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15 juni

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2006 5:53    Onderwerp: 15 juni Reageer met quote

1917 U.S. Congress passes Espionage Act

On this day in 1917, some two months after America’s formal entrance into World War I against Germany, the United States Congress passes the Espionage Act.

Enforced largely by A. Mitchell Palmer, the United States attorney general under President Woodrow Wilson, the Espionage Act essentially made it a crime for any person to convey information intended to interfere with the U.S. armed forces’ prosecution of the war effort or to promote the success of the country’s enemies. Anyone found guilty of such acts would be subject to a fine of $10,000 and a prison sentence of 20 years.

The Espionage Act was reinforced by the Sedition Act of the following year, which imposed similarly harsh penalties on anyone found guilty of making false statements that interfered with the prosecution of the war; insulting or abusing the U.S. government, the flag, the Constitution or the military; agitating against the production of necessary war materials; or advocating, teaching or defending any of these acts. Both pieces of legislation were aimed at socialists, pacifists and other anti-war activists during World War I and were used to punishing effect in the years immediately following the war, during a period characterized by the fear of communist influence and communist infiltration into American society that became known as the first Red Scare (a second would occur later, during the 1940s and 1950s, associated largely with Senator Joseph McCarthy). Palmer—a former pacifist whose views on civil rights radically changed once he assumed the attorney general’s office during the Red Scare—and his right-hand man, J. Edgar Hoover, liberally employed the Espionage and Sedition Acts to persecute left-wing political figures.

One of the most famous activists arrested during this period, labor leader Eugene V. Debs, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for a speech he made in 1918 in Canton, Ohio, criticizing the Espionage Act. Debs appealed the decision, and the case eventually reached the U.S. Supreme Court, where the court upheld his conviction. Though Debs’ sentence was commuted in 1921 when the Sedition Act was repealed by Congress, major portions of the Espionage Act remain part of United States law to the present day.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2006 6:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Rückzug der Russen in Galizien und Bessarabien
Luftbombardement von Karlsruhe
"U 14" verloren
Aufhebung der Sonderbehandlung für deutsche U-Boots-Gefangene
Von den Kämpfen in Kamerun

1916
Russische Angriffe gegen die Armee Bothmer abgewiesen
Vergebliche russische Angriffe bei Czernowitz
Die deutschen und die englischen Verluste in der Seeschlacht vor dem Skagerrak
Die Wirtschaftskonferenz der Alliierten
Friedensreden im schweizerischen Nationalrat

1917
15. Juni
Englische Angriffe im Artois abgeschlagen
Englische Angriffe bei Loos und Bullecourt gescheitert
Erfolg eines deutschen Marineflugzeugs vor der Themsemündung
Das Marineluftschiff "L 43" vermisst
Die Mittelmächte und Russland
Heftiges Geschützfeuer an der Kärntner Front

1918
Gegenangriffe bei Villers-Cotterets abgewiesen
10000 Mann russische Banden bei Taganrog vernichtet
Der Kaiser über den Krieg mit England
Feier des 30jährigen Regierungsjubiläums im Großen Hauptquartier
Dank des Kaisers an den Kronprinzen
Die Torpedierung des "President Lincoln"
Gesteigertes Geschützfeuer an der Südwestfront

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events in the Gallipoli Campaign

15 June 1915
Corporal Alec Riley, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division, wrote from Helles:

We itched and scratched until we were tired with scratching. We turned our clothes inside out, and ran the burning ends of cigarettes up the seams. The crack of a frizzled louse was one of the sweetest sounds we knew.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/june-july-1915.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daughters of St. Paul

Founded by Fr. Alberione on 15 June 1915 and approved by the Holy See on 15 March 1953. Their mission is to "evangelize with all the modern means of communications".

They are present in all five continents. The Daughters of St. Paul make use of magazines, books, cinema, radio, television, discs, casette tapes, compact disc, internet and all technological means of communication to speak of all human realities from a Christian perspective.

The models of the mission are: Master Jesus, Saint Paul, the apostle who became one to all, and Mary Queen of Apostles who welcomed Christ in her virginity to give him as mother to all men and women.

Evangeliseren met cassettebandjes, want zó "modern" zijn ze... http://www.stpauls.it/istit/ing/fsp.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Second Action of Givenchy, 15-16 June 1915

Joffre was planning to renew the attack in Artois on 2 June 1915; the British would need to support by making a flank attack near Haisnes or Loos. However the Loos battlefield was dominated from the high ground near Violaines north of the La Bassée Canal. It was decided that IV Corps under Henry Rawlinson would attack on the front between Chapelle St Roch and Rue d'Ouvert on 11 June, with the intention of seizing these heights. The action was postponed as it was learned that the French would not be ready for their attack until the 16 June.

The 7th Division moved into the Givenchy sector shortly after their costly involvement in the Aubers Ridge and Festubert assaults. It proved to be a very difficult line to hold, being subject to constant mining, sniping and trench mortar activity. A decision was taken to make a large-scale attack on the German front between a point East of Givenchy to just South of Rue d'Ouvert, to capture some key points. 21st Brigade was selected to lead the attack, with two battalions in the front wave. On their right, the Canadians were to attack a strong point called 'Dorchester' and forming a defensive flank near the Canal; on their left, the 51st (Highland) Division would move on Rue d'Ouvert from the north. To maintain contact between the main thrusts, the 1st Grenadier Guards of 20th Brigade would advance over the flat ground towards the village. After several postponements, the attack was fixed for the evening of 15 June 1915.

