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28 november

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2006 9:26    Onderwerp: 28 november Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 28. November 1914

DEUTSCHER HEERESBERICHT - ÖSTERREICHISCHER HEERESBERICHT



Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Russische Angriffe in Polen abgeschlagen

Großes Hauptquartier, 28. November, vormittags.
Auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatze ist die Lage nicht verändert. Französische Vorstöße im Argonnenwalde wurden abgewiesen. Im Walde nordwestlich Apremont und in den Vogesen wurden den Franzosen trotz heftiger Gegenwehr einige Schützengräben entrissen.
In Ostpreußen fanden nur unbedeutende Kämpfe statt.
Bei Lowicz griffen unsere Truppen erneut an; der Kampf ist noch im Gange. Starke Angriffe der Russen in Gegend westlich Noworadomsk wurden abgeschlagen. In Südpolen ist im übrigen alles unverändert.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)


Freiherr v. d. Goltz in Konstantinopel
v. d. Goltz
v. d. Goltz v. Bissing
v. Bissing

Berlin, 28. November. (W. B.)
Wie wir aus zuverlässiger Quelle erfahren, ist der Generalfeldmarschall Freiherr v. d. Goltz von seiner Stellung als Generalgouverneur von Belgien enthoben und für die Dauer des mobilen Verhältnisses der Person des Sultans und dessen Hauptquartier zugeteilt worden. Zu seinem Nachfolger als Generalgouverneur von Belgien ist der General der Kavallerie Freiherr v. Bissing ernannt worden. 2)


Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Fortdauernde Sturmangriffe in Serbien

Wien, 28. November, mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Die Lage hat sich nicht geändert. In Russisch-Polen verlief auch der gestrige Tag im allgemeinen ruhig, einzelne schwächliche Angriffe der Russen wurden abgewiesen. Die Kämpfe in den Karpathen dauern fort.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor.

Vom südlichen Kriegsschauplatz wird in Wien amtlich verlautbart:
28. November. Auch gestern wurde auf dem südlichen Kriegsschauplatz fast auf allen Fronten gekämpft. Mehrere wichtige verschanzte Positionen wurden hierbei erstürmt, vor allem die dominierende Stellung am Siljak. Insgesamt wurden zirka 900 Gefangene gemacht und drei Geschütze erbeutet. Der vom serbischen Preßbureau verlautbarte Sieg über eine österreichisch-ungarische Kolonne bei Rogacica verwandelte sich gestern in den Einmarsch unserer Kolonne in Uzice. Mit dem erbeuteten Train wurde der 16jährige Enkel des Woiwoden Putnik gefangen. In Anbetracht seines jugendlichen Alters und seiner verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen zum serbischen Heerführer wurde Verfügung getroffen, den Gefangenen mit besonderer Rücksicht zu behandeln. 1)


Hindenburg und Erzherzog Friedrich
Erzherzog Friedrich

Erzherzog Friedrich

Wien, 28. November. (W. B.)
Aus dem Kriegspressequartier wird gemeldet:
Dem Armeeoberkommandanten Erzherzog Friedrich ist folgendes Telegramm zugegangen:

"Euer K. und K. Hoheit melde ich untertänigst, daß ich durch die Gnade Seiner Majestät des Kaisers und Königs, meines allergnädigsten Herrn, zum Generalfeldmarschall befördert worden bin. Indem ich meiner Freude Ausdruck gebe, diesen höchsten militärischen Dienstgrad im Kampfe Schulter an Schulter mit dem verbündeten österreichisch - ungarischen Heere erworben zu haben, verharre ich in größter Ehrerbietung:

Euer K. und K. Hoheit untertänigster
v. Hindenburg."

Auf dieses Telegramm und die weitere Meldung, daß der Generalstabschef Hindenburgs, General v. Ludendorff, zum Generalleutnant befördert worden ist, richtete Erzherzog Friedrich nachstehende Depesche an den Generalfeldmarschall v. Hindenburg.

"Mit aufrichtiger Freude beglückwünsche ich Eure Exzellenz namens der mit Stolz auf den Sieg der ruhmgekrönten Führer des mit ihr Schulter an Schulter kämpfenden Teiles der deutschen Wehrmacht blickenden österreichisch-ungarischen Armee anläßlich Ihrer Beförderung zum Generalfeldmarschall. Ich gedenke gleichzeitig mit den herzlichsten Gefühlen Ihres für seine hervorragenden Verdienste in West und Ost von seinem Kriegsherrn ebenfalls beförderten und ausgezeichneten Chefs des Stabes. Die Führer und die Armeen der in seltener Eintracht kämpfenden Verbündeten sind sich eins in den Gefühlen der gegenseitigen Achtung und der festen Zuversicht: Der endgültige Sieg muß kommen! -

G. d. I. Erzherzog Friedrich,
K. und K. Armeeoberkommandant." 2)


Ein weiteres Opfer unserer Unterseeboote

Amsterdam, 28. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach einem Telegramm aus Fecamp ist am 26. November, morgens 8 Uhr, das englische Dampfschiff "Primo" durch ein deutsches Unterseeboot bei d´Antifer an der französischen Küste im Kanal, etwa 20 Kilometer nördlich von Le Havre, in den Grund gebohrt worden. Die Besatzung wurde gerettet und nach Fecamp gebracht. (Der Dampfer "Primo" hatte 1366 Tonnen Rauminhalt und gehörte der Pelton-Co. in Newcastle.) 2)


Die Vereisung der nördlichen Häfen

Köln, 28. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Die "Köln. Ztg" meldet aus Kiel: Die Eissperre nimmt im Norden ihren Anfang. Die schwedischen Häfen Tornea, Lulea und Pitea sind bereits geschlossen. Rußland teilt aus begreiflichen Gründen in diesem Winter nichts über die Einstellung des Schiffsverkehrs mit, doch läßt die Sperrung der nordschwedischen Häfen und eine Morgenluftwärme bis zu 18 Grad unter Null den Schluß zu daß die Schiffahrt in den russischen Häfen am Bottnischen Meerbusen gleichfalls eingestellt ist. Erst zu Anfang Mai 1915 ist dort wieder offenes Wasser zu erwarten. 2)


Verkündung des Heiligen Krieges in Mekka

Konstantinopel, 28. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Aus Mekka wird gemeldet, daß die Verkündung des Heiligen Krieges besonders feierlich vor sich ging. Die Kaaba wurde geöffnet und in ihr Gebete für den Erfolg der islamitischen Waffen gesprochen. 2)




Australische Truppen nach ihrer Ankunft in England
Die Rüstungen Australiens

London, 28. November. (W. B.)
Das Reutersche Bureau meldet aus Melbourne: Premierminister Fisher gab im Repräsentantenhaus die Erklärung ab, daß bisher 20338 Mann der Armee und 1200 Mann der Marine nach dem Kriegsschauplatz abgegangen seien. 10258 Mann sind in Ausrüstung für den Transport begriffen; 2820 Mann für die erste Verstärkung, je 3000 Mann für die zweite und dritte Verstärkung. Annähernd 2000 Soldaten werden aufgebracht, um den Effektivbestand der eingestellten Streitkräfte über die bereits abgegangene Zahl zu ergänzen. 2)


Die rumänische Thronrede

Ferdinand von Rumänien
Ferdinand von Rumänien

Bukarest, 28. November. (W. B.)
Die ordentliche Parlamentssession wurde heute Mittag vom König, der in Begleitung des Thronfolgers erschienen war, mit einer Thronrede eröffnet, in der es heißt:

"Indem ich zum ersten Male die ordentliche Session des Parlaments eröffne, weilen meine Gedanken bei meinem geliebten Onkel, dessen Verlust einmütig beklagt wird. Durch seine Tugenden, seine beständige, dem allgemeinen Wohl gewidmete unablässige Arbeit hat König Carol eines der rühmlichsten Blätter der Geschichte unseres Volkes geschrieben. Während des Krieges führte er die tapfere Armee zum Siege. Im Frieden war er unermüdlich besorgt für die Entwicklung des Staates, und unter seiner Regierung hat er in weniger als einem halben Jahrhundert ein Königreich gegründet. Als die internationale Lage einen ungewöhnlichen Ernst zeigte, wurde König Carol abgerufen Um diese schwierigen Zeiten überwinden zu können, bedarf es der aufrichtigen Unterstützung und des erleuchteten Patriotismus aller Kräfte der Nation ebenso wie der Einigkeit aller. Ich habe die Überzeugung, daß Sie, von der Bedeutung der gegenwärtigen Lage durchdrungen, meiner Regierung volle Unterstützung bei der Erledigung der Gesetzentwürfe leihen werden, die von den Umständen gefordert werden oder dem Bedürfnis der von der Liebe und dem Vertrauen der Nation umgebenen Gefährnisse Rechnung tragen sollen."

Die Thronrede wurde mit langanhaltendem Beifall und Kundgebungen für König und Armee aufgenommen. 2)



Der 1. Weltkrieg im November 1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2006 9:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 : New York Stock Exchange resumes bond trading

On this day in 1914, the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) reopens for bond trading after nearly four months, the longest stoppage in the exchange’s history.

The outbreak of World War I in Europe forced the NYSE to shut its doors on July 31, 1914, after large numbers of foreign investors began selling their holdings in hopes of raising money for the war effort. All of the world’s financial markets followed suit and closed their doors by August 1.

By the end of November, however, American officials had decided to reopen the NYSE because it was thought that bond trading, albeit with a set of restrictions designed to safeguard the American economy, could help prevent the financial ruin of the belligerent countries by raising money for the war effort. Trading of stocks didn’t resume until December 12, 1914, when the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA)--the most important of various stock indices used to gauge market performance--suffered its worst percentage drop (24.39 percent) since it was first published in 1896. This precipitous fall underlined the risky nature of business during the first months of the war, when nobody knew exactly how long the conflict would last or exactly what role the then-neutral U.S. would eventually end up playing.

