390 feet
in a bamboo and canvas biplane known as British Army Aeroplane No1.
In a matter of just over 9 years, from that very first flight to the establishment of a third
independent military service in Britain, aviation had become firmly established in the
fabric of our society. Those years are a fascinating web of great achievements and some
failures, of men of vision and many more of courage, of rapid technological advance, and
of continual political manoeuvrings in deciding how British air power was to be
organized. Dominating the last 4 years of that period were the demands of the First
World War. Without that forcing ground for experiment and practice in the new
technology of aviation, the aeroplane could easily have remained just a piece of
machinery and no more - certainly not a military weapon that caused changes in the art
and science of war.

Mooie PDF! Lees verder op http://www.raf.mod.uk/rafcms/mediafiles/F21BE44E_EE18_2A21_DE9200FADAA9DB6E.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Antigone



In the Norfolk harbor, Virginia, on 29 November 1917.
A destroyer silhouette is painted on her side to give the illusion that she is being closely convoyed.
A tug is passing by the after part of the destroyer silhouette.

http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/OnlineLibrary/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-a/id3007.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Into The Blue: Pilot Training in Canada, 1917-18
Hugh A. Halliday and Dr. Laura Brandon



In 1917-18 the British air force directed an ambitious flying training operation in Canada. The scheme had no precedent, but it inspired the vast British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of the Second World War, and subsequent training programs in Canada for aircrew from nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization that continue to the present day.

The importance of air power had been growing from the outbreak of the First World War. Aircraft photographed enemy defences, directed the heavy guns that bombarded those defences, and warded off opponents' aircraft intent on performing the same tasks. As aircraft became more vital to waging war, Britain required greater numbers of airmen. In late 1916, expansion plans of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) called for the creation of 35 new training squadrons. Most would have to be located outside of Britain itself, where it was difficult to find space for more airfields and factories to produce more training aircraft. These requirements were the genesis of the training program in Canada of 1917-18.

As early as December 1914 Canadians had begun to enter the RFC and the Royal Naval Air Service, some by enlistment in Canada, most by transfers from the Canadian Expeditionary Force (Canada's overseas army). The Canadian entries had commenced as a trickle; by late 1916 they had become a steady stream. The Canadian government, not interested in forming its own air service, did not hinder British recruiting efforts in this country, but neither did the government do anything to promote aviation. Faced with this official Canadian apathy to aircraft, yet anxious to secure Canadian resources for the RFC, British authorities adopted a policy best described as "If you want it done - do it yourself".

Important assistance came from the Imperial Munitions Board (IMB). The board, located in Canada and staffed largely by Canadians but directed by the British government, organized the production of artillery shells and other war matériel for Britain. The IMB secured land for air fields in southern Ontario, arranged for construction of barracks and hangars, and established Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. to manufacture Curtiss JN-4 training aircraft for the program.

Lieutenant-Colonel (later Brigadier) C.G. Hoare, the RFC officer who headed the new training organization in Canada, moved quickly when he arrived from Britain in January 1917. He ordered that flying instruction commence at Long Branch on 28 February 1917, although buildings were still under construction and the first JN-4s had been completed and approved for service only days before. The largest school, Camp Borden, began flying training on 30 March 1917.

Thereafter, the program mushroomed. By the end of the war there were facilities at Hamilton (Armament School), Toronto (School of Military Aeronautics, recruiting depots), Long Branch (cadet ground training), Beamsville (School of Aerial Fighting), Armour Heights (pilot training, School of Special Flying to train instructors), Leaside (pilot training, Artillery Cooperation School), Camp Rathbun (Deseronto, pilot training), Camp Mohawk (Deseronto, pilot training) and Camp Borden (pilot training). The quarters occupied included public school buildings, a prison, and much of the University of Toronto. Camp Borden alone had accommodation for 122 officers, 496 cadets and 1,014 other ranks. The name had also changed to Royal Air Force Canada, the RFC and Royal Naval Air Service having been combined to establish the Royal Air Force (RAF) in April 1918.

