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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2006 7:56    Onderwerp: 24 november Reageer met quote

1918 : Yugoslav National Council expresses concerns about post-war boundaries

On November 24, 1918, the Yugoslav National Council--an organization of South Slavic nationalists led by Ante Trumbic of Croatia--addresses Crown Prince Alexander, son of the ailing King Peter and de facto ruler of Serbia, about its concerns regarding Italian claims on South Slavic territory in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.


According to the Treaty of London, signed by Italy, Britain and France in April 1915, Italy would enter World War I against Austria-Hungary and, in return, receive from the Allies substantial post-war gains of territory, including a large section of Slovenia and the northern part of the Dalmatian coast. On the heels of the armistice of November 11, 1918, Italy had already made moves to reap the benefits of its participation in the war--a situation which, to Trumbic and his fellow nationalists, was intolerable.


"We cannot recognize any contract, not even that of London, by virtue of which, in violation of the principle of nationalities, we should be obliged to surrender part of our nation to other States," the Yugoslav National Council advised Prince Alexander in its statement of November 24. "In full conscience we express our hope that your Royal Highness, with our whole nation, will endeavor to secure that the final frontiers of our State shall be drawn in conformity with our ethnographic frontiers and with the principles put forward by President [Woodrow] Wilson and the other Entente Powers."


South Slavic nationalist aspirations were formalized just days later, with the creation of the "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes," a new state containing 500,000 Hungarians and an equal number of Germans, as well as tens of thousands of Romanians, Albanians, Bulgarians and Italians. Trumbic was made foreign minister of the new government, while Prince Alexander was named regent; he would become king two years later, upon the death of his father.


Before then, however, Trumbic and other representatives of the new state would have to stand up for their rights at the post-war peace conference in Paris in 1919. By then, Britain and France had begun to regret their lavish promises in the Treaty of London, while Italy continued to consider the treaty a binding agreement. For his part, Wilson remained committed to the principle of South Slav nationalism and refused to acknowledge Italy’s claims on its territory. In a move that infuriated the Italian delegation and caused them to walk out of the peace conference for over a week, Wilson publicly declared that Italy should be satisfied with receiving control over the Trentino and the Tyrol (on the Austrian border), where the majority of the population was Italian.


In the years after World War I, tensions continued within the new South Slav state, driven by the Serbian-dominated government’s denial of autonomy to different ethnic groups, most notably Croats and Slovenes. Disillusioned, Trumbic resigned as foreign minister in 1920 and dedicated himself to the protection of minority rights. In January 1929, with the nation on the brink of civil war, Alexander suspended the constitution, dissolved the parliament and all political parties and took dictatorial control. As part of his effort to impose national unity, he renamed the country Yugoslavia.


In 1934, Alexander was assassinated by extreme right-wing Croatian nationalists during a state visit to Marseilles, France. His son, Peter, managed to maintain unity until 1941, when the German army invaded Serbia and Croatia declared its independence.

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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2006 7:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Beschießung von Zeebrügge durch englische Schiffe
Großes Hauptquartier, 24. November, vormittags.
Englische Schiffe erschienen auch gestern an der flandrischen Küste und beschossen Lombartzyde und Zeebrügge. Bei unseren Truppen wurde nur geringer Schaden angerichtet, eine Anzahl belgischer Landeseinwohner wurde aber getötet und verletzt.
Im Westen sind keine wesentlichen Veränderungen eingetreten.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz ist die Lage noch nicht geklärt.
In Ostpreußen halten unsere Truppen ihre Stellungen an und nordöstlich der Seenplatte.
Im nördlichen Polen sind die dort im Gange befindlichen schweren Kämpfe noch nicht entschieden.
Im südlichen Polen steht der Kampf in Gegend Czenstochau, auf dem Südflügel nördlich Krakau schreitet der Angriff fort.
Die amtliche russische Meldung, daß die Generale v. Liebert und v. Pannewitz in Ostpreußen gefangen genommen worden seien, ist glatt erfunden. Der erste befindet sich in Berlin, der zweite an der Spitze seiner Truppe, beide sind seit längerer Zeit nicht in Ostpreußen gewesen.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
110000 russische Gefangene in Österreich-Ungarn
Wien, 24. November, mittags.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Die Schlacht in Russisch-Polen wird bei strenger Kälte von beiden Seiten energisch fortgeführt. Unsere Truppen eroberten mehrere Stützpunkte, gewannen insbesondere gegen Wolbrom und beiderseits des Ortes Pilica Raum und machten wieder zahlreiche Gefangene. Ansonsten ist die Lage unverändert. Im Innern der Monarchie befinden sich jetzt 110000 Kriegsgefangene, darunter 1000 Offiziere.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)





Verurteilung deutscher Militärärzte und Krankenwärter in Frankreich
Berlin, 24. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Neun deutsche Militärärzte und Krankenwärter sind wegen angeblicher Plünderung bei Einwohnern von den Deutschen besetzter Gegenden und wegen angeblicher Vernachlässigung Verwundeter von einem französischen Kriegsgericht zu längeren Gefängnisstrafen verurteilt worden, obwohl sie lebhaft gegen eine derartige Beschuldigung protestierten. Wie fadenscheinig die Urteilsgründe gewesen sein müssen, geht zur Genüge daraus hervor, daß selbst das französische Gericht zunächst die Urteilsfällung aussetzte und schließlich sogar dazu kommen mußte, den Angeklagten mildernde Umstände zuzubilligen, da nicht erwiesen sei, daß sie an der Plünderung teilgenommen hätten; jedoch hätten sie wissentlich von dieser profitiert.

Paris, 24. November. (W. B.)
Das harte Urteil gegen die deutschen Militärärzte erregt auch in Frankreich großes Aufsehen; man hatte allgemein Freisprechung erwartet. Advokat Jules Ubry schreibt in der "Humanite" u. a.: Die Ansicht fast aller Advokaten, Journalisten und Militärärzte war, daß die Entscheidung des Gerichts tief schmerzlich sei.
Es wurde kein wirklicher Beweis geführt. Für die Barbaren wäre es eine gute Lehre gewesen, wenn man die Angeschuldigten namens des französischen Volkes und namens des Rechts freigesprochen hätte. Die folgenden Sätze sind von der Zensur gestrichen. - Die Zeugen haben nichts Belastendes ausgesagt. Der Bürgermeister von Lisy sur Ourq erkannte selber die korrekte Haltung der Angeklagten an. Sie hätten auch kranke Einwohner gepflegt und an der Sanierung der Gemeinde mitgearbeitet. Ein französischer General hatte die deutschen Ärzte beglückwünscht. Die französischen Militärärzte legten sich während der Verhandlung für ihre deutschen Kollegen anerkennend ins Zeug. Die drei Verteidiger baten nachdrücklich, nicht Unschuldige für Schuldige leiden zu lassen. Das Gericht versteifte sich aber auf den Standpunkt, daß die Angeklagten sich geplünderter Gegenstände und Genußmittel bedient hätten. Außer Ahrens erhielt der Berliner Chirurg Dr. Schulz sechs Monate Gefängnis. (Ein Urteilsspruch, der selbst im eigenen Lande als ein Schandurteil empfunden wird und den noch schärfer, als es geschehen ist, zu charakterisieren die Macht der Zensur dort augenblicklich zu verhindern weiß, trifft moralisch nicht diejenigen, die er treffen will, sondern seine eigenen Urheber. D. Red.) 2)





Die neue Kreditforderung des Reiches
Berlin, 24. November. (W. B.)
Durch den dem Reichstag nunmehr zugegangenen Entwurf des Gesetzes betreffend die Feststellung des zweiten Nachtrages zum Reichshaushaltsetat für das Rechnungsjahr 1914 wird der Reichskanzler ermächtigt, zur Bestreitung einmaliger Ausgaben abermals eine Summe von fünf Milliarden Mark im Wege des Kredits flüssig zu machen. Ferner wird der Reichskanzler ermächtigt, zur vorübergehenden Verstärkung der ordentlichen Betriebsmittel der Reichshauptkasse über den im Etatsgesetz angegebenen Betrag hinaus nach Bedarf Schatzanweisungen bis zur Höhe von 400 Millionen Mark auszugeben. In den Erläuterungen heißt es, daß von dem neubewilligten Kredit ein Betrag bis zu 200 Millionen Mark nach näherer Bestimmung des Bundesrats bereitgestellt wird zur Gewährung von Wochenbeihilfen während des Krieges sowie zur Unterstützung von Gemeinden oder Gemeindeverbänden auf dem Gebiete der Kriegswohlfahrtspflege, insbesondere der Erwerbslosenfürsorge und der die gesetzlichen Mindestsätze übersteigenden Unterstützung von Familien in den Dienst eingetretener Mannschaften. 2)






"Audacious"

Ein englischer Überdreadnought gesunken
Rotterdam, 24. November. (W. B.)
Nach Meldungen aus sicherer Quelle ist der englische Überdreadnought "Audacious" am 28. oder 29. Oktober an der Nordküste Irlands auf eine Mine gelaufen und gesunken. Die Admiralität hält das Ereignis streng geheim, um eine Aufregung des Landes zu vermeiden.
("Audacious" hatte ein Deplacement von 27000 Tonnen und eine Maschinenstärke von 28000 PS, eine Geschwindigkeit von 23 Seemeilen und eine Bestückung von zehn 34,3 cm und sechzehn 10,2 cm-Kanonen. Die Besatzung betrug etwa 1100 Mann.) 2)





Ein deutsches Unterseeboot gesunken
Berlin, 24. November. (W. B )
Nach amtlicher Bekanntgabe der englischen Admiralität vom 23. November ist das deutsche Unterseeboot "U18" durch ein englisches Patrouillenfahrzeug an der Nordküste Schottlands zum Sinken gebracht worden. Nach einer Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus sind durch den englischen Torpedobootzerstörer "Garry" drei Offiziere und 23 Mann Besatzung gerettet worden, ein Mann ist ertrunken.