Although the stock market would remain volatile--including a 40-percent drop in the DJIA from late 1916 to early 1917--World War I was a clear turning point in the realm of international finance. In its wake, New York would replace London as the top investment capital and the NYSE would become, for better or worse, the undisputed barometer of the world’s economies. The NYSE did not close its doors for any extended period of time again until the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington on September 11, 2001, when trading was suspended for three days.

www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 22:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 28 November 1914

Western Front
Germans concentrate large forces for attacks on Arras.

Eastern Front
Poland: Germans severely defeated near Brzezany.
Galicia: Russians once more secure Carpathian Passes.

Southern Front
Serbia: Battle between Austrians and Serbians at Lazarevats.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres
Egypt: Turkish advance in force towards Suez Canal announced.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_11_28.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Les généraux allemands morts au combat 1914-1918

General der Infanterie Eugen Ritter von BENZINO
Killed in action on 28 November 1915 while commanding the Replacement Division.

Generalleutnant Hermann von OßWALD
Killed in action at Bois de Cheppy (France) on 28 November 1914, while commanding the 53. Landwehr Infantry Brigade.

http://lagrandeguerre.cultureforum.net/parcours-de-divisions-de-regiments-de-soldats-f3/les-generaux-allemands-morts-au-combat-1914-1918-t26807.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 22:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Bert

C Ward Barrack Hospital
Milbank. Ldn SW
28/11/15

Dear Mum & Dad & Srers & Brers.
Well here we are again. I think I told you that I was discharged from the No 3 Ldn Genl before I was right, & I wasn’t far out. I spent almost the whole of my furlough inside & on the last day of it presented myself to the M.O. at our offices & he promptly sent me into hospital again with bronchial pneumonia. Its not serious. I’ve merely got to keep in bed. These English winters do not agree with your humble relative. Its more or less dull – generally more – the whole time, with plenty of fog 3 days out of 4. I’ll be jolly glad when I’m able to get away for I don’t think I’ll get properly well here.

I haven’t had any mail from Aust. or Gallipoli since I left there. The last I had were old letters that reached me early in Oct. These mail delays are sickening.

I expect that Vivie is out there by now. I’d love to hear from him. I can not write to him as I’ve no idea of his address.

The night sister here is an Australian nurse & she’s a real jolly old sort & always takes a delight in praising up Australian things. The scarcity & quality of fruit here is after causing amusing arguments. I’m the only Austln in this ward. I don’t think there are more than 6 of us in the whole hospital.

Well I have no news. I spent very little of my money this time owing to my not going out. I’ll try & take some decent things back to Percy & Vivie & Vernie. Well best love from your loving son & brother Bert.

http://www.smythe.id.au/letters/15_29.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VON RENNENKAMPF, Pavel-Georges Karlovich

(...) On the outbreak of the First World War, he commanded the 1st Army during the disastrous Tannenberg Campaign. He was victorious at the Battle of Gumbinnen, but suffered defeat at the Battle of the Masurian Lakes. General von Rennenkampf was relieved of command of the army after the Battle of Lodz on 28 November 1914, and soon afterwards retired from the army. In 1918, the Bolsheviks approached him and offered a command in the Red Army; an offer he quickly refused. He was promptly arrested and shortly afterwards executed. (...)

http://www.russojapanesewar.com/Rennen.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Northbourne Sources - Historical Sources for a Kent Parish - Army Casualties 1914 - 1916

The German attacks continued on into November but eventually the late autumn weather led to the German attack being called off. It was now becoming clear that well defended positions could not be easily overcome, four years of stalemate had set in. In this early stage of the war British casualties were huge, reported at 58,155, mostly regular soldiers. French casualties were set at around 50,000 and German losses at 130,000.

The death of Sergeant Cocks was reported in the 'Deal Walmer and Sandwich Mercury', 28th November 1914:

We regret to record the death of Sergeant S. Cocks of the 1st Batt. The Buffs. Official intimation of the sad event was only conveyed to Mrs. Cocks, who resides at 3 Western Terrace, Mill Road, Deal, last week, though he was unhappily killed in action on the 20th October. Sergeant Cocks was the second son of Mr. [Charles] Cocks of Ham, Eastry.

His widow later remarried and became A. E. Taylor of 'Newark' Herschell Rd., Lower Walmer.

http://freespace.virgin.net/andrew.parkinson4/wwi_dewell.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Independence

Independence, first ship-of-the-line commissioned in the U.S. Navy, launched 22 June 1814 in the Boston Navy Yard. She immediately took on guns and was stationed with frigate Constitution to protect the approaches to Boston Harbor. (...)

Independece did not leave the Mare Island Navy Yard until 28 November 1914. Sold to John H. Rinder, she was towed to the Union Iron Works, San Francisco. On 5 March 1915 she shifted to Hunter's Point, and remained for a week. Some repairs were made and a plan formulated to use her as a restaurant for the Panama-Pacific Fxposition. But this plan was not executed though a permit was granted by Exposition authorities. Pig iron and ballast were removed from her hold and valuable hard wood salvaged fr om her orlop deck knees. The night of 20 September 1919, Independence was burned on the Hunter's Point mud flats to recover her metal fittings. The sturdy veteran of the days of wooden ships and iron men had survived more than a century, 98 years of which were spent serving the U.S. Navy.

http://www.hazegray.org/danfs/line/independ.htm
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:16, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Versailles by the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany
Part IV. German Rights and Interests outside Germany


Article 151 - Germany consents to the abrogation of the decree issued by His Highness the Khedive on 28 November 1914, relating to the Commission of the Egyptian Public Debt, or to such changes as the Egyptian Government may think it desirable to make therein.

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles/Part_IV
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

South African Free Corps 1914-15
Südafrikanischen Freiwilligen-Korps

[This] Figure (...) is based on a photograph of Barend van der Merwe, an Ordinance Officer of the South African Free Corps. He wears corduroy Schutztruppe field cap with the hatband and colours of a German ordinance officer, that is black hatband with red piping. The stiff appearance of the upper part of the cap shows it still has its wire retaining loop (Barend's cap actual cap is shown on the left although it appears to have later lost its wire loop, and thus its stiff shape). Again he wears a five buttoned khaki tunic of unknown origin, with four pockets and no shoulder straps (...).

Barend van der Merwe (1892-1972) was born in Murraysburg, in the Western Cape province of South Africa. In 1914 he joined the commando of Commandant Gert van Wyk. He joined the rebels at Wolmaranstad in the Transvaal and took part in the battle of Treurfontein against the UDF forces. At Kuruman, the the force he was attached to received a clandestine shipment of Mauser rifles. On the 28 November 1914 he received his Schutztruppe uniform, rifle and cap and was made ordinance officer to the rebel artillery. He was captured at the Battle of Upington in January 1915. Barend van der Merwe was sentenced to two years and a 300 pound fine. Eventually he served one year and all fees were paid by sympathizers. He then moved to Winburg in the Free State were he farmed with corn and beef cows. In 1967 he donated his cap and Schutztruppe tunic (...) to the Museum of the Boer Republics in Bloemfontein.

http://www.sacktrick.com/igu/germancolonialuniforms/dswa%20sa%20freecorps.htm
_________________

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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Fraser, Donald Lovat (1875 - 1962)

(...) Giving his occupation as assayer and metallurgist, Fraser enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 28 November 1914 and was posted to the 5th Light Horse Regiment. He embarked for Egypt next month and served at Gallipoli from May until July 1915 when he was evacuated to England with enteric fever. In November 1916 he was transferred to the 42nd Battalion and sent to the Western Front. Commissioned in January 1917, he was seconded in October as intelligence officer, 11th Brigade headquarters. On 21 April 1918 he witnessed the action in which the German air-ace, Baron von Richthofen, was shot down. Fraser was given leave in England from March to September 1919 to study the manufacture of cement. His A.I.F. appointment terminated in Australia on 13 December. (...)

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A140238b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

28 November 1915 - Sergeant Lawrence's diary:

Ugh! This morning when I awoke it was to find the old place coated with white snow. I had shivered and shaken all night and several times I had got up and put more clothes on until at last I had everything on — even to my overcoat and boots.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/november-1915.html
_________________

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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 november 1917 | Nieuwsbericht | Oorlog in Alveringem

François Antoon is op 29 juli 1898 geboren in Mechelen. De ongehuwde zoon van Pierre en Maria Vanden Eynde treedt in 1916 als oorlogsvrijwilliger in dienst van het Belgisch leger.

Op 28 november 1917 krijgt hij in Merkem, nu een deelgemeente van Houthulst, een obusscherf in de onderbuik en wordt geëvacueerd naar het Belgisch militair hospitaal van Hoogstade, dat gevestigd is in het Gasthuis Clep. Hij overlijdt daar nog dezelfde dag.

Het slachtoffer wordt op 1 december 1917 begraven op de Belgische militaire begraafplaats van Hoogstade, oorspronkelijk onder het grafnummer 881. Nu rust hij onder het grafnummer 42.

http://www.oorlogserfgoedalveringem.be/nl/28-november-1917
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:14, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PLAN TO RECONQUER ALL MOSLEM WORLD

Priests, Who Preach "Jihad," Declare Kaiser Is Mentioned in the Koran
NOVEMBER 28, 1915
The Tribuna of Rome printed on Nov. 14 the following information, which, it states, it
had received from trustworthy sources in Constantinople: "Troops continue to arrive here from Anatolia. Uniforms and arms are lacking, however, and the recruits are trained with ancient muskets taken from the arsenal. "The German successes have revived the hopes and enthusiasm of the Turks. The priests
are now preaching was to the death, and announce the approaching conquest of Egypt,
Tunis, Libya, Morocco, the Caucasus, and India. The priests are also proclaiming that the
Kaiser is the messenger of Mahomet, and that his name is mentioned in the Koran, where
he is called Muhib ul Islam.