The Canadian organization provided training up to the advanced level where pilots were almost - but not quite - ready to participate in combat. Finishing touches would be applied at advanced schools in Britain or France. The training in Canada grew more sophisticated as the instructional staff gained experience, the RFC provided details for improved methods being developed in Britain, and units at the fighting fronts sent "feedback" about how new aircrew could be better prepared. The most important changes came with the adoption by 1918 of the Gosport System developed at a school in Gosport, England, by Major R.R. Smith-Barry.

Originally, flight training had taught pupils very little about why an airplane behaved as it did; ‘by the book' instruction drilled the students on what dangerous manoeuvres to avoid. By contrast the Gosport System taught the dynamics of flight and how to apply that knowledge when in the cockpit. For example, earlier pupils had been simply warned to avoid spins; those of 1918 were taught how to get into a spin and then recover from it.

Their basic flight trainer was the Curtiss JN-4 (Can), an American design modified by Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. to meet military training needs. The JN-4s flown in Canada carried a variety of colourful and distinctive markings including maple leaves, terriers, black cats, shamrocks, and Jolly Roger insignia. Some were named for cities such as Edmonton and Montreal; at least six bore names commemorating battles of the War of 1812.

William Hector Ptolemy was a typical trainee. An instructor took him up for a brief introductory flight, at No.88 Canadian Training Squadron (CTS), Armour Heights, on 3 December 1917. He took the controls for the first time during a 25-minute flight two days later. Bad weather occasionally interrupted his training and on 16 December 1917 he broke a propeller while landing in snow. He smashed another propeller on 22 December, and generally had difficulty with turns. On 3 January 1918 he flew for 40 minutes, executed seven landings, and made an emergency landing when his engine failed. He reported his first landing on skis on 29 January. Finally, on 5 February, having flown seven hours 25 minutes with an instructor, he made his first solo circuits; most pupils soloed after five hours.

Thereafter, Ptolemy regularly flew alone. His terse logbook entries hint at his excitement; on 11 February he was airborne 70 minutes and described the trip as "Up to Newmarket - went for a joyride". In mid-February he moved to the training squadrons at Leaside where more advanced manoeuvres were taught, notably formation flying and the first aerial photography exercises. On 10 April 1918 he first reported dropping bombs. He subsequently attended the School of Aerial Gunnery at Beamsville for a brief advanced course in gunnery and photography before being posted overseas. After further advanced training in Britain and France he reported to No.201 Squadron, which was equipped with Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft, on 4 October 1918. Following the war he became a bush pilot.

With virtually no experience in severe cold weather flying, the RFC authorities feared that training might be shut down entirely for the winter of 1917-18. During those months, therefore, a large portion of the program was relocated to Fort Worth, Texas, where the organization also trained many Americans and exchanged information on training methods with the US flying services. Meanwhile, the training squadrons that remained in Canada that winter fitted their JN-4s with skis, worked out special cold-weather formulas for lubricants and kept the system operating at least as well as the organization in Texas, where mud proved as frustrating as deep snow.

RFC Canada graduates of the plan began sailing for Britain as early as June 1917. Probably the most famous was Lieutenant A.A. McLeod, who trained at Long Branch and Camp Borden, received his wings in July 1917, and reported to No.2 Squadron (Armstrong-Whitworth FK.8 army cooperation aircraft) on 29 November 1917. His brilliant career culminated in an action on 27 March 1918 for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. Other distinguished alumni included Captains D.R. MacLaren and W.G. Claxton (54 and 31 estimated aerial victories, respectively).

Overall, the training scheme enrolled 9,200 cadets. Of these, 3,135 completed pilot training and more than 2,500 were sent overseas; the balance of graduates were either retained as instructors or were awaiting postings to Britain when the Armistice was signed. In addition, 137 observers were graduated of whom 85 were sent overseas. The program also turned out at least 7,400 mechanics. A number of American personnel, both navy and army, were trained in Canada, as were four or five White Russians.