Kopenhagen, 24 November. (Priv.-Tel.)
"Berlingske Tidende" erfährt über den Untergang des "U 18" Folgendes aus London: Als die Anwesenheit des deutschen Unterseebootes "U 18" vor dem Küstengewässer von Schottland gemeldet wurde, ging eine Abteilung englischer Torpedojäger auf die Suche. Um die Mittagszeit wurde "U 18" von dem Torpedojäger "Garry" entdeckt. Dieser richtete einen Stoß gegen das Unterseeboot, das indessen eine Stunde später wieder auftauchte. Bevor "Garry" jedoch hinzukommen konnte, sank das Unterseeboot. Die ganze Mannschaft außer einem Mann wurde gerettet. 2)





Die Jagd auf unsere Kreuzer
Tokio, 24. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Gegen das deutsche Geschwader, das kürzlich das englische Geschwader vor Chile vernichtete, sind seit dem 21. November in drei Geschwadern 22 Kriegsschiffe der Verbündeten konzentriert. 2)





Eine englische Schlappe in Ostafrika
Haag, 24 November. (W B.)
Die englische Gesandtschaft teilt mit: Aus den letzten Berichten aus Ostafrika geht hervor, daß die britische Truppenmacht aus Britisch-Ostafrika, als gemeldet wurde, daß eine wichtige deutsche Eisenbahn-Station nur schwach besetzt sei, dorthin geschickt wurde, um die Station zu erobern. Englische Truppen landeten am 2. November und rückten sofort gegen die feindliche Stellung vor. Es stellte sich aber heraus, daß diese sehr stark war. Es gelang zwar den englischen Truppen, die Stadt zu erreichen, sie mußten sich jedoch wieder zurückziehen. Ihre Verluste betragen 800 Mann. 2)





Das Ergebnis der österreichischen Kriegsanleihe
Wien, 24. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Das Ergebnis der österreichischen Kriegsanleihe, deren Subskriptionsfrist heute um 12 Uhr mittags abgelaufen ist, beträgt bis 12 Uhr mittags 1441 Millionen Kronen. Da die formale Durchführung zahlreicher Zeichnungen durch den Krieg erschwert ist, dürfen die Zeichnungsstellen auch weiterhin Anmeldungen entgegennehmen.

Die "Frankfurter Zeitung" schrieb dazu:
Dieses Ergebnis der österreichischen Anleihe-Emission wird man auch in Deutschland mit lebhafter Befriedigung begrüßen. Als Österreich und Ungarn ihre Kriegsanleihen zur Zeichnung auflegten, wählten sie denselben Weg, den im September Deutschland für seine Kriegsanleihe mit so großem Erfolg beschritten hatte: sie setzten nicht einen bestimmten Anleihebetrag fest, sondern ließen die Summe der Anleihe frei, um so nur ernsthafte Zeichnungen zu erhalten und alle Schein-Zeichnungen, die nur in der Spekulation auf eine Reduktion bei der Zuteilung abgegeben würden, zu verhindern, und um auf der anderen Seite der Sparkraft und dem Patriotismus der Bürger jeden Spielraum zu lassen. Jede Zeichnung mußte auf volle Zuteilung rechnen, aber jede Zeichnung durfte auch volle Zuteilung erwarten: wer dem Staate Geld zur Führung seines Existenzkampfes zur Verfügung stellen wollte, der fand dazu in dem Erwerb der hochrentierenden Anleihen Gelegenheit.
Dieser Appell an die Freiwilligkeit der Bürger hat auch bei unseren Verbündeten einen vollen Erfolg gehabt. Die österreichisch - ungarischen Behörden erwarteten, als sie zu der Emission schritten, in beiden Hälften der Monarchie einen Gesamtbetrag von etwa 1½ Milliarden Kronen. Jetzt stellt sich heraus, daß diese Summe schon fast allein von der österreichischen Hälfte aufgebracht worden ist: die Zeichnungen in Österreich erreichen schon jetzt (sie werden noch wachsen, da die Listen noch weiter offen gehalten werden sollen) einen Betrag von 1441 Millionen Kronen, in Ungarn aber werden die Zeichnungen gleichzeitig bereits auf 800 Millionen Kronen geschätzt - das ergibt mithin schon eine Summe von 2½ Milliarden Kronen, reichlich 1900 Millionen Mark, die die beiden Reichshälften für ihre finanzielle Kriegsrüstung mit dieser ersten Emission aufgebracht haben.
Unseren Gegnern wird dieses Resultat wieder einiges zu denken geben, das ihnen wenig Freude bereiten wird. Sie hatten darauf gebaut, daß Österreich-Ungarn finanziell schwach sei, geschwächt vor allem auch durch die außerordentlichen Aufwendungen für die Teilmobilisierungen, die es während der Balkankrisen der letzten Jahre, in diesem Vorspiel unseres Krieges, hatte vornehmen müssen - und nun erfahren sie, daß dieses Österreich-Ungarn ganz aus eigener Kraft und ohne Zwang, rein auf dem Wege der freiwilligen Zahlung, einen Betrag von 2½ Milliarden Kronen aufzubringen imstande ist. Und sie hatten noch viel mehr darauf gebaut, daß Österreich-Ungarn politisch schwach sei durch den Widerstreit der Nationalitäten - und müssen nun dieses Zeichnungsresultat erleben, das doch nur möglich war durch die Hingabe und Opferbereitschaft der weitesten Schichten des Volkes. Das ist für unsere Gegner eine sehr nützliche Lehre. Sie wird noch eindringlicher durch das bisherige Ergebnis ihrer eigenen Finanzrüstung, vor allem in Frankreich (von Rußland, dessen Finanz- und Wirtschaftslage immer problematischer wird, gar nicht zu reden). Frankreich, das sich vor dem Kriege so gern den "Bankier der Welt" nennen ließ, ist noch immer nicht imstande gewesen, eine wirkliche, große Kriegsanleihe auszugeben, hat es doch in großem Umfange nicht einmal die Einzahlungen auf die große, vor dem Kriege aufgenommene Rüstungs-Anleihe einziehen können; jetzt muß es den Griechen mitteilen, daß sie das Geld auf die Anleihe, die Frankreich ihnen im Frühjahr bewilligt hatte, "erst nach dem Kriege" erhalten könnten. Mit welchem Neide mag das reiche Frankreich jetzt auf das arme Österreich-Ungarn blicken, das so prompt die Milliarden aufbringt, die man in Frankreich bisher so gar nicht flüssig machen konnte.





Die Neutralität Bulgariens

Wasil Radoslawow

Sofia, 24. November. (W. B.)
In der Sobranje erklärte heute der Ministerpräsident Radoslawow in Beantwortung der Kritiken der Opposition, daß die Regierung der Neutralität, die sie seit Beginn der europäischen Krise erklärt habe, treu bleibe und daß sie diese Neutralität stets loyal ausübe trotz der ungerechtfertigten Vorwürfe, die ihr von der Opposition gemacht würden, die sie energisch zurückweise. Da gewisse Mächte geglaubt hätten, über diesen Gegenstand Bemerkungen aussprechen zu müssen, gab die Regierung gleich Erklärungen ab, die als genügend angesehen wurden. Gegenwärtig billigten alle Großmächte die Haltung Bulgariens. Dieses unterhalte die freundschaftlichsten Beziehungen zu Rumänien, Griechenland und selbst zu dem kriegführenden Serbien. Seine Beziehungen zu der Türkei sei außerordentlich aufrichtig. Die Regierung sei glücklich, der Nation mitteilen zu können, daß sie die Integrität des Territorialbesitzes gesichert habe. Radoslawow fügte hinzu: Wenn die Umstände uns zwingen, in Verhandlungen für die Vergrößerung unseres nationalen Besitzstandes einzutreten, so werden wir es mit dem Wohlwollen des gesamten europäischen Konzertes tun, mit welchem wir die bestmöglichen Beziehungen unterhalten wollen. Laute, anhaltende Beifallsrufe folgten den Worten. 2)

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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 November 1914 → Commons Sitting

WOMEN'S PATROL CORPS (SCOTLAND).