"Thanks to the Kaiser, Bulgaria has paid homage to the Sultan. "A great expedition, it is asserted, is being organized against Egypt, in which the Turks, the Bulgarians, Germans, and Arabs will participate, the latter, as a result of the German victories, having recognized the divine mission of the Sultan. Preparations have actually begun in Asia Minor, where many German engineer officers have arrived.
"It is affirmed that, in view of the expedition against Egypt, the Senussi have called to the
command a true Senussi, named Sidi Idris el Mahdi, who up to the present has been
living in holy places.

"It is also announced that negotiations are taking place Between Constantinople and
Addis Ababa, to secure the co-operation of Abyssinia against the Sudan
contemporaneously with the Turkish attack against Egypt.

"A telegram from a German source states that the first convoy of 20,000 tons of
Rumanian cereal left Braila on Nov. 12 for Germany. Huge purchases of cereals have also
been made in Bulgaria. Marshal von Mackensen has informed the Bulgarian
Headquarters Staff that by the Kaiser's orders all the spammer which the Germans take in
Serbia will be handed over to Bulgaria."

http://www.scribd.com/doc/14021464/19151128-Plan-to-reconquer-all-Moslem-world
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War poets...

(act. 1914–1918) is a convenient, though somewhat diffuse, term referring primarily to the soldier–poets who fought in the First World War, of whom many died in combat. The best-known are Richard Aldington, Edmund Blunden, Rupert Brooke, Robert Graves, Julian Grenfell, Ivor Gurney, David Jones, Robert Nichols, Wilfred Owen, Herbert Read, Isaac Rosenberg, Siegfried Sassoon, Charles Hamilton Sorley, and Edward Thomas. Most of these writers came from middle-class backgrounds; many had been to public schools and served as officers at the front. In fact, hundreds of ‘war poets’ wrote and published their verse between 1914 and 1918, often capturing the initial mood of excitement and enthusiasm, although only a handful—largely those who wrote in protest—are read and admired today, with Wilfred Owen achieving an iconic status within British literature and culture. Other war poets whose work appeared between 1914 and 1918 were not involved in fighting. The Times supplement, War Poems, August, 1914–15, for example, included contributions from established civilian poets such as Robert Bridges, Rudyard Kipling, Laurence Binyon, and Thomas Hardy. Catherine Reilly's 1978 bibliography of English poetry of the First World War lists over 3000 works by 2225 poets. More than half of this war poetry was written by male civilian writers and a quarter by women. A recent interest in the work of such women poets as Vera Brittain, Margaret Postgate Cole, Rose Macaulay, and Charlotte Mew has also significantly extended understanding of war poetry of the period.

Even so, in the general historical and cultural consciousness it is the soldier–poets with their ‘charred’ senses and ‘seared conscience’ (Wilfred Owen: Collected Letters, 581, 461) who are still considered the representative war poets. Rupert Brooke established the cult of the soldier–poet in England, though the tone of his work differed markedly from writers who experienced later battles on the western front. Brooke's striking good looks and five patriotic ‘war sonnets’ written in December 1914, coupled with his death in a troopship bound for Gallipoli, his burial at Skyros, and the glowing Times obituary over Winston Churchill's initials, made him a symbol of a mythical (or much mythologized) pre-war golden age ended by conflict. As early as April 1915 Charles Hamilton Sorley had accused him of taking the ‘sentimental attitude’ (Collected Letters, 219) but Brooke's 1914 and Other Poems was immensely successful, going through twenty-five impressions between 1915 and 1918 and making him the most popular soldier–poet of the war years.

In contrast to Brooke, the next generation of poets actually went to the trenches and saw action. The reality appalled them. Owen, Sassoon, Graves, Gurney, and Jones were all either wounded or shell-shocked, or both. They wrote powerfully and poignantly about the effects of war on the bodies and minds of men, the horror and the waste. These poems have largely shaped the cultural and literary memory of the conflict, as the critic Paul Fussell argued in The Great War and Modern Memory (1975). The soldier–poets were bound together by their first-hand experience of modern industrial warfare, its ‘superhuman inhumanities’ and ‘immemorial shames’, as evoked by Owen:

But what say such as from existence' brink
Ventured but drave too swift to sink,
The few who rushed in the body to enter hell

(‘Spring Offensive’, Poems, 170)

Despite the shared experience of combat, the war poets were otherwise separated by class, rank, age, training, and sexuality. Nothing, for example, could be further removed from the experience of the Cambridge-educated fox-hunting country gentleman Siegfried Sassoon, an officer in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, than the world of Isaac Rosenberg, the diminutive and impoverished Jewish private in the ‘bantam battalion’, forced to do manual labour or to beg in his trench letters for a pound to buy a pair of boots. A talented painter as well, Rosenberg had grown up amid poverty in the East End of London and was the only one among the soldier–poets to enlist for financial reasons. His intense isolation—‘this Bantam Battalion (as I was too short for any other) … seems to be the most rascally affair in the world. I have to eat out of a basin together with some horribly smelling scavenger who spits and sneezes into it’ (Collected Works, 219)—is in contrast to the theme of warm comradeship that recurs in the poetry not only of Sassoon, Owen, and Blunden, who served as officers, but also of those who served as privates, particularly Jones and Gurney.

Like Sassoon and Graves, David Jones served with the Royal Welch Fusiliers. His First World War narrative In Parenthesis, hovering between prose and poetry, appeared in 1937, and was hailed as a classic by the literary modernists, including T. S. Eliot who called it ‘a work of genius’ (In Parenthesis, ‘A note of introduction’, vii). That year also saw the death of Gurney, who spent the last fifteen years of his life in the City of London Mental Hospital in Dartford, Kent. His mental instability, dating from before the war, was aggravated by his battle experiences with the 2nd/5th Gloucesters, which included being wounded and gassed before being invalided out in 1917. One of the most poignant stories of post-war life is that of Gurney being visited in this asylum by Helen, the widow of his fellow poet Edward Thomas, who was killed in 1917 and whose work Gurney adored. On one occasion, she brought one of her husband's well-used Gloucester maps, and Gurney lovingly traced with his fingers the lanes over which Thomas had walked, joining him in this strange perambulation. Born in March 1878, Edward Thomas was the oldest member of the group of soldier–poets. He already had a literary reputation when the war broke out, having started writing poetry under the encouragement of Robert Frost and spent twenty years as an impecunious, overworked literary journalist. By contrast, the youngest of the soldier–poets, Edmund Blunden and Robert Graves, were under twenty and had just gained scholarships to Oxford University when they signed up. They were to take part in some of the worst fighting, and Graves famously read his own obituary in The Times, having been mistakenly reported dead during the battle of the Somme in 1916.

The First World War poets did not write as a collective, homogenous group though the work of four—Graves, Nichols, Rosenberg, and Sassoon—did appear in Edward Marsh's Georgian Poetry, 1916–1917 (1917). Moreover, there was some individual contact. One of the best-known literary encounters in the trenches began when Graves surreptitiously spotted the name of Siegfried Sassoon, a fellow officer in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, in a copy of The Essays of Lionel Johnson lying on the messroom table. They enthusiastically showed each other their poems. Sassoon found the poems from Graves's forthcoming Over the Brazier (1916) too realistic; Graves, after having a look at Sassoon's, remarked that once the latter had seen modern warfare, his style would change. Both were idealistic homosexuals at this stage (Graves was to change his sexual preference later on), and in a diary entry in June 1922 Sassoon admitted to a ‘vague sexual element’ in ‘our war-harnessed relationship’ (Diaries, 1920–1922, 162) although he later flatly denied any sexual attraction for Graves (Moorcroft Wilson, Sassoon, 214). Thus, at Le Hamel on 28 November 1915, began a friendship that was fraught but deep, described autobiographically by Graves in Goodbye to All That (1929) and fictionally by Sassoon in Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (1930).

In June 1917 Sassoon, who had received the Military Cross and been nicknamed Mad Jack for his bravery, and who was then convalescing in England, came under the influence of a pacifist group led by Bertrand Russell. In response Sassoon wrote his famous public letter of ‘wilful defiance’ declaring that ‘the War is being deliberately prolonged by those who have the power to end it’ (the original statement is now housed in the Imperial War Museum, London). Concerned by his friend's actions, Graves made urgent representations and a medical board was set up to assess Sassoon's health and conduct. There he testified that Sassoon, who had by then thrown the ribbon of his Military Cross into the Mersey, was suffering from shell-shock and hallucinations of corpses in Piccadilly. The authorities willingly sent their distinguished, errant officer to Craiglockhart War Hospital outside Edinburgh. There he met Wilfred Owen and formed the most celebrated friendship in the literary history of the war; perhaps more significantly for Sassoon, he also got to know the noted Cambridge neurologist W. H. R. Rivers.