The results were achieved at some cost. At least 129 cadets and some 20 instructors were killed in flying accidents. A particularly nasty instance was a head-on collision at Beamsville on 2 May 1918. One instructor was shaken up and the other had a broken hip; the two pupils in the front cockpits took the full force of the impact and were killed. Yet the safety record improved. In April 1917 there was one fatality for every 200 hours flown, in December 1917 one fatality for every 1,500 hours, and in October 1918 one fatality for every 5,800 hours flown. The most publicised accident of the program involved no injuries: a JN-4, attempting a forced landing on Oshawa's main street on 22 April 1918, became entangled with telephone wires and pinned near the top of a large store front where it remained suspended for several hours.

While the organization was dedicated to training, it made news in ways that heralded future developments. The first airmail in Canada was carried by Captain Brian Peck from Montreal to Toronto on 24 June 1918, and four additional airmail flights (Toronto to Ottawa and return) were conducted by RAF instructors between 15 August and 4 September 1918; the Ottawa terminus was the Rockcliffe Rifle Range, an area now occupied by the National Aviation Museum.

Although the air training scheme had begun with negligible Canadian direction, it came to include many Canadians at all levels. The Canadian Militia assigned paymasters, doctors, and other non-flying personnel to the various schools and headquarters. Increasingly, Canadian pilots and observers joined the instructional staff. Some were recent graduates of the scheme; others were veterans of the Western Front. By November 1918, Canadians commanded the School of Aerial Fighting, two of the three training wings and twelve of the sixteen training squadrons and roughly 60 percent of all instructors were Canadians. An unexpected development was the recruitment of Canadian women into technical trades, the result of severe shortages of manpower by late 1917. Thousands of women volunteered and over 1,200 were accepted. They served, without fanfare, chiefly as mechanics and drivers.

Historian S.F. Wise has described the RFC/ RAF Canada scheme as "the single most powerful influence in bringing the air age to Canada". The JN-4s left over after the war were less important than the pool of men determined to fly and service them. The public, at least in the Niagara-Hamilton-Toronto-Deseronto arc, became accustomed to aircraft and no longer viewed them as novelties or menaces. The RFC/ RAF Canada organization proved the feasibility of year-round flying in this country and even developed special winter flying clothes. The RFC/ RAF Canada program was a foundation on which was built the saga of Canadian bush flying as well as the RCAF of future wartime and peacetime achievements.

Franz Johnston and the Canadian War Memorials

In July 1918, Francis Hans Johnston, better known as Frank or Franz, received permission from the military to sketch at the Royal Air Force's schools in and around Toronto. He had been commissioned for this work, on a part-time basis, by the Canadian War Memorials Fund. The fund had been established by Lord Beaverbrook, the politically influential Canadian businessman, to hire artists to record his country's war effort. Johnson was a gifted young Toronto painter who would later become famous as a founding member of the Group of Seven, Canada's most renowned movement in the visual arts.

Johnston, at the time he received the part-time commission, had already flown as a passenger in the two-seater training aircraft, an experience that required considerable nerve. "Flying... is a very fine sport with the exception of the spinning nose dive," he observed, with perhaps intentional under-statement about that death-defying manoeuvre. He was fascinated by flight as a subject for art, but soon found "it more or less impossible to do the subject justice in spare hours. He successfully requested a two month, full-time contract beginning in late August. In fact, his commission would continue until 14 March 1919, and see him work also at flying training schools at Camp Borden, Leaside, Deseronto, and Long Branch. During this period he produced a total of 71 works on paper and two large paintings in oil for which he received a total payment of $3000.00. For a commercial artist as Johnston then was, the regular income the war commission provided was essential to make up for his inability to undertake other money-producing work.

Born in Toronto in 1888, Johnston had studied at the Central Technical School under Gustav Hahn and at the Ontario School of Art under William Cruikshank and George Agnew Reid. Further studies in the United States, and a brief working spell in New York, were followed by a return to Toronto and, in 1918, the war commission. In 1920, he became Principal of the Winnipeg School of Art and from 1927 to 1929 taught at the Ontario College of Art. From 1930 to 1940 Johnston ran a summer art school on Georgian Bay. He died in 1949.