HC Deb 24 November 1914 vol 68 c928 928

Mr. DUNCAN MILLAR asked the Secretary for Scotland, whether he will authorise the formation of a women's patrol corps in Scotland on the same lines as the corps which has been formed in England, so as to deal with cases of female offenders, especially in the neighbourhood of military camps?

The LORD ADVOCATE (Mr. Munro) (for the Secretary for Scotland) My right hon. Friend is in communication with the promoters of this movement in Scotland, as well as with the military and naval authorities, as to proposed arrangements for women patrols.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/nov/24/womens-patrol-corps-scotland
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Diary - Edward P. Cox

Tuesday Nov 24th 1914
A perfect day, remarkably smooth sea, without a breath of wind until afternoon.

Sighted land (Arabia) on starboard quarter. Porpoises to be seen in shoals disporting themselves. Ships run 296 miles.

The most beautiful sunset this evening, seen during the voyage. Cloudless sky clear & moonlight night.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d2-d42.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 24 Events in History

1918 - Bela Can forms Hungarian Communist Party
1915 - Serbian leader flees to Albania
1914 - Benito Mussolini leaves Italy's socialist party
1914 - Dutch Overseas Trustmaatschappij (NOT) forms

http://www.brainyhistory.com/days/november_24.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLI, Issue 13545, 24 November 1914





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19141124.2.15.5
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private 7628 Luke HOPWOOD (A.R.)

Date of Death: 24 November 1914 (Died of wounds)
Grave No: I.M.22.
Unit: 'C' Company
Age: 26

Personal History: Luke was born in St Mary's parish, Stockport, Cheshire in June/July 1886, the youngest child of John Thomas and Minnie (Mary) Hopwood. His elder siblings were Bertha, Annie and Clara and in 1901 the family were living at 64 Swan Street, Stockport, Cheshire.(1901 Census: RG 13/3298)

At the time of his enlistment he was employed as a labourer in the Cotton Industry, he was 5' 7" tall (1.70 m.), weighed 140 lbs. (10 st. 0lbs.) had a 'fresh' complexion, grey eyes and light brown hair. His religion was stated as Church of England.

At the time of his death he was living in Oldham, Lancashire. On 26th March 1910 he married Eliza Howes at Portwood, Cheshire, they had two children, Annie (born 20th August 1911 and Alice Mary (born 27th July 1913). In 1911 (Census RG 14/21350) Luke and Eliza were living at 14 Ducie Street, Chestergate, Stockport and Luke was working in a Cotton Mill as a 'Packer'.

With effect from 28th June 1915 Eliza received a pension of 18s. 6d (£0.925) for herself and the 2 children. (In December quarter 1924 Eliza remarried John Swindells and they lived at 51 Borron St., Portwood, Stockport.)

Military History: Luke enlisted at Stockport, Cheshire, aged 18 years 0 months, on 12th July 1904, after initially being in the 4th Battalion. His terms of service were 3 + 9 (i.e. 3 years active service + 9 years reserve), and was transferred to the Army Reserve list on 10th July 1907.

He was originally posted to the 2nd Battalion at Aldershot on 19th August 1904 and then transferred to the 1st Battalion at Lichfield on 22nd September 1904. On 15th May 1906 he was transferred again to Fleetwood. Between 26th August and 24th September 1906 he was in hospital at Fleetwood being treated for gonorrhoea.

His time in the service was not without its problems. On 20th October 1904 he broke out of barracks and was found drunk and disorderly and using abusive language, for which he received 10 days CB (confined to barracks). He broke out again on 12th August 1905 and on 24th June 1906 he was found to be "Drunk in a company hut" and 'admonished'. Two months later, on 16th August he was absent from drill and received 14days and again on 2nd March 1907 he broke out of barracks and was absent for 7 hours, receiving 8 days CB. On 4th March 1907, in the company of 'Richard Clare', he was convicted of stealing a currant loaf to the value of 2½ d. from the Co-op Society Ltd. He was fined 15/- (£0.75) and sentenced to 15 days hard labour.

As a reservist he was recalled to the 1st Battalion at the outbreak of War and his Medal Card shows he entered France 16 August. He died from wounds received in action on 24th November 1914 at No. 4 Clearing Hospital, Poperinghe. (List No. 8111) and was buried in the New Cemetery there.

The Battalion took up its position in the trenches at Ypres on 4th November 1914 and between then and moving into reserve dugouts on the 20th they had 35 killed and 99 wounded. It is most likely that Luke was one of them.



http://grandadswar.mrallsophistory.com/pop_old_cem.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

North Staffordshire Regiment

(...) The numbering of the Territorial Force battalions was laid down by War Office instructions issued in 1914 and 1915. On joining the Territorial Force men were asked if the would serve overseas (foreign service) or just volunteered for service in the United Kingdom (home service) and their service records amended accordingly. At the declaration of war all Territorial battalions were mobilised and on 15 August 1914 the War Office issued instructions for those men who had volunteered for foreign service to be separated out into what were called first line battalions. Home service men were placed in second line battalions. Thus there would now be a first line 5th Battalion and a second line 5th Battalion. On 24 November 1914, as the first line battalions began to go overseas, additional instructions were issued allowing the raising of a third line battalion once the first line battalion was on foreign service. In January 1915 these designations were simplified and the battalions called the 1/5th, 2/5th and 3/5th battalions respectively.

The battalions that served in France took part in many of the major actions of the war including the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the Battle of Loos, the Battle of the Somme, the Third Battle of Ypres and the Battle of Amiens. (...)

http://wapedia.mobi/en/North_Staffordshire_Regiment
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De foto’s van de expeditie van Armand Hutereau (1911-1913)

Armand Hutereau (1875-1914) werd in februari 1911 voor meer dan twee jaar naar het noorden van Congo uitgestuurd om materiaal te verzamelen voor het ‘Museum van Belgisch Congo’. Dankzij deze expeditie werd de afdeling Etnografie verrijkt met maar liefst 10.224 objecten, waaronder tal van muziekinstrumenten. Foto’s, films en geluidsopnames dienden als duiding bij de etnografische voorwerpen en lieten bijvoorbeeld zien hoe potten werden gemaakt. De foto’s getuigden ook van een bijzondere interesse voor de ‘verboden regionen van het vrouwelijke lichaam’, en voor albinisme en ziektes zoals syfilis, lepra en gonorroe (een geslachtsziekte veroorzaakt door een bacterie).

Hutereau werd vergezeld door Van der Gucht, die tijdens de expeditie overleed ten gevolge van hematurie (bloed in de urine). De Europese leden van de expeditie bestonden verder uit de taxidermist Ceuterickx, de fotografen Geno en Facq, en Mevrouw Hutereau. In het begin van de twintigste eeuw was de aanwezigheid van Europese vrouwen in de kolonie hoogst uitzonderlijk. Mevrouw Hutereau legde een belangrijke collectie vogels aan, die later verschillende nieuwe soorten bleek te bevatten. Hutereau maakte plaasteren afdrukken van ‘tatoeages’ van elf Afrikanen en verzamelde vijf schedels en een skelet van een ‘pygmee’. In tegenstelling tot de expeditie Lemaire reisde Hutereau zonder militaire escorte, al bleef hij Afrikaanse dragers rekruteren om het expeditiemateriaal te dragen en vermoeide Europeanen in hangmatten te vervoeren.

Na zijn terugkeer uit Congo en de uitbraak van de Eerste Wereldoorlog werd Hutereau opgeroepen door het Belgisch leger. Hij sneuvelde op 24 november 1914 nabij St.-George. Postuum verscheen nog Histoire des peuplades de l’Uele et de l’Ubangi (1927), een historische ‘inleiding’ van meer dan 300 bladzijden tot een meer uitgebreide studie over het noorden van Congo, die echter nooit zou verschijnen.

http://www.africamuseum.be/collections/browsecollections/humansciences/display_group?languageid=3&groupid=350&order=9
De foto's: http://www.africamuseum.be/collections/browsecollections/humansciences/display_group_items?languageid=3&groupid=350
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 12:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

24 november 1914 - Oprichting van de Nederlandsche Overzee Trust Maatschappij (NOT), mede als gevolg van de in augustus 1914 uitgebroken Eerste Wereldoorlog en de hierdoor steeds slechter wordende handelsbetrekkingen. De NOT wil de garantie geven dat de voor Nederland bestemde goederen louter en alleen voor binnenlands gebruik bestemd zijn en dus niet kunnen worden aangemerkt als contrabande (goederen bestemd voor de vijand). Hierbij werd besloten dat de uitvoerende commissie onder voorzitterschap van de heer C.J.K. van Aalst (directeur van de Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij) komt te staan. Het kantoor van de NOT is gevestigd in de Parkstraat te Den Haag. Na het uitbreken van de Eerste Wereldoorlog komt de Nederlandse koopvaardijvloot voor grote problemen te staan. Zo worden passages en orders voor bevrachting geannuleerd, terwijl het ladingaanbod in Nederlands-Indie, maar ook in Zuid-Amerika overvloedig blijkt te zijn. Verder ontstaat groot gebrek aan bunkerkolen. Ook kunnen Nederlandse (neutrale) schepen door geallieerde oorlogsschepen worden aangehouden en zelfs gedwongen worden om hun lading in Engeland of Frankrijk te ontschepen.

Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Ned. koopvaardij in de eerste oorlogsmaanden van 1914' in: 'DBW' jrg. 54 nr. 3 (1999)

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=11&d=24
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

24 November 1915 - Between 24 and 27 November the troops at Anzac were ordered not to fire on the Turks unless they were attacked or threatened. This so-called ‘Silent Stunt’ was to help deceive the enemy into thinking that a silence did not necessarily mean withdrawal.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/november-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bedřich Hrozný and the Hattusa tablets

The Hittites were an ancient Indo-European people, speaking a language of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family. They were part of a larger movement of Indo-Europeans in the 30th century BCE and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa on the Central Anatolian plateau ca. the 18th century BCE.

Although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 20th century BCE. Hittite weapons were made from bronze; iron was so rare and precious that it was employed only as prestige goods. The Hittites were also famous for their skill in building and using chariots. These chariots gave them a military superiority as illustrated on a plate from Carchemish.

The Hittites used cuneiform letters. Archaeological expeditions have discovered entire sets of royal archives in cuneiform tablets, written either in Akkadian, the diplomatic language of the time, or in the various dialects of the Hittite confederation.

The language of the Hattusa tablets was eventually deciphered by a Czech linguist, Bedřich Hrozný (1879-1952), who on 24 November, 1915 announced his results in a lecture at the Near Eastern Society of Berlin. His book about his discovery was printed in Leipzig in 1917, under the title 'The Language of the Hittites; Its Structure and Its Membership in the Indo-Germanic Linguistic Family'.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_TYWD7UqCIg
Zie ook http://wn.com/language_family
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Nov 2010 15:57, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eine englische Niederlage in Mesopotamien
London, 24. November. (Meldung des Reuterschen Bureaus.)

Das indische Amt teilt mit: Britische Truppen eroberten nach einem heftigen Gefechte, welches den ganzen Tag dauerte, am Montag die türkische Stellung bei Ktesiphon, achtzehn Meilen von Bagdad. Sie nahmen 800 Mann gefangen und erbeuteten viele Waffen und Ausrüstungsgegenstände. Die Engländer verloren 2000 Mann an Toten und Verwundeten. In der Nacht vom 23. auf den 24. November wurden Gegenangriffe der Türken erfolgreich zurückgeschlagen. Die Engländer mußten sich jedoch heute wegen Wassermangels zum Flusse zurückziehen, der drei oder vier Meilen unterhalb der eroberten Stellungen liegt.



http://www.stahlgewitter.com/15_11_24.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Document - “Taken Ill In ANZAC” - AIF Medical Case Sheet, 24 November 1915



During July, around 1400 men per week were evacuated from ANZAC for medical treatment. Nearly three quarters of them were due to sickness, not wounds.

http://zhour.net/doc08.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gabriel Cornelius Ritter von Max (1840–1915)

Beschreibung:deutscher Maler
Geburts-/Todesdatum: 23. August 1840(1840-08-23) 24. November 1915(1915-11-24)


"Monkeys as Judges of Art", 1889

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Datei:Gabriel_Cornelius_von_Max,_1840-1915,_Monkeys_as_Judges_of_Art,_1889.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 15:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Staffordshire's Territorials and the Assault on the Hohenzollern Redoubt

2679 Private Stephen Lounds came from Tipton and served with "B" Company of the 1/6th South Staffords. In a letter written on 6th May 1915, he had tried to reassure his relatives and friends at home:

"Lily, I have just heard off Albert that your mother is worrying herself to death over us but tell her it goes hard with us when we here that they am put so much about but try and cheer her up as you know that someone as got to come and save there country and it was in our heart to join for true so tell her from me she as got two good lads who are fighting for there country and that they are in good health and hearty."

A cousin of Private Lounds, 16238 Private David Richards, who served with the 2nd South Staffords, is also commemorated on the memorial. He was killed when the Germans detonated a mine under his battalion's positions at Gibson Crater, near Cuinchy, on 24th November 1915. No trace of Private Richards, who was aged 17, could be found following the explosion.

http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/terriers5.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

12th Battalion The Manchester Regiment – War Diary

20/11/1915 - Reserve at OUDERDOM
24/11/1915 - Rest camp at BUSSEBOOM
5/12/1915 - In Reserve near YPRES

http://www.themanchesters.org/12th%20WD.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tuckett, Philip Samuel (1884 - 1916)

(...) The Tucketts' youngest brother, Philip Samuel (1884-1916), was the fourth member of the family involved in providing communications at the battle front. Born on 1 November 1884 at Violet Town, he was a survey hand on the construction of the transcontinental railway before enlisting in the A.I.F. in Perth on 3 January 1916. Promoted sergeant, he embarked with the 3rd Pioneer Battalion in June for training in England. Arriving in France, he was allotted to the 49th Battalion; two days after being commissioned second lieutenant, he was killed by shell-fire while inspecting telephone lines at Flers on 24 November 1916. His brother Lewis witnessed his burial at Bull's Road Military cemetery. (...)

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120716b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Service record of an executed officer: Eric Skeffington Poole

Eric Poole was born in Nova Scotia, Canada on 20 January 1885. His service record in WO 339/35077 shows that he gained his first military experience in the 63rd Regiment of the Halifax Rifles, with whom he served for two years between 1903 and 1905. The Poole family arrived in England at some stage between 1905 and the outbreak of the First World War, settling in Guildford, Surrey.

In October 1914, Poole joined the Honourable Artillery Company, where he worked as a driver (in 'B Battery') for the next seven months. His Territorial Force attestation form reveals that he earned a commission as a temporary second lieutenant in the 14th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment in May 1915. A year later, Poole was transferred to serve in France with the 11th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment, shortly before it was due to go into action at the Battle of the Somme.

Shell shock

According to the medical history sheet compiled for Poole's general court martial in November 1916 (WO 71/1027), he suffered 'shell shock' after being hit by clods of earth distributed by an enemy shell during fighting on the Somme on 7 July 1916. After a period of recuperation, Poole was returned to duty with his battalion at the end of August. He was soon placed in charge of 'C Company' platoon at Martinpuich near Albert.

According to his own testimony at his trial, the shell-shock injury caused Poole to 'at times get confused and... have great difficulty in making up my mind'. It was in this condition that he wandered away from his platoon on 5 October 1916, during a move into the frontline trenches at Flers.

Poole was apprehended by the military police two days later and arrested on 10 October. In early November, it was decided to try Poole by general court martial for deserting 'when on active service'.

The court martial

At Poole's trial, held in the town of Poperinghe on 24 November 1916, the prosecution called six witnesses. It was variously noted that Poole's 'nerves seemed rather shaken' and that he had confessed to feeling 'damned bad' on the morning of 5 October.

Two men spoke in Poole's defence, including an RAMC officer who argued that the 'mental condition' of the accused had precluded him from intentionally deserting his company. In his own testimony, Poole outlined his recent medical problems and confessed that he had been unaware of 'the seriousness of not going to the front line on Oct 5th'.

Despite defence pleas, however, the five-man court found Poole guilty of desertion and sentenced him to 'death by being shot'. This verdict was confirmed by Sir Douglas Haig on 6 December 1916, three days after a medical board sent to examine Poole concluded that 'he was of sound mind and capable of appreciating the nature and quality of his actions'.

Poole was executed by firing squad in Poperinghe town hall on 10 December 1916. He was buried in the town's military cemetery.

First officer to be executed

Eric Poole was the first British army officer to be sentenced to death and executed during the First World War. Despite the abundant evidence that he was medically unfit to command a platoon as a result of the shell shock, Poole seems to have been at least partially a victim of a political decision. In his diary entry of 6 December 1914 (in WO 256/14), Haig wrote disingenuously that 'it is... highly important that all ranks should realise the law is the same for an officer as a private'.

Poole's fate aroused little fuss back in Britain, where his family were understandably anxious to avoid publicity - particularly because his father was seriously ill at the time. The War Office, equally wary of adverse publicity, agreed that Poole's name would not appear in the casualty lists published in British newspapers, and that no information about the circumstances of his death would be made public.