Wilfred Owen had been admitted to Craiglockhart in May 1917. He had been diagnosed with shell-shock after some terrible experiences at the front, including coming under a ‘terrific bombardment’ for ‘fifty hours’ (Collected Letters, 427), a fall into a cellar where he was trapped for three days, and finally being blown up in the air by a shell. In contrast to the public-school and Oxbridge backgrounds of Sassoon, Graves, or Blunden, Owen had been educated at the local Birkenhead Institute and had experienced a strong evangelical upbringing under his mother. At Craiglockhart, through his doctor Captain Arthur Brock's philosophy of ‘work-cure’, Owen started contributing to—and finally became the editor of—the hospital magazine, Hydra, which published two of his own poems and four by Sassoon. Owen fell completely under the spell of Sassoon, regarding him, in one instance, as ‘Keats + Christ + Elijah + my Colonel + my father-confessor + Amenophis IV in profile’ (ibid., 505). After reading Sassoon's ‘trench-sketches’ in his just-published book The Old Huntsman and Other Poems, Owen wrote to his mother, ‘Shakespeare reads vapid after these’ (ibid., 484). Under Sassoon's influence, Owen's hitherto decadent style began to change, acquiring a leanness of expression, density of meaning, and rich music that his mentor was never able to achieve. Some of the most poignant documents of this literary friendship are the manuscript drafts of Owen's poems with Sassoon's handwritten corrections, notably that of ‘Anthem for Doomed Youth’, now in the British Library. Like Sassoon, and many in Robert Ross's circle whom he came to know during his visit to London in 1917, Owen was homosexual, but we do not know whether he ever had any same-sex encounter or relationship. Repression rather than consummation seems to give his poetry its pulse. In March 1918 he was transferred to Ripon in Yorkshire where he wrote or revised some of his finest poems, including ‘Strange Meeting’, ‘Exposure’, and ‘Futility’. Though fiercely critical of the war, he returned to the front in September 1918, ‘to help these boys—directly by leading them as well as an officer can; indirectly, by watching their sufferings that I may speak of them as well as a pleader can’ (ibid., 580). He was killed early on the morning of 4 November at the age of twenty-five.

In his famous draft preface Owen wrote: ‘Above all I am not concerned with Poetry. My subject is War, and the pity of war’ (‘Poems of Wilfred Owen’, BL, Add. MSS 43720–43721). First World War trench poetry was a unique phenomenon whereby testimony and poetry were yoked together, both registering new forms of violence, and the war-torn male body was the central subject. The felt reality of this body was set against the abstract language of heroism, and became the ground of protest. Most of these writers started under the shadow of the Georgian poets, but the moods, emotions, and rhythms vary widely, from the ardent patriotism of Brooke and Grenfell to the angry sensuality of Sassoon and Owen; or from the pastoral poignancy of Blunden and Thomas to the modernist wit and irony of Rosenberg. A few of the war poets saw their verse in print during the war: Sassoon's The Old Huntsman and Other Poems, Gurney's Severn and Somme, and Nichols's Ardours and Endurances all appeared in 1917. However, for the majority, including the two best-known writers—Owen and Rosenberg—fame was posthumous. Two of the most celebrated war poems—Grenfell's enthusiastic ‘Into Battle’ and Sorley's angry protest ‘When You See Millions of the Mouthless Dead’—were also published posthumously, the latter discovered in the dead poet's kitbag. At the time of Owen's death only five of his poems were in print. In 1920 Sassoon introduced and arranged Owen's Poems while two years later Gordon Bottomley edited Rosenberg's Poems from tattered, mud-stained manuscripts, with an introduction by Laurence Binyon.

The concept of the war poets, as commonly understood today, is therefore essentially a post-war phenomenon, bolstered by the deluge of prose accounts that came out in the late 1920s: Blunden's Undertones of War (1928), Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End (1924–8), Graves's Goodbye to All That (1929), Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front (1929), and Sassoon's Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (1930). It was in the 1930s that the war poets, partly because of their advocacy by left-wing writers, became national icons, with Owen as the leader, prophet, and martyr. Thus, W. B. Yeats's decision to leave Owen out of The Oxford Volume of Modern Verse (1936), stating in the introduction that ‘passive suffering is not a theme for poetry’ (xxxiv), was greeted with outrage.

A precise definition of the term war poet, which has been considered by poets from Robert Nichols to Philip Larkin and Andrew Motion, has never been fully agreed upon. While early anthologies like E. B. Osborn's The Muse in Arms (1917) and Robert Nichols's Anthology of War Poetry, 1914–1918 (1943) focused largely on the work of soldier–poets, Brian Gardner's Up the Line to Death: the War Poets, 1914–1918 (1967) also included poems by non-combatant writers, though it too was a collection of male authors. More recent anthologists have questioned limiting the definition of war poetry to the work of a group of predominantly well-educated, largely middle-class soldier–poets. Catherine Reilly's anthology Scars upon My Heart: Women's Poetry and Verse (1981), for example, opened up a new and important area of experience and expression, and was enthusiastically received. Reilly's title came from the first line of ‘To My Brother’ by Vera Brittain, who served from 1915 as a nurse in the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) and who lost her fiancé, brother, and two of her closest male friends during the war.

Brittain was representative of a generation of women whose lives were traumatized by the war, and in her memoir Testament of Youth (1933) she deplored ‘that terrible barrier of knowledge’ (p. 215) that existed between the sexes during the war. Such barriers in the literary canon have started to be broken down, with the inclusion of such women poets as May Weddenburn Cannan (1895–1975) and Alice Meynell, as well as Margaret Postgate Cole and Charlotte Mew, in Jon Silkin's enlarged edition of The Penguin Book of First World War Poetry (1996). Similarly, greater attention is now also being paid towards the poetry of working-class writers from the period. Simon Featherstone's War Anthology, for example, includes a selection of working-class poems or songs excerpted from the Ilkeston Pioneer and Ilkeston Advertiser, among them Private Thomas Beardsley's ‘Me and 5 pals made this up’ (sung to the tune of ‘This is my story’) and Private George Shipstone's ‘My little wet home in the trench’ (sung to the tune of ‘My little grey home in the west’). With the passing of the last survivors of the First World War generation, the voices of the war poets of 1914–1918 retain their significance. They testify to the tragedy and cost of war, to the spirit of survival as well as to the ‘terrible beauty’ of art born out of violence, but, above all, they speak to us, as Owen envisaged, ‘to warn’ (Poems, preface, 192).

Sources V. Brittain, Testament of youth (1933) · J. Brophy and E. Partridge, eds., The long trail: what the British soldier sang and said in the Great War of 1914-18 (1965) · S. Featherstone, ed., War poetry: an introductory reader (1995) · B. Gardner, ed., Up the line to death: the war poets, 1914–1918 (1967) · R. Graves, Goodbye to all that (1929) · D. Jones, In parenthesis (1937) · A. Motion, ed., First World War poems (2003) · C. W. Reilly, ed., Scars upon my heart: women's poetry and verse of the First World War (1982) · S. Sassoon, foreword, in The collected works of Isaac Rosenberg: poetry, prose, letters, paintings, and drawings, ed. I. Parsons (1984) · J. Silkin, ed., The Penguin book of First World War poetry (1996) · Wilfred Owen: collected letters, ed. H. Owen and J. Bell (1967) · The poems of Wilfred Owen, ed. J. Stallworthy (1990) · S. Sassoon, Diaries, 1920–1922, ed. R. Hart-Davis (1981) · S. Sassoon, Memoirs of an infantry officer (1930) · J. Moorcroft Wilson, ed., The collected letters of Charles Hamilton Sorley (1990) · A. Caesar, Taking it like a man: suffering, sexuality and the war poets (1993) · P. Fussell, The Great War and modern memory (1975) · D. Hibberd, Owen the poet (1986) · D. Hibberd, ed., Poetry of the First World War (1990) · S. Hynes, A war imagined: the First World War and English culture (1990) · P. Quinn, ed., British poets of the Great War: Brooke, Rosenberg, Thomas, a documentary volume (2000) · P. J. Quinn, The Great War and the missing muse: the early writings of Robert Graves and Siegfried Sassoon (1994) · C. W. Reilly, English poetry of the First World War: a bibliography (1978) · J. Silkin, Out of battle: the poetry of the Great War (1972) · J. Stallworthy, Anthem for doomed youth: twelve soldier poets of the First World War (2002) · J. Stallworthy, Wilfred Owen (1974) · J. Moorcroft Wilson, Siegfried Sassoon, the making of a war poet: a biography, 1886–1918 (1998)

http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/95/95402.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vijfentwintig jaar Vlaamse Beweging - H.J. Elias

(...) Zeer veel houvast bood deze troonrede [zie bij Wat gebeurde er vandaag... van 22 november - PT] niet. De regeringsverklaring (28 nov. 1918) was nog vager. Iedereen ging er mede akkoord - verklaarde de eerste minister - dat de Vlamingen recht hadden op hoger onderwijs in eigen taal, maar er bestond verschil van inzicht over de modaliteiten waarin dit diende verwezenlijkt en de regering zou het nodige initiatief nemen voor de punten waarover geen ernstige betwisting kon bestaan en voor het overige het probleem ter studie nemen. (...)

https://dbnl.org/tekst/elia002vijf01_01/elia002vijf01_01_0026.php
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:12, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Reserve Artillery Brigade

The Reserve Artillery Brigade was formed in Egypt in January 1915 as the Artillery Training Depot. The Brigade still known as the Artillery Training Depot arrived in England on 20 June 1916. The Brigade was officily renamed the Reserve Artillery Brigade on 28 November 1916. The Brigade was made up of 5 field batteries.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Reserve_Artillery_Brigade
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air-raid

28th November 1916 - The First German airplane (as opposed to zeppelin) air-raid is conducted on Britain.

http://www.worldwar-1.net/
Zie ook http://airminded.org/2007/08/10/i-wish-to-register-a-complaint/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Certificate of attestation for John Barnard

John Barnard attested at the Recruiting Office (Drill Hall Pershore).