The majority of Johnston's works on paper — from which this exhibit is drawn — utilize a mixture of water-colour, gouach and some pastel. What distinguishes them is their often dazzling colour, and the artist's obvious delight in the spectacular viewpoints to be had from the air. At the same time, Johnston is at pains to depict his aircraft subjects as accurately as possible, resulting in a certain static model-like quality. Accidents provided an opportunity for dramatic compositions, as in A Tragic Incident where an aircraft is depicted being struck by lightning. None of the extant documentation indicates whether Johnston was given any instructions as to what he should sketch. The fact that his approach varied little over the course of his commission suggests that the Canadian officers of the Canadian War Memorials Fund were well pleased with his efforts.

Three other members of the future Group of Seven received commissions from the Canadian War Memorials Fund. Arthur Lismer sketched and painted naval activity in Halifax Harbour and environs, while Frederick Varley and A.Y. Jackson painted overseas on the Western Front. Johnston's contribution to the depiction of Canada at war is particularly unique: he was the only artist employed by the Canadian War Memorials Fund to depict the activities of the Royal Air Force either at home or abroad.

The JN-4 (Can)

Canadian Aeroplanes Limited was incorporated on 15 December 1916 for the sole task of building training aircraft for the RFC Canada training program. It took over the Toronto quarters of an earlier firm, Curtiss Aeroplanes and Motors Co. An American design, the Curtiss JN-4, had been selected as the standard instructional machine, but it needed modifications including a stick control rather than a wheel (thus conforming to standard overseas practices) and a strengthened tail for hard landings. The type was designated JN-4 (Can) to distinguish it from other versions being manufactured in the United States.

The prototype JN-4 (Can) was flown on 1 January 1917. Following extensive tests, it was delivered to the RFC on 22 February 1917. A total of 1,200 were built, of which 680 were exported to the United States following American entry into the war; Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd. also manufactured enough spare parts to assemble another 1,600.

The type was pleasant to fly. Nevertheless, with a 90-horsepower Curtiss OX-5 engine, the JN-4 (Can) was slightly underpowered; this was most apparent as new armament was added. The JN-4 (Can) had a maximum speed of 120.7 kmh and cruised at 96.5 kmh. It had a ceiling of 3,353 metres. The upper wingspan was 13.29 metres and the length was 8.29 metres. A JN-4 (Can) weighed 631 kg empty and about 872 kg loaded with pilot, fuel and training equipment.

A restored JN-4 (Can) is now displayed in Ottawa at the National Aviation Museum.

Further reading:
•Chajkowsky, William E., Royal Flying Corps; Borden to Texas to Beamsville (Cheltenham, ON, Boston Mills Press, 1979). A popular history, profusely illustrated.
•Dodds, R.V., "Canada's First Air Training Plan", Roundel, November 1962 to March 1963. A good popular history.
•Halliday, H.A., "Beamsville Story", Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Vol.7, No.2 (Fall 1969). A specialized unit history of the School of Aerial Fighting.
•Molson, Kenneth M., "The RFC/RAF (Canada): Its Squadrons and Their Markings", Journal of the Canadian Aviation Historical Society, Volume 22, No.3 (Fall 1984). A very interesting article for those interested in model making and seeking special insignia.
•Wise, S.F., Canadian Airmen and the First World War (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1980). Includes the best published academic study of the program.


http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/explore/military-history/dispatches/into-the-blue-pilot-training-in-canada-1917-18
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 18:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French 75 mm AA gun Salonika 1917



IWM caption : "THE FRENCH ARMY IN SALONIKA DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR. French 75mm field gun mounted for use as an anti-aircraft weapon."
Date 29 November 1917(1917-11-29)

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:French_75_mm_AA_gun_Salonika_1917_IWM_HU_091353.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 18:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

“Front der Heimat,” Folge 2
produced by the Gaupropagandaamt Oberdonau, Linz. It is undated, but the contents suggest that it appeared in October 1939.