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/people/poole.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (24-11-1917)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1917/1124
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

24 november 1917 - “Op maandag 26 november a.s. kunnen op het distributiebureau brandstoffen worden aangevraagd van 10 tot 11 uur voormiddag. Steenkool zal worden verstrekt op woensdag 28 november van 8 tot 12 uur voormiddag aan de oude brouwerij op Looveren en anthraciet op denzelfden dag des namiddags tot 4 uur aan het pakhuis, dorp. De Brandstoffen Commissie, voorzitter W.C.J. Mensen.” (Baarle’s Nieuws en Advertentieblad)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=190&Itemid=47
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Muslim Policy of Soviet Goverment (1917-1945)

After the revolution of October 1917 Soviet government declared a policy on the rights of different nations of Russia. This policy was published on the 24th November 1917. The policy accepted equal rights of all nations of Russia, rights of autonomy and rights of forming independent states, separated from Russia. (...)

http://www.witness-pioneer.org/vil/Books/SH_CA/chapter_5.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLIV, Issue 14463, 24 November 1917





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19171124.2.19.11
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diaries and Letters - Letters from Aleksey in Exile in English and Russian

Aleksei Nikolaevich to Ania Vyrubova
24 November 1917

I remember you often and am very sad. I remember your little house. We cut wood in the daytime for our baths. The days pass very quickly. Greetings to all.

Aleksei Nikolaevich to Pyotr Petrov

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/palace/alekseyexile.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 24 November 1917.

Valkenswaard. Groote brand. 23 Nov. Heden morgen circa 6 uur werd door de militairen alarm geblazen en tegelijkertijd hoorde men de brandklok. Eenieder liep naar buiten en hoorde men allerwege brand roepen. Spoedig ontwaarde men dat de sigarenfabriek van de firma Hoekx en Maas in lichte laaie stond. Door den militairen overste werden spoedig maatregelen genomen. De vlammen namen zeer snel toe, doch door de ijverige militairen was spoedig een groote hoeveelheid tabak enz. in veiligheid gebracht. De brandspuit was ook spoedig ter plaatse, zoodat de aangrenzende gebouwen gespaard bleven, terwijl de fabriek geheel uitbrandde.
Door bovengenoemde firma zullen maatregelen genomen worden om het geheele personeel, omvattende 150 arbeiders(sters) weder spoedig aan het werk te doen gaan.
Oorzaak van den brand onbekend. Assurantie dekt de schade.

- De alhier heerschende mazelen nemen nog steeds toe. Gelukkig echter zijn nog geen sterfgevallen te betreuren. Laten wij hopen, dat het hierbij mag blijven.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy



Field Marshal Julian Hedworth George Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy GCB GCMG MVO (11 September 1862 – 6 June 1935) was a British Army officer who served as Governor General of Canada, the 12th since Canadian Confederation.

(...) In June 1917, and holding the temporary rank of general, Byng took command of Britain's largest army, the Third Army, until the cessation of hostilities and, with those troops, conducted at the Battle of Cambrai the first surprise attack using tanks. This was later considered a key turning point in the war and Byng was honoured on 24 November 1917 by having his temporary rank of general made substantive, as well as being made a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in the 1919 New Year's honours.

http://www.answers.com/topic/george-byng
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Elgar and the best known war poem
3 November 2009

Sir Edward Elgar set what is probably the best-known war poem to music, as part of his Spirit of England suite.

He used three poems by Laurence Binyon, including For The Fallen - which contains the famous lines "We will remember them".

The poem was first published in The Times in September 1914 - Laurence Binyon later went on to work as a medical orderly.

The Spirit of England was premiered in 1917, a year before the end of the war.

Laurence Binyon's wrote For The Fallen in the first year of the war, and part of the poem forms the centrepiece of Remembrance Day services:

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.


Binyon had worked at the British Museum, and, according to The Elgar Society, his head of department, Sir Sidney Colvin, was a good friend of Elgar's and suggested using three poems for a war requiem.

The finished work was played at The Royal Albert Hall, on 24 November 1917, a year before the end of the war.

The Binyon family have connections to Worcester, buying Henwick Grove, then on the outskirts of the city, in 1861.

Laurence Binyon stayed at the house many times - it was later sold to the city council for a nominal sum.

This generosity helped in the founding of the Worcester Teacher Training College, that later became the University of Worcester.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/local/herefordandworcester/hi/people_and_places/history/newsid_8339000/8339718.stm
Zie ook http://www.elgar.org/3spirit.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 16:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Woodrow Wilson and the 19th Amendment
The National Women's Party "Night of Terror" November 1917


On November 15, 1917, thirty-three women’s rights activists, arrested for picketing in front of the White House, were transferred to the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia. These courageous suffragettes suffered unspeakable brutalities that included beatings, humiliation, forced-feeding, and trauma. This became the National Women’s Party’s “Night of Terror.” Media publicity of the sordid event, according to New York Times coverage, helped persuade President Woodrow Wilson, a long-time opponent of women’s suffrage, to support the 19th Amendment. (...)

The National Women’s Party began picketing in front of the White House in January 1917. Their banners asked “How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty?” Although 12 western states already permitted women to vote, the suffragettes sought passage of a Constitutional Amendment that expanded the right to all women. In July 1917, District of Columbia police arrested the protesters on the charge of “obstructing sidewalk traffic.” Thirty-three of these women would be sent to Occoquan.

Their incarceration began on November 15th, the “Night of Terror.” Forty prison guards literally threw the women into cells. Lucy Burns was beaten and her hands were chained to the cell bars above her head. Dora Lewis was knocked out. Alice Cosu suffered a heart attack. In the ensuring days, the women were given worm-infested food while a glass of water was a “privilege.” According to a November 25, 1917 New York Times article, the women were “deliberately terrorized” and warned not to talk about their experiences.

On November 24, 1917, a federal judge ordered the release of most of the women. Referring to three women prisoners, the judge stated that “further confinement would result in their deaths.” One of the women mistreated was 73. Speaking on behalf of his wife, Dr. John Winters Brannan, President of the Board of Trustees of Bellevue Hospital in New York, gave a riveting account of the humiliations and brutalities endured by the women.

http://www.suite101.com/content/woodrow-wilson-and-the-19th-amendment-a192861
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Rosa Luxemburg - Letters to Sophie Liebknecht

Breslau, Nov. 24, 1917

You are mistaken in thinking that I have a prejudice against modern poets. About fifteen years ago I read Dehmel[27] with pleasure. A prose piece of his – I cannot remember it very clearly, At the Deathbed of a beloved Wife, or some such title — charmed me. I still know Arno Holz’s[28] Phantasus by heart. I used to be very fond of Johann Schlaf’s[29] Frühling. Then I broke away from these new loves, and returned to Goethe and Möricke. I don’t understand Hoffmannsthal, and I know nothing of George.[30] It is true that in all of them I take somewhat amiss the combination of perfect form with the lack of a grand and noble philosophy. This cleavage between form and substance produces in me an impression of vacancy, so that the beauty of form becomes a positive irritant. As a rule they give wonderful portrayals of mood. But human beings are other things besides mood.

Sonichka, the evenings are magical now, like those of spring. I go down into the courtyard at four o’clock. Twilight has already begun, so that hideous prospect is veiled in a mysterious obscurity. The sky shines with a clear blue light, and in it floats the silvery moon. Every day at this time hundreds of rooks fly across the yard in a scattered flock, passing high in the air on their way back from the fields to the rookery where they spend the night. They fly with an easy stroke of wing, uttering a strange call, very different from the sharp cawing one hears when they are on hunt for food. The honk-coating call is muted, and somewhat throaty. When a number of them caw like this, one after another, it suggests to my mind the picture of little tinkling balls of metal which they are throwing from one to the other in the air. They are exchanging notes concerning the day’s happenings. These rooks seem to me so full of grave importance, when I watch them evening after evening as they trace their accustomed homeward path, that I feel quite a veneration for them and continue to gaze after them till the last one has vanished. Then I wander up and down in the darkness, watching the prisoners who are still busily at work in the yard as they flit to and fro like vague shadows. I rejoice that I am myself invisible, so completely alone, so free with my reveries and the stolen greetings that pass between me and the rooks – and the mellow air, with its suggestion of springtime, is so sweet to me. Then I see some of the prisoners bearing heavy pots (the soup for supper). All form up in two files, so that ten couples march into the building. I bring up the rear. In the courtyard and in the workshops the lights are gradually extinguished. As soon as I have gone in, the yard door is locked and bolted behind me – the day is ended. Notwithstanding my sorrow at the loss of Hans, I feel so calm. I am living in a world of fancy in which he is still alive. I often throw a smile to him when I think of him.

Farewell, Sonichka. I look forward so to your coming. Write soon, by the official route to begin with, and in the other way when you get a chance.