Part of a collection relating to Lance Corporal John Barnard (52258 Worcestershire regiment), market gardener of Badsey near Evesham; and his son Mike's drawings and newspaper articles relating to the First World War.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/8269?CISOBOX=1&REC=7
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:10, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Marham Aerodrome 1916 - 1919

Marham aerodrome was first opened in 1916 as a military night landing ground covering 80 acres, being within the boundary of the present day aerodrome. From September 1916, units of 51 Sqn Home Defence were based here, flying on home defence patrols with an assortment of FE2b, BE2c. BE2d and BE12 fighter aircraft. At least one FE2b was converted by 51 Sqn at Marham to a single seater to improve the rate of climb and ceiling. Its forward cockpit was covered and twin guns were mounted in the nose; this FE2b was named ‘The Chinese Scout’. The patrol area of these machines was from Marham to Tydd St Mary.

On the night of 27th/28th November 1916, Lt Gaymer took off in FE2b No 7680 of 51 Sqn to intercept the German airship, Zeppelin L21. No contact was made, but Lt Gaymer crashed and was killed. This aircraft was built by Boulton and Paul Ltd at their Riverside Works in Norwich and test flown from Mousehold Aerodrome. The German L21 was, however, shot down later that night by aircraft of the RNAS off Lowestoft. C Flight of 51 Sqn was based at Marham from December 1916 to July 1917, being replaced the following month by B Flight. The headquarters of 51 Sqn moved to Marham from the Old Grammar School at Hingham on the 7th August 1917. Six German airships raided East Anglia on the night of 24th/25th September 1917. 51 Sqn sent two fighters from Marham, two from Mattishall and two from Tydd St Mary to intercept them, but with no success.

http://www.raf.mod.uk/rafmarham/events/rafmarham191619.cfm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Interpretation: Battle of the Somme. What happened at the Battle of the Somme?

(...) [W]hen the men went over-the-top at 7:30 am on 1st July, wave after wave were simply mown down by enemy fire. Approximately 60,000 men were killed or wounded by the end of the first day. The French, attacking where the defences were weaker, had been more successful yet without back up from the British they were unable to hold on to their advance.

Convinced of eventual success Haig allowed the bloodshed to continue despite the growing losses. By the time he called off his 'Great Push' on 28th November 1916 more than 450,000 British, 200,000 French and 650,000 German soldiers had been slaughtered. After four months of fighting the Allies had advanced a distance of no more than five miles.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/wfront3_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Spaanse griep was een sluipmoordenaar
Eppo König - NRC - 2009

(...) De slachtoffers van deze griep sterven een vaak gruwelijke dood. Een deel overlijdt na een paar dagen aan longontsteking. Bij anderen lopen de longen direct vol met een schuimig mengsel van speeksel en bloed. Ze krijgen niet genoeg zuurstof, hun gezicht wordt blauw, hun voeten bijna zwart. Patiënten die ’s ochtends nog gezond ogen, zijn ’s avonds morsdood. Verdronken, in bed.

Doodskisten worden door de grote vraag ongelakt afgeleverd. Lijkstoeten versnellen hun pas omdat de volgende begrafenis wacht. Mensen mijden elkaar zorgvuldig om niet besmet te worden.

Kenmerkend is het verhaal van de 12-jarige Geerling Klos uit Enschede. In de rij voor melkbonnen wordt hij niet lekker en zijgt ineen. Tientallen mensen springen weg en roepen: „Hij heeft de griep.”

Veel ouders verliezen één of meer kinderen. Schrijnend is het relaas van Geertje Pieters uit Hollandscheveld bij Hoogeveen. In 1903 heeft ze al haar echtgenoot verloren en in 1908 haar oudste zoon. Daar blijft het niet bij. Op 20 november 1918 verliest ze haar twee zoons Jan (32) en Lucas (24). Een dag later overlijdt haar dochter Jantje (28), weer een dag later haar zoon Geert (22). Vier kinderen in drie dagen.

Artsen staan machteloos en denken aan de influenzabacil van Pfeiffer. Op straat gaan spookverhalen over giftige lijkdampen uit de loopgraven aan het front. Het confessionele kabinet-Beerenbrouck heeft ook geen antwoorden. Het broodrantsoen wordt verhoogd en 28 november 1918 uitgeroepen tot ‘Algemeene Biddag’. Mecking: „Niet zo slim, om al die biddende mensen bij elkaar te brengen.”

Kwakzalvers ruiken een markt en bieden allerlei middeltjes aan. De Rotterdamse firma L.I. Akker beweert dat haar abdijsiroop de Spaanse griep weert. „De griep is een windvlaag des doods”, zo adverteert de firma. „Napoleon verloor den slag bij Waterloo, doordat hij even te laat was. Weest gij op tijd.”

De Vereeniging tegen de Kwakzalverij plaatst een tegenbericht in de Haagsche Post: „Abdijsiroop komt niet uit een klooster. Het is dik suikerwater met kaneel.”

In Amsterdam worden de scholen na veel discussie níet gesloten. Vijf van de zes schoolartsen zijn tegen, maar dr. H.G. Ringeling, directeur van de lokale Gezondheidsdienst, is standvastig. Een professor van de gemeentelijke universiteit vraagt of de Gezondheidsdienst dan wel onderzoek doet naar „den verwekker der ziekte”. Nog niet, antwoordt Ringeling, want de bacterioloog van de dienst is zelf ziek.

En dan stopt de horror. In december 1918 lijkt de tweede, dodelijke golf van het najaar ten einde. Bij een derde, milde golf in 1920 vallen relatief weinig doden. (...)

https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2009/08/20/de-spaanse-griepwas-een-sluipmoordenaar-11770614-a59508
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:06, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

S.S. ‘Apapa’

S.S. ‘Apapa’, built in 1914 at 7,832 tons for Elder, Dempster & Company, a mail carrying company based in Liverpool. ‘Apapa’ was defensively-armed and on 28 November 1917, 3 miles N by E from Lynas Point, near Amlwch, Anglesey, she was torpedoed without warning and sunk by a German submarine. 77 lives were lost and there were 64 survivors.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=54615
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Kees Schilperoort

Cornelis (Kees) Schilperoort (Apeldoorn, 28 november 1917 - Hilversum, 26 december 1999) was een Nederlandse cabaretier en presentator van radio- en televisieprogramma's. Daarnaast sprak hij de stem in van Professor Hannibal in de tekenfilm Alfred J. Kwak (1989).

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kees_Schilperoort
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:04, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Nov 2010 23:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 November 1917 → Commons Sitting: GAELIC (COURTS-MARTIAL).

Mr. BYRNE asked the Under-Secretary of State for War (1) whether he proposes to make inquiries from the General Officer Commanding the Forces in Ireland into the action of the president of a recent court-martial in Ireland in describing Irish as the language of the Hottentot; whether he proposes to distribute this description of their language amongst the Irish-speaking soldiers of the Connaught Rangers and the Munster Fusiliers and other Gaelic-speaking soldiers at the front; (2) whether it would promote the peace of Ireland to say "I don't care whether he is a Hottentot or a Sinn Feiner," and whether this was purposely meant to convey that the Irish were lower than the. Hottentots; whether tie will explain why the president of the court-martial at Cork on the 17th instant, when an accused person used an expression in Irish, instantly ordered the Court to be cleared; is he aware that, on an accused man answering in Irish when called on to plead, the president said he did not understand the Hottentot language, and will he state whether British officers in Quebec or South Africa are allowed to use offensive terms towards the French and Dutch languages respectively; and what action he proposes to take!

Mr. MACPHERSON I have no information about the matters referred to in these questions.

Mr. LYNCH Would the hon. Gentleman try to ascertain this information, on the ground that it tends to help Germany if Irish officials are allowed to call the Irish people Hottentots?

Mr. MACPHERSON I really do not think it is necessary that I should ask any official to make inquiries. My hon. Friend need not be alarmed. The sanctity of the Irish language will not be affected by the obiter dictum of any man.

Mr. LUNDON If information of this kind is supplied to the hon. Gentleman, will he make inquiries?

Mr. MACPHERSON I do not think it is necessary.

Mr. MOONEY As this statement has appeared in all the Irish papers, surely it must have passed the Censor, and is not the War Office prepared to take action?

Mr. MACPHERSON I do not think so.

Mr. JOYCE Is this officer to be allowed to insult the Irish people as he wishes?

Mr. MACPHERSON As I say, I am as keen about Gaelic as anyone, but I really do not think it necessary to ask officials to make inquiries at the present time.

Mr. JOYCE Why not give him a snub?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/nov/28/gaelic-courts-martial
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

28 november 1917 - In ’t dorp Goirle is een kind uit België geadopteerd voor de duur van de oorlog. Het is weinig, Goirle mag niet achterblijven. In Hilvarenbeek zijn veel gezinnen welke een Duits kindje voor een zestal weken hebben opgenomen. (Nieuwsblad van het Zuiden)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=190&Itemid=47
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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Changing ideas and technologies - South African Participation in the First World War

(...) On 20 January 1917 General Smuts left East Africa to attend the Imperial Conference in London and at the end of May Lieutenant General van Deventer took over the leadership in the area. By 28 November 1917 a small German force began a very effective guerrilla war against Allied forces in the area. This continued for a year, but on 25 November 1918 the entire German force in the area surrendered and were given the honours of war.(...)

http://home.intekom.com/southafricanhistoryonline/pages/classroom/pages/projects/grade8/lesson7/06-participation.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Acte van troonafstand - 28 november 1918

Ich verzichte hierdurch für alle Zukunft auf die Rechte an der Krone Preussen und die damit verbundenen Rechte an der deutschen Kaiserkrone.
Zugleich entbinde Ich alle Beamten des Deutschen Reichs und Preussens sowie alle Offiziere, Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften der Marine, des Preussisches Heeres und der Truppen der Bundeskontingente des Treueides, das sie Mir als Ihren Kaiser, König und Obersten Befehlshaber geleistet haben.
Ich erwarte von ihnen, dass sie bis zur Neuordnung des Deutschen Reichs den Inhabern der tatsächlichen Gewalt in Deutschland helfen, das Deutsche Volk gegen die drohenden Gefahren der Anarchie, der Hungersnot und der Fremdherrschaft zu schützen. Urkundlich unter unserer Hochsteigenhändigen Unterschrift and beigedruckten Kaiserlichen Insiegel.