(...) But we must surely give the curious citizen a different answer than the one he expects. He must be told that in the National Socialist Führer state, the Führer and his advisers make all the important decisions without discussing them in advance in public. That is how our present situation differs from that of the World War. Then irresponsible party politicians in the German parliament could chatter about anything at all. This loose talk gave the enemy its most important information and its most damaging propaganda arguments. For example, on 29 November 1917 a certain Herr Haase gave a speech arguing for peace in the German Reichstag just as the army was winning a great victory on the southwestern front. The Social Democratic press published the speech. A few days later, British planes dropped 100,000 copies of the speech over the German front. Thank God, we are protected from such examples of free speech. Today the world hears only the Führer’s voice as the voice of Germany’s political will. His voice is also the only one that the enemy can hear to learn what is important at any given point to the German leadership. And his words are unmistakably clear. The German people get their clear “information” from the Führer’s voice as well. He who thinks he needs other information to evaluate the situation is like the soldier who sneaks over to the enemy camp at night to better “inform” himself.

This is how to evaluate the Führer’s speeches. The main goal is to strengthen and deepen the people’s confidence in every way. That is best done through example and by forcefully dealing with all political muttering and complaining. We want the people to take a calm and sure outlook on things, but not a fatalistic one. In the long one, attitudes are critical. We will best be able to strengthen and firm up attitudes when we can add the authority of the Führer’s words and experiences to the scales. (...)

http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/heimat.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering Sam Frickleton


The original caption of this image, in the Auckland Weekly News of 29 November 1917 said, ‘Well done, New Zealand’ as King George V awarded the Victoria Cross to Sergeant Samuel Frickleton at a parade in Glasgow, Scotland

On Saturday April 3rd a memorial to New Zealand soldier Samuel Frickleton VC was unveiled in his birthplace at Slamannan, Scotland. He won his Victoria Cross for gallantry during the battle of Messines in 1917. Frickleton’s bravery is remembered in Scotland, the land of his birth; in New Zealand where he emigrated; and also in Ulster where he is regarded as an Ulster-Scot.

Sam Frickleton’s story is similar to that of many working class people who emigrated to New Zealand for a better life in the early 1900s. He came from a large coal-mining family, and by 1911 he and six brothers were working underground with their father. The death of his father and hard economic times led the family to emigrate. The two elder sons went to the US, while the five other boys and their mother emigrated to Blackball, New Zealand. They were a close-knit and unruly family, handy with their fists, and remembered locally as the ‘Fighting Frickletons’.

All five Frickleton boys in Blackball volunteered to serve with the New Zealand army in the First World War. They saw service in Gallipoli and on the western front. All five were badly injured at different times. William Frickleton died of his wounds, and the other four were eventually discharged as medically unfit.

Sam Frickleton’s gallantry is commemorated at Messines and in Slamannan. Although his medals and other memorabilia (including his boxing gloves) are held at the National Army Museum in Waiouru, he has no memorial in Blackball apart from a photograph in the Workingmen’s Club.

Following a major strike in 1908, Blackball has long been a union stronghold. Because of ongoing anti-militarist sentiment, there was no war memorial in Blackball until 2008, although a large number of men from there died in both world wars. The recently unveiled war memorial includes the name of William Frickleton.

There are no longer any Frickletons in Blackball, or on the West Coast. Sam Frickleton moved to the North Island after 1920, and died in Lower Hutt in 1971.

http://blog.teara.govt.nz/category/bloggers/simon-nathan/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 29, 1918, McDowell Recorder (Virginia, USA)

Local Items

John W. BLAKELY is home from Camp Lee where he has been in training since May. He is home to stay, too. He looks robust as only a soldier can look. John is a corporal, but had passed the examinations for second lieutenant and was in Washington to get the commission when peach terms put an end to further protions from his school.

Gratsian SAWIJCKY, of Gary, died of disease recently in France where he was with the A. E. F. Elmer WILLIAMS, of Crumpler is mentioned as slightly wounded.

Jas. A. FRAZIER who has been working here with Gibbs and Hill, electrical contractors, who are doing the contract for the N & W, resigned and left several days ago for military Camp in Georgia, having accepted a commission as second lieutenant, in the Knights of Columbus.