My love.
Your Rosa

Footnotes
[27] Richard Dehmel. German poet, born 1863, died 1921.
[28] German poet and dramatist, born 1863.
[29] German author, born 1862.
[30] Stephan George, contemporary German poet, described by some of his admirers as the greatest of all living poets.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1917/11/24.htm
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Address from the Yugoslav National Council to the Regent of Serbia, 24 November 1918

Sent from the Council at Zagreb on 24 November 1918 and delivered at Belgrade to the Regent of Serbia on 1 December 1918

The National Council desires that a national representation should be established by agreement with the National Council and the popular representatives of the Kingdom of Serbia, and that the Government should be made responsible, according to modern parliamentary principles, to this representation, which would sit in permanence until the Constituent.

For the same reasons the former administrative and autonomous institutions would remain in vigour. In this period of transition it is in our opinion necessary to create the conditions for a definite organization of one unitary State.

With this end in view, the Government should prepare the Constituent, which, according to the proposal of the National Council, would be elected on the basis of secret, universal, and proportional suffrage, and convoked at latest six months after the conclusion of peace.

At this historic moment, when we appear before your Royal Highness as representatives of all the Yugoslav territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, we are profoundly grieved to observe that large portions of our national soil are occupied by the troops of the Kingdom of Italy, which is allied with the Entente Powers, with whom we desire to live in friendly relations.

But we cannot recognize any contract, not even that of London [the Treaty of April 1915], by virtue of which, in violation of the principle of nationalities, we should be obliged to surrender part of our nation to other States.

We draw your Royal Highness's attention to the fact that the Italian occupation far exceeds the limits and regions provided even by the clauses of the armistice, which was concluded with the Commander in Chief of the former Austro-Hungarian Army long after these territories had been declared an independent and integral portion of the State of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. Of this we will furnish proofs to the Government of your Royal Highness.

In full conscience we express our hope that your Royal Highness, with our whole nation, will endeavour to secure that the final frontiers of our State shall be drawn in conformity with our ethnographic frontiers and with the principles put forward by President Wilson and the other Entente Powers.

Long live his Majesty King Peter! Long live your Royal Highness! Long live the nation of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes! Long live free and united Yugoslavia!

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VII, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/greaterserbia_yugoslavnatcouncil.htm
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Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 24 november 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Turkije en Duitschland

BERLIJN, 23 November. (Part.) De Turksche kolonie te Berlijn heeft in het Berliner Tageblatt een oproep geplaatst omtrent hen, die rechtstreeks voor de ramp verantwoordelijk zijn, welke het Turksche volk heeft getroffen. Zoo even zijn ze naar Duitschland gevlucht in de hoop, hun gerechte straf te ontgaan. Het zijn Talaat, Enver, Dzjemal, Ismail Nazim, Behed-Sjakir e.a. De Turksche regeering heeft een vervolging tegen hen ingesteld op aanklacht, de Armeensche moordpartijen aangesticht en staatsgelden verduisterd te hebben. Deswege verlangt ze van de Duitsche regeering uitlevering. Daarop volgt een uitvoerige toelichting.

Het Tageblatt merkt dienaangaande op, dat Talaat, Enver en medestanders het Duitsche volk altijd een goed hart hebben toegedragen. Daarom vindt het blad 't de plicht van een jonge demokratie het recht van asyl hoog te houden.

De Armeensche gruwelen, waarover men de openbare meening in Duitschland helaas niet voldoende kon inlichten, behooren tot de schandelijkste en afschuwelijkste gebeurtenissen van den nieuwen tijd, maar in de eerste plaats moet volkomen overtuigend bewezen worden, dat de naar Berlijn gevluchte Turken tot deze gruwelen den stoot gegeven hebben of daaraan meegedaan hebben. Tot zoo lang hebben ze als politieke vervolgden aanspraak op bescherming.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-24-11-1918.html
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VI Lenin: Speech On Red Officers’ Day November 24, 1918[1]

(Thunderous applause, singing of the “Internationale".) Greetings on behalf of the People’s Commissars. Whenever 1 think about the tasks of our army and Red officers, I recall something that happened in,a train on Finnish Railways not so long ago.

I noticed that the passengers were smiling at something an old Finnish woman was saying, so I asked someone to translate her words. She was comparing the revolutiouary soldiers to the old soldiers and saying that the former protected the poor whereas the latter used to protect the interests of the bourgeoisie and the landowners. “ Formerly the poor man had to pay heavily for every stick of wood he took without permission,” the old woman said. “ But when you meet a soldier in the woods nowadays he’ll even give you a hand with your bundle of sticks. You don’t have to fear the man with the gun any more,” she said.

l think it would be hard to imagine any better tribute to the Red Army than that.

Most of the old officers were the spoiled and depraved darling sons of capitalists, who had nothing in common with the private soldier. So in building our new army now, we must draw our officers solely from among the people. Only Red officers will have any respect among the soldiers and be able to strengthen socialism in our army. Such an army will be invincible.

Endnotes
[1] Red Officers’ Day was appointed for the purpose of popularising the cause of training officers for the Red Army. On November 24, 1918, at 2. p. m., military cadets paraded on Red Square, from where they marched to Sovetskaya Square to be greeted by Lenin from the balcony of the Moscow Soviet building.


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1918/nov/24.htm
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Letter from Karl Abraham to Sigmund Freud, November 24, 1918

Allenstein
24 November 1918

Dear Professor,

I do not know whether you have received the letter I wrote several weeks ago. I am writing again today to give my agreement to the draft1 you sent me. I could scarcely propose changes or additions. I shall only express the hope that circumstances will soon enable us to make use of the fund.

We often talk about Vienna and all of you, but have no idea of how you are, not even whether you are staying in Vienna or whether you are suffering hardship. If it comes to a union between Germany-Austria and the Reich, I very much hope for easier contact between us in the future. Here in Allenstein the revolution took its course swiftly and bloodlessly. We have no reason to complain of the present order; on the contrary, we may feel satisfied if everything goes on developing so smoothly. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0384a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SM U-139

SM U-139 was the lead ship of her class, one of the submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) in World War I. She was commissioned on 18 May 1918 under the command of Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière, who named the submarine Korvettenkapitän Schweiger, after Walther Schwieger, who had sunk the RMS Lusitania in 1915. She only sailed on one war patrol, during which she sunk 5 small ships. U-139 surrendered to France on 24 November 1918 and shortly afterwards became French submarine Halbronn (until 24 July 1935 when she was broken up).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SM_U-139

Type U 139 - U-Cruisers and Merchant U-boats class



http://www.uboat.net/wwi/types/index.html?type=U+139
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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British politician, who served as Prime Minister of United Kingdom (1916–1922).

What is our task? To make Britain a fit country for heroes to live in.
-Speech in Wolverhampton (24 November 1918)

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/David_Lloyd_George
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WRNS



On 11 November 1918 The King sent a message of thanks to the Royal Navy, the Mercantile Marine and the Fleet Auxiliaries in which he said, 'I wish to express my praise and thankfulness to THE OFFICERS, MEN, AND WOMEN OF THE ROYAL NAVY & MARINES.'

A service to commemorate the inauguration of the WRNS was held at St. Martin-in-the-Fields on 24 November 1918.

http://www.thewrens.com/history/1917-19.htm
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From a letter written by Raymond Poincare, President of the French Republic 1913-20, to the King of Montenegro on 24 November 1918

France has not forgotten the bravery with which Montenegro on the call of Your Majesty, rose in the defence of its independence; she knows what the people of Montenegro have endured, thus she takes interest in, how much it is possible for her, to help them.

As regards the French troops called upon to occupy provisionally the territory of Your Kingdom, respectful of established institutions, they will apply themselves to maintain order, by assisting to the best of their ability the population, so as to prepare the re-establishment of normal life, which was deeply disturbed by the painful trials resulting from the enemy's occupation.

http://www.montenegro.org/quotes.html
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U-Boats grounded Falmouth, 1921



Two German U-Boats grounded near Falmouth in 1921. The one nearer to the camera is UB 86, a UB III-class submarine that was commissioned on 10 November 1917, and made five patrols during the First World War (the hull number is still visible). It was surrendered to Great Britain on 24 November 1918. It was broken up in situ near Falmouth after 1921 after grounding, together with UB 97, UB 106, UB 112, UB 128, and UC 92. The original texts tells that these U-Boats were washed ashore after having been sunk during the war (like U 118 at Hastings in 1919), but the lack of deck guns and periscopes shows that these boats were on the way to the breakers.

Original text: "A most remarkable post-war incident was the washing up on the rocks at Falmouth, England, of two German U-boats. They were cast up but a few feet apart; both had been sunk during the war."

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U-Boats_grounded_Falmouth_1921_HD-SN-99-02368.JPEG
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The March of the 2nd Division, A.E.F., including the 4th Brigade of Marines, from the Meuse to the Rhine, 17 November to 13 December, 1918

2nd DIVISION (REGULAR) AEF: SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE
November 23, 1918 to November 24, 1918


CONFIDENTIAL - Not to be taken into front line trenches.

2nd DIVISION (REGULAR) AEF.
Second Section, G. S.
No. 128

SUMMARY OF INTELLIGENCE
November 23, 1918 to November 24, 1918, 10 h. to 10 h.