Gegeben Amerongen, den 28. November 1918.

Unterzeignet Wilhelm

Ik doe hierbij voor de verdere toekomst afstand van de rechten op de kroon van Pruisen en de daaraan verbonden rechten op de Duitse keizerskroon.
Tegelijkertijd ontsla ik alle ambtenaren van het Duitse rijk en van Pruisen, alsmede alle officieren, onderofficieren en manschappen van de marine, het Pruisische leger, en de troepen van de Bondscontingenten van de eed van trouw die ze mij als hun keizer, koning of opperbevelhebber hebben gezworen.
Ik verwacht van hen dat zij in afwachting van het herstel van het Duitse rijk de feitelijke dragers van het gezag in Duitsland zullen helpen het Duitse volk tegen de dreigende gevaren van anarchie, hongersnood en vreemde heerschappij te beschermen.

Wettig onder onze hoogst eigenhandige ondertekening en bekrachtiging door het keizerlijke zegel.

Gedaan te Amerongen, 28 november 1918.

Getekend Wilhelm


http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/keizer-wilhelm/vlucht/afstand.html

At 4:30 a.m. on 10 November 1918 the Kaiser boarded the gold and white imperial train and began the 40-mile journey to Holland. He arrived at the border at 7:30 a.m. at the town of Eysen, where he handed his sword over to a bewildered Dutch border guard. After a six-hour delay the Kaiser was allowed into Holland and immediately took up residence at Amerongen at the home of Count Bentinck with a staff of 40 officers and servants. Most of the staff left by the end of that month. A young aide, Captain Ilsemann, stayed on until the Kaiser's death many years later. On 12 November the crown prince, in spite of his promise to his father that he would stay with the army, crossed into Holland and Queen Wilhelmina of Holland allowed him to take one aide. She also gave him a small home on the desolate island of Wieringan.

On 28 November 1918 the Kaiser signed the official act of abdication as King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany. On the same day the empress joined him in Holland.

http://www.worldwar1.com/tgws/rel008.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 10:03, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Are We Downhearted by Norman Rockwell - November 28, 1918 Issue of Life Magazine

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-life-magazine-cover-1918-11-28-are-we-downhearted.html
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Russische vluchtelingen in Nederland (1914-1918)

(...)De wapenstilstand van 11 november 1918 maakte een einde aan de Eerste Wereldoorlog en verloste de Nederlandse regering van de plicht alle vluchtelingen op te nemen. Ons land weigerde het regime van ‘de moordenaars van de tsaar’ te erkennen; voortaan werden Russen bij de grens teruggestuurd. Politiek vluchtelingen, onder wie de adel en Joden, waren van deze maatregel uitgezonderd.

Maar de grenzen waren broos en de vluchtelingen bleven komen. In afwachting van hun uitzetting werden ze overgebracht naar de interneringskampen van Gaasterland, Harderwijk, Oldebroek en naar ‘de hel van Bergen’, waar de Russen ‘rauwe aardappelen vreten van de honger’, zoals David Wijnkoop op 28 november 1918 tegen zijn collega’s in Den Haag fulmineerde.

De voorzitter van de Communistische Partij van Holland (CPH) zat sinds de verkiezingen van dat jaar met twee zetels in de Kamer. Hij tekende protest aan tegen de ‘totale rechteloosheid’ van de ‘slachtoffers van de Nederlandsche gastvrijheid’ in kamp Bergen, die alleen vanwege de beschuldiging ‘Gij zijt Bolsjewiki’ waren opgesloten. De vrijheid van meningsuiting was in het geding. (...)

http://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/00/hn/nl/156_172/artikel/print/26014/Russische_vluchtelingen_in_Nederland_1914-1918.html
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

World War 1: American Soldier's Letters Home

Letter written November 28, 1918

Dear Mother -:

Today is Thanksgiving and heavens what a difference from the preceding ones that I have had.This one is probably as peculiar and original as any could possibly be for now instead of having a wonderful dinner at Nannoo’s as I have had or a great one at Concord, N.H. or like last year taking pot luck and wondering what the war would bring, I am now a member of the victorious invading army headed for the interior of Germany. Quite a change you will have to admit. Today we are resting, that is not moving forward any more, for a couple of days at least, in the middle of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg at a little place called Munsbach (sp?) not far happily from the city of Luxemburg. Just where we are headed for is not absolutely certain but every rumor seems to point to Coblenz as the ultimate destination of the A.E.F. (You see the censorship has been modified and we can say practically anything that goes on.) We came into Luxemburg about five days ago and I am rather keen about the country tho I do not find the people as agreeable as the French, principally I suppose for the reason that they speak sort of a bastard language, made up of every known living tongue mixed together and then distorted and naturally quite impossible to speak. Usually, however, you can find some one speaking French or English.

The country itself is beautiful but just now tremendously hard up. The H.C.L. (high cost of living?) would absolutely astound you. Bacon is 50 Frs. a pound. Soap 15 Frs a small cake, the cheapest women’s shoes 200 Frs. with men’s about 500. A suit of clothes costs the poor Luxemburger about 650 and he can’t even get an egg for breakfast unless he puts out 1½ Frs. Thank heaven tho, we are well provided for and I have everything I need for some time. Imagine trying to set up some sort of an establishment or worse than that having a large family.
I went thru the city of Luxemburg yesterday and it is a very beautiful place. Built in two sections, so to speak, with a great deep ravine dividing the two and wonderful piled up Maxfield Parrish castles hanging up on the sides of the ravine. If I get a chance to go there again I will get some pictures as it is really worthwhile remembering.

I am sorry in some ways that Carroll (brother) never got the chance to come over but on the other hand it is, I suppose better that he did not, for although it has all been a wonderful experience and worth a lifetime there have been a great many things that were neither pleasant, edifying, or elevating, and worse than that one’s sense of proportion seems permanently put out of commission; whether that will ever come back I don’t know but just now I do know that those who have been thru it all for a year or more are certainly a different lot than when they landed.

The lifting of censorship is a great relief and I am going to take advantage of it and tell you all I can but just how and where to begin leaves me in a quandary that I can’t quite cope with. I suppose I should invoke the Muse and keep up a classic trend for the adventures have all the aspects of both the travels of Ulysses and our friend Dante’s descent into the Inferno, not to mention something that if properly put out would do justice to Stephen Leacock at his best.

As you know I was commissioned here in the fall of 1917 and finally got orders to report for duty about the 15th of Oct. The place where I ended up was a little town called Valdahou (sp?) very close to the Swiss border and not far from the city of Besancon.Things were very pleasant there and the barracks were quite splendid, in fact as I look back now the men were better off than they have ever been since.The camp was on a hill and from it you could see Mont Blanc and a great deal of the Swiss Alps.

However that didn’t last overlong, for about a week later we left for the front as the first American contingent to go into line.As you can well imagine I was in a queer way, knowing about as much artillery as a pussy cat but probably more about actual conditions in line than anyone else in the regt. I was then in Batt. F of the 5th (brigade) and we had a very good crowd of officers and a fine lot of men. Taking everything as a whole we had everything except experience.

We took up positions in a sector just in front of Luneville, a very quiet one happily where they only shoot once a week to see if the guns are in order. We did a bit better than that, simply for the practice of the thing, for there was no need for the amount we fired. I spent then most of my time at the echelons or horse lines and had, taking it all in all, a fine time, tho I did work like blazes trying to catch up to the others in a knowledge of artillery.The horse lines were in a great little place, Rosieres aux Salines. We stayed in that sector about two weeks, only had three casualties which happened just as we were leaving and I think, I know for my own part, learned a lot.

This is about all now for I have got to buzz about a bit but I will write some more tomorrow and try to make it all into one continuous story, however bad in form and all it may be.
With love,
Paul

http://wwar1letters.blogspot.com/2008/12/letter-written-november-28-1918.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rapport Lord Birkenhead aan Britse regering 28 november 1918