Sailor Boy Writes - Some time ago the following letter was handed us which is of interest as coming from a home boy in service

Dear Editor: I am back on our U. S.S doing my bit. And believe me, we boys are having some time. It just makes a boy of twenty think of his old Cousin Davy Crockett. You people don't know how my heart longs for the old West Virginia mountains and huckleberry woods. It is water, water, water, nothing but water here! We sailors had some time in New York the tenth of October. We bought $70,000 worth of Liberty bonds and had a big parade and marched all day and carried stretchers. We had our picture made and if it is shown in Welch you will see me in the rear carrying a stretcher. Tell Cousin (name censored) to take good care of all the girls and keep them home fires burning. With best wishes, Earl WALDRON.

This lad has been in the convoy shipping and has crossed the ocean more times than one could count on all the phalanges and such like.

Death of Sidney Martin Painter - The report of the death of the popular young student of divinity, Sidney Martin PAINTER, in a battle in France, was received with deep sorrow here where he lived part of last year. He was respected as one of the cleverest and most manly young men. He was active in good works and at the front always. His parents, Rev. and Mrs. C. E. PAINTER, who presently reside in Bluefield, will be remembered well here for having lived at Kimball a number of years, they were frequent visitors in Welch. With his death in France one of the noblest and best of American youth passed into the West. He was an earnest Christian boy, and was prior to his enlistment, preparing for the ministry.

http://www.vatrails.com/virginiatr/misc/mcdowell/1918/29_november_1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 18:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Calamares



Leaving Pauillac, France, 29 November 1918, "with first load of Sailors to come back since Armistice was signed".

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-c/af18.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Estonian War of Independence

When the German troops were leaving Estonia in late 1918, Soviet Russia wanted to invade Estonia and establish Bolshevist power. On 28 November 1918 the Red Army started an offensive to the border town Narva and thus began the armed conflict between Soviet Russia and the Republic of Estonia. The conflict is known as the Estonian War of Independence and it lasted until February 1920. In addition to fighting against Soviet Russia, the War of Independence included two short-lived and smaller-scale armed conflicts in Latvia – battles with the Landeswehr (summer 1919) and the troops of the White Russian general Bermondt (October 1919).

​The Red Army attack starting at the end of 1918 hit Estonia in an extremely difficult situation. The administration and army of the young republic were only then being formed, and had very little experience. The army lacked sufficient weapons and equipment. Food and money were scarce, the towns were in danger of starvation. Although the majority of population did not support the Bolsheviks, their faith in the survival of national statehood was not high. People did not believe that the Republic of Estonia would be able to resist the attacks of the Red Army.

The British Fleet

The Estonian government nevertheless decided to oppose the Bolshevist aggression, hoping for help from the Western countries (i.e. the former Russian allies in World War I) and Finland. They were not let down – in December 1918, the British Royal Navy arrived in Estonia with a cargo of weapons; Finland also sent weapons and in January 1919 about 4000 volunteers came too. External help was essential, but it would have been insufficient without Estonia’s own decisive steps. Active organisational work was conducted, and new army units were formed. On 23 December 1918, the energetic colonel Johan Laidoner was appointed Commander in Chief. At the first opportunity he planned a counter-attack and forced the Red Army out of Estonia.

​The start of the war was not successful for Estonia, because the enemy attack could not be resisted. On 29 November 1918, the Estonian Workers’ Commune, a formally independent Soviet Estonian republic, was declared in occupied Narva. This was essentially a Soviet Russian puppet state, established in order to present the events in Estonia as a civil war. At the same time the underground communist agitators continued their subversive activity throughout the War of Independence in the Estonian rear and in the army.

Lees verder op http://www.estonica.org/en/History/1914-1920_The_First_World_War_and_Estonian_independence/Estonian_War_of_Independence/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

State, Class and bureaucracy in the USSR

(...) Work is slow and obstructionist, even in offices with industrial functions. "An employee of the Commisariat of Lipetzk," relates 'Isvestia' of 29th November 1918, "in order to buy nine boxes of nails at the price of 417 roubles had to fill in twenty forms, obtain ten orders and thirteen signatures, and he had to wait two days to get them as the bureaucrats who should have signed could not be found." (...)

Fascinerend... http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/berneri/ussr_bureau.html
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