I. GENERAL IMPRESSION OF THE DAY:
This division continued its march towards the enemy's country and halted for the night and is holding the general line REISDORF - BEAUFORT - BERDORF on the Rhenish-Prussian-Luxembourg frontier with the enemy occupying the opposite bank of the SAUER River. The inhabitants of Luxembourg continue to show in numerous ways, their friendship towards us.

II. ENEMY ORDER OF BATTLE:
2 German Prisoners of War (Alsatians), 2nd Batter;y and Headquarters Detachment, 67th Regt. Field Artillery, attached to the 51st Division, entered our line near ETTELBRUCK the morning of November 23rd. Between Nov. 12th and Nov. 21st enemy troops passed through LAROCHETTE, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, on their way towards TREVES and COBLENZ, BITBURG and COLOGNE, GERMANY. The column was made up of Bavarian, Prussian, Wurtemberg and Baden Units, many of which were intermingled one with the other; but the following were recognized: (long list of German units).

III. ENEMY MOVEMENTS:
The last of the enemy to pass through LAROCHETTE was at 18h. Nov. 21st. Between Nov. 12th and Nov. 21st, columns of troops passed through LAROCHETTE going towards TREVES-COBLENZ and BITBOURG-COLOGNE.

IV. ENEMY MORALE:
The morale of the above troops is reported on the whole to be good and their horses and equipment in fair condition.

V. STATE OF THE HORSES, MATERIAL, ETC:
See statement under paragraph IV.

VI. CONDUCT OF THE ENEMY:
Enemy's march discipline appears to be good. There are no complaints from the inhabitants regarding misconduct of the enemy.

VII. OBSERVATION OF THE ARMISTICE:
No violation of the Armistice has been discovered.

VIII. POPULATION OF THE NEWLY OCCUPIED TERRITORY:
The villages and towns of our present area are all decorated with American, French and Luxembourg flags in welcome of our arrival. The people continue to show their real friendship for the American Army by many acts of individual kindness and offers of hospitality.

The territory through which we have marched is in good sanitary condition, roads excellent and the health of the people good. There is constant complaint from the people of the scarcity of food but it is believed they have all the necessities.

R.S. KEYSER
Major, Marines
A. C. of S., G-2

DIVISION INFORMATION BULLETIN, 2ND DIVISION Nov. 24, 1918.
Interrogation of 2 German Prisoners of War


2 German Prisoners of War, from the 67th Regt. Field Art., belonging to the 51st Division, entered our lines near ETTELBRUCK this morning (Nov.23rd). The Regiment bivouaced 6 kilometers from WILTZ during the night, Nov. 21-22nd, and started out in the morning at 9 o'clock, Nov. 22nd, for HORSHEID, where they arrived at 8 o'clock in the evening. Here they left the regiment and entered our lines as above stated. The prisoners claim to be Alsatians but they do not speak French. They had received their discharge on the 20th and had been told, that as soon as they reached the German border, they would receive a railroad ticket and allowed to go home, but yesterday morning the officers had come to them and said that they would not be allowed to go; that only the Rhinelanders would be allowed to go home. At the same time the officers had also asked of the soldiers, if they were in favor of and would take up arms either for the new or old government. For this reason this morning they decided to run away from the regiment. They also stated that none of the troops had any desire to fight any more and they had overheard many of them say: "Let the Americans and French come to Berlin and farther if they want to, we do not want to fight." As the German border is reached by the troops the congestion on the roads are getting worse, which the prisoners attribute to the fact that the troops are being assembled on the other side of the border. Stricter discipline has been enforced during the last few days and all the soldiers have been ordered to carry their arms and ammunition. The horses are well fed and in good condition but the regiment has been reduced to 6 batteries instead of 9, the other 3 batteries having been distributed between the other regiments.

DIVISION INFORMATION BULLETIN, 2ND DIVISION Nov. 24, 1918.
Interrogation of the Mayor of LAROCHETTE


The Mayor of LAROCHETTE, in an interview with the Commanding General of the 2nd Division, gave the following explanation that tends to clear up the conflicting reports that have been received regarding the morale and discipline of the German army since the signing of the Armistice. The Mayor is quite a prominent citizen of Luxembourg, intelligent and extremely pro-Allied in his sentiments and French in his culture. He explained that for several days after the Armistice, all railroad trains returning from the front were packed with German soldiers, who had quit their commands and were returning home. All passenger and freight trains were loaded with them, and in some cases, they had taken entire possession of the train and were directing its movement. The stations, and particularly the ones in Luxembourg, were the scenes of much disorder. Officers had no control over the men, those who were on the trains or at the stations were disrespectfully treated. While he had heard of cases of assaults made upon officers, he had no knowledge of specific cases. He had, however, knowledge that officers had been compelled to remove their insignia of rank and were openly disobeyed by their solders. Pillaging the military stores was common. He estimated that there passed through Luxembourg 100,000 of the enemy in this demoralized condition. When the general retreat began, the troops that marched through on the roads were not at all disorganized but on the contrary, showed very good discipline and were well under control of their officers.

http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/marchy12.html, http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/marchy27.html, http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/marchy13.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 24, 1918 Western Union Telegram

Received at Beaver Dam, Wis.
108 So Spring St.

6AU A Cable Psny

France 10

Thomas Lawrence

Beaver Dam Wis

Well got a Boche yesterday love

Lawrence

441PM Nov 24th

Curator: This telegram was actually sent by Mortimer on November 11, 1918. The long delay was likely caused by the sheer volume of communications transmitted to the U.S. with the enactment of the Armistice and general cessation of hostilities.

http://eyesofthearmy.dva.state.wi.us/blog1.php/november-24-1918-western-union-telegram
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 20:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PATERNO IAM DIU - ENCYCLICAL OF POPE BENEDICT XV ON THE CHILDREN OF CENTRAL EUROPE TO THE PATRIARCHS, PRIMATES, ARCHBISHOPS, BISHOPS, AND OTHER ORDINARIES IN PEACE AND COMMUNION WITH THE HOLY SEE
Given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the 24th of November, in the year 1919, in the sixth of Our Pontificate.

Venerable Brethren,
Health and Apostolic Benediction.

It was the expectation and hope of Our paternal heart that, once the terrible conflict was at an end and the spirit of Christian charity restored, the regions desolated by famine and misery, especially in Central Europe, might little by little improve their condition, thanks to the united efforts of all good men. But this Our hope has not been realized by events. As a matter of fact, information reaches Us from all sides that those populous regions are deprived of food and clothing to a degree beyond all imagination, so that a most lamentable decay of health is the result among the less hardy, and especially among the children. This their misfortune afflicts Our heart all the more as they are altogether innocent and even ignorant of the sanguinary conflict which has desolated almost the whole world; and, moreover, they represent the germs of the future generations, which cannot but feel the effects of their debilitation.

2. Nevertheless, Our distress has been somewhat relieved by learning that men of good will have banded themselves in societies in order to "save the children." We have not hesitated to approve and confirm with Our authority, as was fitting, this noble plan. Indeed, it corresponds with the grave duty of affection which We feel towards that tender age which is most dear to our Divine Redeemer, and which has least strength to bear and suffer ills. In fact, We had done this formerly. You will remember that at no distant date we endeavoured with Our means to succour the little children in Belgium who were in extremity of hunger and of misery, and recommended them to the public charity of Catholics. The generosity of the latter was such that in great part it was owing to it that it was possible to provide for the necessities of so many innocent children and to preserve their life and health. In fact, as soon as We had addressed Our exhortation for this noble purpose to the Episcopate of the United States of America, Our desires were generously met by the widest correspondence. We record this happy result today, not only to pay the tribute of Our praise to men worthy of being remembered in the annals of Christian charity, but also by Our voice and authority to invite the Bishops of the whole world to take steps in order to carry into effect Our proposal, and for this purpose to employ all their prestige with their flocks. With the approach of the season of Christmas, commemorating the birth of Our Lord Jesus Christ, our thoughts spontaneously fly to the poor little children, especially in Central Europe, who are most cruelly feeling the wants of the necessities of life; and We embrace this tender age with all the more solicitude inasmuch as it more exactly recalls the image of the Divine Infant supporting for love of men in the cave at Bethlehem the rigour of winter and the want of all things. No other circumstance could be more opportune than this to induce Us to solicit for innocent children the charity and pity of Christians and of all who do not despair of the salvation of the human race.

3. Wherefore, Venerable Brethren, with the purpose of attaining in your respective dioceses the object of which We have spoken, We direct that on next December 28, the feast of the Holy Innocents, you should order public prayers and gather the alms of the faithful. In order to help on a larger scale so many poor children in this-most noble competition of charity, in addition to money it will be necessary to gather food, medicines and clothing, all of which are so greatly wanting in these regions. We need not delay in explaining how such offerings may be conveniently divided and forwarded to their destination. This task may be confided to the committees which have been formed for this object, and may provide for it in any manner whatsoever.