Prime Minister,
Lord Curzon conveyed to the Law Officers of the Crown some days ago the desire of the Cabinet that they should give their opinion on this matter. The Law Officers pointed out the extreme importance, delicacy and difficulty of the matter submitted to them and the fact that they themselves were very much engaged in other matters, and asked what period of time could reasonably allowed to them to produce a written opinion adequate to the gravity of the topic. Lord Curzon at that time took the view that they might be allowed ten days. Well of these ten days I think, four or five have elapsed, and therefore the Cabinet will excuse any imperfection of form in the statement I am about to make. We have however arrived at a clear conclusion, otherwise we should have informed the Cabinet that we were not yet in a position to give definite and final advise. The matters involved there are partly legal and partly matters of policy. So far as they are matters of policy, the Cabinet will of course merely treat our views as the opinions of colleagues who are entitled to, and who are not claiming, any special weight. The main question, here which we, in common with our Allies, have to consider is whether the taking of proceedings against, or any punitive treatment in relation to, the Kaiser, should become the declared policy of the Government.. The Law Officers of the Crown answer this question in the affirmative. They point out to the Cabinet that the choice now to be taken is between two diametrically opposed courses, and that no half-way house is possible in the matter. The first is a decision in favour of complete impunity, an impunity which will be described as luxurious and wealthy; the second is in favour of punishment. We wish the Cabinet to consider very carefully how it will be possible for them to justify a decision in favour of impunity. The ex-Kaiser’s personal responsibility and supreme authority in Germany have been constantly asserted by himself, and his assertions are fully warranted by the constitution of Germany. Accepting, as we must, this view, we are bound to take notice of the conclusion which follows; namely, that the ex-Kaiser is primarily and personally responsible for the death of millions young men; for the destruction in four years of 200 times as much material wealth as Napoleon destroyed in twenty-five years; and he is responsible- and this is not the least grave part of the indictment- for the most daring and dangerous challenge to the fundamental principles of public law which that indispensable charter of international right has sustained since its foundations were laid centuries ago by Grotius. These things are very easy to understand, and ordinary people all over the world understand them very well. How then I ask, are we to justify impunity? Under what pretext and with what degree of consistence, are we trying smaller criminals? It is still proposed- it has been repeatedly threatened by the responsible representatives of every Allied country- to try in appropriate cases, submarine commanders and to bring to justice the governors of prisons? Is it proposed to indict the murderers of Captain Frat? In my view, you must answer all these questions in the affirmative. I am at least sure that the democracies of the world will take that view and among them, I have no doubt that the American people will be numbered. How can you do this if, to use the title claimed by himself, and in itself illustrative of my argument, the ‘All Highest’ is gie impunity? Must we not at the moment of our triumph avoid the sarcasm; ‘Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas’? In order to illustrate the point which is in my mind I will read to the Imperial War Cabinet a very short extract, which represents our view with admirable eloquence, from Burke’s speech in the trial of Warren Hastings;-

‘We have not brought before you an obscure offender, who, when his insignificance and weakness are weighted against the power of the prosecution gives even to public justice something of the appearance of oppression; no, my Lords, we have brought before you the first man of India in rank, authority and station, We have brought before you the Chief of the tribe, the head of the whole body of eastern offenders; a captain-general of iniquity, under whom all the fraud, all the peculation, all the tyranny in India are embodied, disciplined, arrayed and paid. This is the person, my Lords that we bring before you. We have brought before you such a person that if you strike at him with the firm and decided arm of justice, you will not have need of a great many more examples. You strike at the whole corps if you strike at the head’.

Prime Minister, in my judgement, if this man escapes, common people will say everywhere that he has escaped because he is an emperor. In my judgement, they will be right. They will say that august influence has been exerted to save him. It is not desirable that such things will be said. especially in these days. It is necessary for all time to teach the lesson that failure is not the only risk which a man possessing at the moment in any country despotic powers, and taking the awful decision between Peace and War, has to fear. If ever again that decision should be suspended in nicely balanced equipoise, at the disposition of an individual, let the ruler who decides upon war know that he is gambling among other hazards, with his own personal safety. For these reasons, we think the ex-Kaiser should be punished. If this view is accepted, the question arises; how is his person to be secured? And the question has been asked, whether or not he can be extradited. Now Sir, the French have apparently expressed the view that he can. My own clear opinion is that that view is wrong. And I think that my colleague, the Solicitor-General, is, on the whole, of the same opinion. But is not necessary to argue that question, because we do not propose to involve ourselves in a doubtful technical argument when we have more powerful weapons at our disposal. Infinite vistas of litigious disputations are opened by an argument whether according to the law of Holland he can be extradited or not. And if, contrary to my opinion, he could be extradited, he could only be charged for the very offence (possibly a limited one) which had been successfully alleged on the ground in law of his extradition. I think it is unnecessary to ask whether in law we can extradite him because it seems to me that Holland must, in effect, give him up. The League of Nations or the Conference of the Allies which will precede the formation of the League of Nations has, or will have, powerful arguments to address to Holland and the internal condition of Holland seems to me to be such that it would be very difficult for her to reject arguments of the kind indicated. This is not a point of law, but my own conclusion is that the difficulty of obtaining control of the person of the ex-Kaiser from Holland will not be an insuperable one, though I should naturally defer to the views of the Foreign Office upon such a point. It may perhaps be assumed that the difficulty will not arise which would be occasioned in this connection by the ex-Kaiser’s return to Germany. The taking of unnecessary risks has not up to the present been a distinguishing feature of his career. Different considerations might arise if the reconstitution of Germany should really bring with it an honest desire to deal with the Kaiser themselves. The few observations therefore which I have still to make will be made upon the assumption that it will be possible to obtain control of his person. I have made it clear that in our judgement control should not be sought through the machinery of extradition. Supposing control of his person has been obtained, how is he to be dealt with? There are two alternative courses. In the first place, he might be treated by the Allies as napoleon was treated, that is to say, by a high assertion of responsibility on the part of the conquering nations. The Allies might say; we are prepared before the bar of history, to take upon ourselves the responsibility for saying that this man has been guilty of high crimes and misdemeanours, that he has broken the peace of the world, and that he ought either to be exiled or otherwise punished in his own person. That course may be recommended by powerful argument and I do not myself exclude it, Prime Minister. I do not say more of it at this stage than this, that by its adoption we should avoid the risks of infinite delays and of a long drawn out impeachment. We should carry with us the sanction and support of the overwhelming mass of civilisation. And we are bold enough to feel that we have nothing to fear from the judgment of the future. It is even possible- as Austria and Germany will be reconstituted that there will be few dissentients in the governing classes of these countries.

The second alternative is that he should be tried by a Court which must evidently be international in its composition. There are obvious advantages in this method upon the moral side if this method of dealing with the situation be carried in a logical conclusion. It is, of course, very desirable that we should be able to say that this man received fair play, and that he has had a fair trial, but grave difficulties beset this course in its complete application. In this connection, how is the Court to be constituted? Are neutrals to be members of the Court? Are Germans to be members of the Court? The only advantage of judicial procedure over the other alternative- a high exercise of executive and conquering force submitting itself to the judgment of history- lies in the fact that for all time it may claim the sanction of legal forms and the protection, in favour of the prisoner, of a tribunal whose impartiality can be established in the face of any challenge. This advantage, it must be observed, largely disappears if the fairness of the tribunal can be plausibly impeached. The Law Officers are not, indeed, of opinion that before a tribunal which consisted in part even of Germans, as Germany appears to be developing to-day, an indictment would necessarily fail. But it is unwise to ignore the difficulties. German and neutral representation would undoubtedly be claimed by the Kaiser. We can only qualify the consequent risk by saying that the German representatives would certainly less German than they were and the neutral representatives less neutral. If a court be constituted, I confess that I myself incline on the whole to the view that the members of the court should consist only of citizens of the Allied countries. Grave judges should be appointed but we should, as it seems to me at present, take the risk of saying that in this quarrel we, the Allies, taking our stand upon the universally admitted principles of the moral law, take our own standards of right and commit the trial of them to our own tribunals. I cannot, because time is short, develop the matter as I should like now, and therefore I merely place it on record that I am well aware that the opposite view may be supported by formidable arguments. The great question which I shall probably asked- and here again- inter-Allied discussion will be necessary- is: for what offences in your view (assuming the adoption of judicial proceedings) should the ex-Kaiser be made justifiable? The first charge which will occur to many persons is one which raises in limine the question of his responsibility for the origin of the war.

Well Sir, I can only say, without giving a decision, that the trial of such a charge would involve infinite disputation. We do not wish to become involved in a trial like that of Warren Hastings in its infinite duration. We do not wish o be confronted by a meticulous examination of the history of European politics of the last twenty years. It is very easy to see that no German advocate of the ex-Kaiser would find it difficult to enlarge the area of discussion carrying it to what would be described in gem any as the ‘ringing ound’system and discursively spreading from the question of the origin of the war to a close discussion of the military significance of the Russian strategic railways. The view that I have at present, is that it would not be wise to add so general a charge, but this provisional view might easily be modified if new and decisive documents were produced like those recently disclosed by the Bavarian Minister, who was in Berlin in August 1914. Such revelations are very likely to be made.

The second charge is extremely clear and it is, in my judgment, a decisive one. A count should certainly be inserted in the indictment charging the Kaiser with responsibility for the invasion of Belgium in breach of International Law and for all the consequent criminal acts which took place. That is an absolutely clear issue and upon it I do not think that any hones tribunal could hesitate. It is even possible, obscure as the present situation in Germany is, that a partly German tribunal convened under existing circumstances in Germany would reach the same conclusion.

The next charge, in my judgment, which should be brought against him is that he is responsible in the matter of unrestricted submarine warfare. It may be necessary to associate other defendants in this charge. But it will in my judgment, be absolutely impossible for us to charge or punish any subordinate if the ex-Kaiser escapes with impunity all responsibility for the submarine warfare. I wish to press most strongly upon my colleagues certain fundamental considerations in regard to submarine warfare, as it has been carried on since the incident of the Lusitania. Since then, thousands of women and children, in our clear and expressed view, have been brutally murdered. I am dealing with the case where a ship is torpedoed carrying no munitions of war, but which it is known must or may be carrying women and children, and where it is equally known that such passengers had no possible means of escape and I do not in this connection deal with the vile cases of assassination when helpless boats, vainly attempting to escape, have been fired on and destroyed. Excluding the last class of cases, it is our view and the view of the whole civilised world, that those acts amount to murder. It is surely vital that if ever there is another war, whether in ten or fifteen years, or however distant it may be, those responsible on both sides for the conduct of that war should be made to feel that unrestricted submarine warfare has been so branded with the punitive censure of the whole civilised world that it has definitely passed into the category of international crime.’ If I do it and fail’, the Tirpitz of the next war must say: “I too shall pay for it in my own person”.

How can we best assure that no one in future will dream of resorting to submarine warfare of this kind? You can best secure it by letting the whole world know that, by the unanimous consent of the whole of that part of the civilised world which has conquered in this war, the man responsible for those acts is responsible in his own person for that which he has done. To us of all people it is not possible to exaggerate the weight and force of these considerations. Nothing more vitally concerns these islands than that it should be recognised that these acts are crimes. The commission of such crimes and their possible future development menace us more directly than any other nation in the world.

The above are suggestions, and not necessarily exhaustive suggestions, in regard to the offences for which the Kaiser should be tried. There are other, individual cases, with which I do not think it necessary of trouble the cabinet at this stage. It is true that the prime Minister authorised me to form a Committee to report upon these matters, but the Law Officers obviously cannot place their responsibility for advising the Government in legal matters in the hands of anybody else, and they have arrived at their conclusion independently of the conclusions of this Committee, and, indeed, before they were informed of them. I think I ought to point out who are the members who compose this Committee, which is the Sub-Committee on Law of the Main Committee.

Of these, Sir John MacDonnell, Mr. Justice Peterson and Mr. Gill are no members of the Sub-Committee on Law, but were called in for the special purpose of discussing the new issue as regards the ex-Kaiser. I think the Lord Chief Justice will agree that it would not be possible in this country to form a stronger Committee for the purpose of arriving at a sound conclusion upon such matters. It is a source of satisfaction to the Law Officers that this Committee has unanimously and independently of them reached the conclusion that the ex-Kaiser ought to be punished either by way of trial or as Napoleon was punished. The Committee in clines to the first of those courses, namely that he should be tried. I am not at present wholly convinced upon this point, and, in the written opinion which the Solicitor-General and myself contemplate, we propose to discuss this matter in greater detail. Probably I have said enough to make the Cabinet aware of the views held by the Law Officers. I could, and would, have said much more if I was not concerned to be economical of your time. As Chief Law Officer of the Crown I say quiet plainly that I should feel the greatest difficulty in being responsible in any way o the trial of subordinate criminals if the ex-Kaiser is allowed to escape.


https://www.ssew.nl/exhibit-12-rapport-lord-birkenhead-britse-regering-28-november-1918
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 9:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 28th of November 1919 AD: Nancy Astor becomes the first woman MP

It is a quirk of history that Britain’s first female MP to take her seat in Parliament should in fact have been born American. Equally paradoxically while Nancy Astor is a symbol of the drive for equality in British political life, she was also hugely privileged.

Nancy Langhorne was born into wealth in Danville Virginia in 1879. Her father was an extremely wealthy man who had made a great fortune in railways. She came to England to escape the aftermath of her divorce from Robert Gould Shaw, whom she had married while still in her teens. In England she married into the upper classes, though her husband Waldorf Astor had also been born in Virginia.

When her father in law died in 1919 Nancy’s husband came into his title, and so was forced to quit the Commons where he had sat for Plymouth Sutton since 1910 in order to take his seat in the Lords as the second Viscount Astor.

Nancy decided to stand for her husband’s old seat. She faced several problems: a privileged foreign woman was not likely to be of immediate appeal to large sections of ordinary voters in Plymouth , still less someone who espoused Prohibition, though she toned down her espousal of temperance matters as the campaign progressed. But she had advantages, not least enormous wealth and the family ownership of the Observer newspaper. She also had charm, and though likely to say extraordinary things at some meetings, she won over many at others by her wit. And it can’t have hurt to have the Tory Party machinery behind her of course.

On November 28 1919 she defeated Liberal candidate Isaac Foot (father of Michael Foot of Labour legend) in the by-election necessitated by her husband’s ennoblement, and on December 1 1919 took her seat in the Commons, the first woman to do so.

Astor was not the first woman elected to the Commons, however. Countess Markievicz had won a Dublin seat for Sinn Fein in 1918, but refused to take the loyal oath and so was denied the right to represent her constituency.

Once in Parliament Nancy Astor fought for change in three areas in particular. She was the driving force behind the change in the law that meant 18 was the age at which alcohol could be purchased. She espoused women’s rights, pushing for equality in the Civil Service. And she was a great supporter of improvements in nursery education and other advances of benefit to children.

Nancy Astor sat for Plymouth Sutton until the 1945 General Election, which she was advised not to contest as it was inevitable she would lose given the hunger for change after WWII . She died in May 1964, still a significant influence behind the scenes in the Tory Party, her home at Cliveden an important political salon for a privileged few.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=234
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Nov 2018 9:22, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2010 0:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Red Scare: Jane Addams, speech in Chicago (28th November, 1919)

Hundreds of poor laboring men and women are being thrown into jails and police stations because of their political beliefs. In fact, an attempt is being made to deport an entire political party.

These men and women, who in some respects are more American in ideals than the agents of the government who are tracking them down, are thrust into cells so crowded they cannot lie down.

And what is it these radicals seek? It is the right of free speech and free thought; nothing more than is guaranteed to them under the Constitution of the United States, but repudiated because of the war.

It is a dangerous situation we face at the present time, with the rule of the few overcoming the voice of the many. It is doubly dangerous because we are trying to suppress something upon which our very country was founded - liberty.

The cure for the spirit of unrest in this country is conciliation and education - not hysteria. Free speech is the greatest safety valve of our United States. Let us give these people a chance to explain their beliefs and desires. Let us end this suppression and spirit of intolerance which is making of America another autocracy.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAredscare.htm
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2018 9:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Acte van troonafstand - 28 november 1918

De tekst met afbeelding van de acte van troonafstand, die werd getekend op 28 november 1918, op kasteel Amerongen, is hieronder weergegeven in het Duits met daarbij de Nederlandse en Engelse vertaling. Hier de Duitse versie:

Ich verzichte hierdurch für alle Zukunft auf die Rechte an der Krone Preussen und die damit verbundenen Rechte an der deutschen Kaiserkrone.
Zugleich entbinde Ich alle Beamten des Deutschen Reichs und Preussens sowie alle Offiziere, Unteroffiziere und Mannschaften der Marine, des Preussisches Heeres und der Truppen der Bundeskontingente des Treueides, das sie Mir als Ihren Kaiser, König und Obersten Befehlshaber geleistet haben.
Ich erwarte von ihnen, dass sie bis zur Neuordnung des Deutschen Reichs den Inhabern der tatsächlichen Gewalt in Deutschland helfen, das Deutsche Volk gegen die drohenden Gefahren der Anarchie, der Hungersnot und der Fremdherrschaft zu schützen. Urkundlich unter unserer Hochsteigenhändigen Unterschrift and beigedruckten Kaiserlichen Insiegel.

Gegeben Amerongen, den 28. November 1918.

Unterzeignet Wilhelm


https://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/keizer-wilhelm/afstand.html
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Nov 2018 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed - Teksten bij "Epernon-bunker met gedenkplaat voor Jean Taymans"

Site van de zogenaamde "Epernonbunker". Deze Duitse bunker maakte deel uit van de zogenaamde "Brabant-linie" of de eerste Duitse linie opgericht langs de Iepersteenweg. Van 1915 tot 1917 was Merkem een Duitse rustsector. Hieraan komt een einde met de Derde Slag om Ieper waarbij Franse troepen er midden augustus 1917 in slagen om de frontlinie terug te dringen tot voorbij de Drie Grachtenbrug, de start van een langdurig eindoffensief. Eind oktober 1917 veroveren de Fransen het zuidwestelijke deel van het dorp op de Duitsers en wordt de sector op 11 november 1917 door de Belgen overgenomen. Om de Duitse tegenaanvallen af te slaan verschuilen de Belgen zich in en rond enkele in puin geschoten hoeves, zoals de hoeves "Petit-Fils", "Grand-Père", "Epernon", "Aschhoop", "Jezuïetengoed" en "Honoré", waar de Duitsers stellingen met stevige betonnen bunkers hadden opgericht. In november 1917 worden twee van deze vooruitgeschoven posten, namelijk "Petit-fils" en "Epernon" door de Duitsers heroverd. Op 28 november 1917 ondernamen de Belgen een mislukte tegenaanval op deze voorposten waarbij onder meer adjudant Jean Taymans het leven liet toen de zogenaamde "Epernonbunker" werd opgeblazen. Daarna volgden ook nog verwoede, maar mislukte aanvallen van Duitse zijde op de voorpost "Grand-Père". Om verdere verliezen te vermijden, vernietigde men eind maart 1918 deze voorpost, samen met de voorpost "Aschhoop".

Na de oorlog werd de grond met de restanten van de "Epernonbunker" door de familie Taymans aangekocht en werd er in 1934 een bronzen plaat aangebracht ter nagedachtenis van adjudant Taymans. Tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog 'verdween' deze gedenkplaat en werd een nieuwe, hardstenen plaat door het gemeentebestuur aangebracht. Site omzoomd door knotbomen en restanten van een betonnen constructie met hardstenen Keltisch kruis en rechthoekige, hardstenen plaat ter nagedachtenis van Adjudant Jean Taymans met het opschrift: "L'ADJUDANT JEAN TAYMANS VOLONTAIRE DE GUERRE AU 19E DE LIGNE, ÂGÉ DE 34 ANS AYANT REÇU L'ORDRE LE 28 NOVEMBRE 1917 DE REPRENDRE CET ABRI APPELÉ "L'EPERNON" TOMBA HÉROIQUEMENT CE JOUR LÀ APRÈS AVOIR ÉTÉ BLESSÉ 3 FOIS. SA GLORIEUSE DEPOUILLE N'A PU ETRE RETROUVEE SOUS CES DECOMBRES MAIS SON AME VIT ET A REÇU LA RECOMPENCE DU DIEU DES ARMEES" in uitgehouwen en vergulde letters.

https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/erfgoed/node/dibe_relict.79583/teksten/teksten/tonen
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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