4. Finally, We trust that the exhortation which, moved by duty of that universal fatherhood which God has confided to Us, We have made, although addressed principally to Catholics, may be benevolently listened to by all who have the sentiments of humanity. Moreover, in order to afford an example to others, notwithstanding the continual requests for help which reach Us from all sides, We have determined, to the extent of Our means, to contribute to the relief of these poor children the sum of 100,000 lire.

5. Meanwhile, as an auspice of the happy results which We expect from your benevolence, We impart with all affection to you, Venerable Brethren, and to your clergy and people, the Apostolic Benediction.

BENEDICT XV

http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xv/encyclicals/documents/hf_ben-xv_enc_24111919_paterno-iam-diu_en.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 20:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

24 November 1919 → Commons Sitting

ROYAL DUTCH COMPANY.


HC Deb 24 November 1919 vol 121 c1417 1417

Mr. G. TERRELL asked the President of the Board of Trade whether the Regulation under the Defence, of the Realm Act commandeering the Royal Dutch Company shares could now be withdrawn and dealings permitted in the London market?

Mr. CHAMBERLAIN Yes, Sir. I am giving directions that this shall be done without waiting for the date of the termination of the War to be declared, when the Regulation would automatically lapse.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1919/nov/24/royal-dutch-company
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 20:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paris Peace Talks of 1919 - Part 3 - Independent Macedonia Proposals

MINUTES OF THE SIXTY -SECOND MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE - 24th November, 1919.

The Committee examined the revised draft of the treaty between Greece and Bulgaria for the reciprocal emigration of minorities prepared by the Drafting Committee. The Chairman reported that the Drafting Committee considered that the signature of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers to the Emigration Convention was not essential, but that provision could be made for the record in an annex of a formal decision of the Supreme Council that these clauses were approved by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers in accordance with Article 56 of the Bulgarian Treaty. ..

The Committee was informed that the Supreme Council had on November 19 adopted its report regarding the submission of the proposed Treaty to the Bulgarian Delegation, and that the draft agreement had accordingly been communicated to that Delegation with the request that a reply be made within forty-eight hours. ..

The Committee also had before it the reply from the Serb-Croat- Slovene Delegation, dated November 23, expressing readiness to sign the Minorities Treaty. ..

D. H. Miller, My Diary, pp. 535-550; Recueil, pp. 351-361.

(1) The question of Macedonia at the Paris Peace Conference was considered solely by the Committee on New States and for the Protection of Minorities, which began working in May, 1919. In the solution of that question a number, of proposals were considered, which can be seen in the minutes of the Committee, excerpts of which we quote in the following text.
(2) Allen Leeper, head of the Press Office of the British Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference.
(3) Jules Laroche, delegate in the French Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference and member of the Committee on New States.
(4) The further text relates to the Rumanian Treaty.
(5) The previous text relates to the discussion on the Austrian Treaty
(6) Colonel Castoldi, member of the Italian Delegation at the Committee on New States.
(7) The Ukraine was indicated in the Western maps of the 14th to 16th centuries as Ruthenia. Similarly also: Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in the countries of the former monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
(8) The preceding text relates to the discussion on the Greek Treaty and the privileges of Mount Athos.
(9) De Celigny, member of the French Delegation at the Committee on New States.
(10) The preceding text relates to the Treaties with Czechoslovakia and Romania, the Austrian Note on Minorities and he Serb-Croat-Slovene Treaty.
(11) The following text relates to the different modifications of the drafts proposed.
(12) The following text relates to the given modifications and the way this draft Treaty was worked out.
(13) Elefterios Veniselos, President of the Greek Government, head of the Greek Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference.
(14) Then follows the supplement, "Terms of Agreement'.
(15) F. Berthelot, Chairman of the Committee on New States.

http://www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov52.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Nov 2010 20:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Torpedo Boat Crew / Torpedo Division 1. Photographed at Wilhelmshaven, original postcard dated 24th November 1914.



http://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/torpedo_boats1.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 9:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Motie van trouw - 24 november 1918

Na de Eerste Wereldoorlog wordt de roep om verandering en zelfs revolutie in Nederland steeds sterker. De opkomst van de socialistische beweging onder leiding van dominee Troelstra was voor veel katholieken een bron van ongerustheid. Het idee om de monarchie te vervangen door een republiek was voor Weertenaren aanleiding om op 24 november 1918 een grote manifestatie op de Markt te organiseren. Een aantal verenigingen in Weert spraken hun trouw uit aan de Koningin en haar regering.

Tekst Motie van trouw
Je Maintiendrai - Motie van trouw
De katholieke en christelijke georganiseerden te Weert op zondag 24 november bij een spreken hun verontwaardiging uit over de revolutionaire woelingen deezer dagen en betuigen hun oprechte hulde en onwankelbare trouw aan H.M. de Koningin en Hare Regeering.

Landbouwbond st. Isidorus
J. Ares, voorzitter
G. Scheurs , secretaris

R.K. Werkliedenvereeniging st. Martinus
A. Rooijmans, voorzitter
J. Veldhoven, secretaris

R.K. Middenstands-vereeniging st Laurentius
F. v.d. Velde, voorzitter
W. Breukers 2de secretaris



Bron: Gemeentearchief Weert. http://www.museumweert.nl/Weert-en-Weertenaren/Lang-leve-de-koningin
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 9:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tank in Trafalgar Square - 24 November 1917

Foto... https://www.europeana.eu/portal/nl/record/2024904/photography_ProvidedCHO_TopFoto_co_uk_EU058356.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Nebi Samwil, 18-24 November 1917

The battle of Nebi Samwil, 17-24 November 1917, was the first British attempt to capture Jerusalem during their 1917 invasion of Palestine. The battle of Junction Station (13-14 November) had effectively split the Turkish army in Palestine in two by capturing the railway west of Jerusalem. General Allenby’s British army was west of Jerusalem. The British held the coastal plan towards Jaffa, the railway up to and beyond Ramleh and Ludd, and had advanced east toward Latron.

The Turkish Eighth Army was on the coast plain north of the British position, and could rely on the main railway for supplies. The Seventh Army was at Jerusalem. All supplies had to come over poor roads from Nablus, forty miles to the north, or from Amman, on the Hejaz Railway, fifth miles to the east.

Allenby had originally planned to halt after capturing Junction Station, to allow his logistical support to catch up with the rapid advance from Gaza. Instead, faced with an apparently demoralised opponent he decided to make an attempt to capture Jerusalem. It was always going to be a difficult operation. The Judean Mountains provided the Turks with a series of ideal defensive positions, while the British lacked good maps, and were moving ever further away from their own railhead at Deir Sineid, just to the north east of Gaza.

Allenby’s first plan was for a cavalry advance into the hill. The infantry of XXI corps, with the help of the Anzac Mounted Division and the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade would hold the coastal plains, while the Australian Cavalry Division and the Yeomanry Mounted Division would mount the attack.

This plan lasted for one day. On 18 November the cavalry attacked Latron, the most westerly of the Turkish positions, and suffered heavily. In response Allenby modified his plan to use two infantry divisions in the attack on Jerusalem, with the cavalry in support. It was hoped to swing around Jerusalem to the north, cutting the road to Nablus. This would force the Turks to abandon Jerusalem before they were entirely cut off.

The new attack began on 19 November. On the same day the winter rains began. Transport was difficult on the narrow roads of the area, and artillery support was limited or non-existent away from those roads. Some progress was made, and on 21 November the British captured the hill of Nebi Samwil, north west of Jerusalem, from where they could see into Jerusalem. This was the furthest point reached. Attempts to make progress east towards the Nablus road all failed, and on 24 November General Allenby called off the offensive.

Although Jerusalem had not been captured, this first offensive had pushed the Turkish line back from Latron, nearly fifteen miles outside Jerusalem, to Nebi Samwil, only five miles to the north west of the city. Over the next two weeks the Turks launched a series of counterattacks against the British positions, causing a number of small scale crisis along the line north west of Jerusalem, but at heavy cost. When the British launched their next attack on Jerusalem (7-9 December) the city fell surprisingly easily.

Rickard, J (3 September 2007), Battle of Nebi Samwil, 18-24 November 1917 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_nebi_samwil.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 9:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Dawn, France, 24 November 1916

Image: a view of a shell-damaged farmhouse and farmyard with a dark cloudy sky above. The roofs of the farm buildings have been heavily damaged, including the distinctive roof of an oast house.

Tekening... http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/309
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Queensland - Parliamentary Debates - Legislative Assembly - FRIDAY, 24 NOVEMBER 1916

Heerlijk leesvoer... http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/hansard/1916/1916_11_24_A.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 24 Nov 2017 10:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Placard for the Daily Chronicle : "Heroic Nurses of the Britannic (Special Cable)

Foto... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daily_Chronicle_Heroic_nurses_of_the_Britannic_24_Nov_1916.jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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