A complete and costly failure
The infantry assault was preceded by 48 hours slow bombardment, aimed at destroying trenches and wire; a heavier 12-hour fire would precede the actual attack. Great attention was paid to air co-operation and observation, largely to ensure economy of use of ammunition. The infantry advanced at 5.58pm, just after the miners of the 176th Tunnelling Company RE had blown a 3000-lb mine under the Duck's Bill position.

The German line in this area was formidable, with very deep trenches and dugouts that the weak British bombardment (not helped by poor observation through long grass and poor light) barely touched. Even before the artillery fire lifted, once the Germans saw the 2nd Yorkshires and 2nd Wiltshires advancing they manned the parapets. Machine gun and rifle fire cut down most of the attacking troops. The attack was a complete failure, despite the enormous bravery and dash of the 21st Brigade. The 2nd Yorks, on the right in front of Givenchy, lost heavily in the crossing of no man's land: of A Company's 5 officers and 170 men who attacked, only 40 were not hit. Of B Company, 1 officer and 31 men escaped, of 5 and 180 who went over. Even so, some men of A Coy under 2/Lt. Belcher got into the German front line, but without support could not hold on. Captain Raley and most of his B Coy were hit before they got away from their own parapet. On the left of the Yorks advance, a small party under 2/Lt. Lloyd Jones bombed their way towards the mine crater down a sunken lane, but eventually every one of this party became a casualty. The 2nd Wiltshires did not even get as far as the Yorks, only a few men getting even as far as 50 yards from the German line in front of Chapelle St. Roch. The Canadians and Highlanders suffered similarly.

7th Divisional HQ initially ordered 21st Brigade to renew the attack, with the 2nd Bedfords to strengthen the Wilts and Yorks. However, once it was realised that these battalions were in no condition to continue, they were relieved by the 2nd Royal Scots Fusiliers and Bedfords respectively. The relief took a long time due to congestion in the communication, support and front trenches, and new attack was postponed from 1.30am to 5.30am and then to the afternoon of the 16 June.

If at first you don't succeed ...
The pattern of the second attack was similar. The Canadians would once again go for 'Dorchester', the RSF on the Brigade right and the Bedfords on the left. Brigade machine guns at Windy Corner and Le Plantin would give supporting indirect fire. The attack began at 4.45pm, after a thin British barrage throughout the day which ceased two minutes before the infantry attack, giving the Germans plenty of time once again to man the parapet. The results were the same: more than half of the attacking companies of the RSF were down before they even got through their own wire. In one section, five out of thirteen men were hit while still in their own trench. The CO, Major J.H.W.Pollard, called off the attack immediately. The Bedfords did slightly better, some men getting into the crater and inflicted heavy losses on the Germans there. Those would could do so crawled back during the night, and reported that during the attack the Germans had been two or three deep in their front trench, with those at the back acting as loaders for those firing.

The price of the "learning curve"
22nd Brigade relieved the 21st at Givenchy during the night of 17/18 June. The loss of over 1000 officers and men, mostly regulars (many returned from wounds received at Ypres) and ex-regular reservists, was to prove costly both in the effort of assimilating and training new drafts and in subsequent fighting. 21st Brigade had now been over the top three times in four months, following their reconstruction after the devastation of First Ypres only five months before. The burden was falling heavily indeed on the regular army Divisions; the learning curve was proving to be all too expensive.

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat12.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vera Brittain, Letter, 15 June 1915
in Violets from the Trenches: Selections from the Letters of Roland Leighton and Vera Brittain

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/brittain-vera-letter-15-june-1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Jun 2010 20:25, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LONDON GAZETTE, 15 JUNE, 1915

War Office, 15th June, 1915.

REGULAR FORCES.

The undermentioned Gentleman Cadets, from the Royal Military College, to be Second Lieutenants. Dated 16th June, 1915: —

CAVALRY.

1st Life Guards.
Patrick Stirling Guthrie.

3rd {Prince of Wales' s) Dragoon Guards.
Montagu Vines Thornely Mott.
Leslie Frank Bo water.

6th Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers).
Gerald Kingston Mooney.

2nd Dragoons (Royal Scots Greys).
Alexander Wardrop Euing Crawford.
Hemry John Cator.

Lees verder op http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29193/pages/5759/page.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poster, 15 June 1916

Louvain Posters: German-occupied Belgium during the First World War

http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/colins-leon-poster-15-june-1916
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

U.S. Espionage Act, 15 June 1917

Reproduced below is a portion of the text of the Espionage Act passed by the U.S. Congress on 15 June, some two months following America's declaration of war with Germany.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled

Title I - ESPIONAGE

Section 1
That:

(a) whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defence with intent or reason to believe that the information to be obtained is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, goes upon, enters, flies over, or otherwise obtains information, concerning any vessel, aircraft, work of defence, navy yard, naval station, submarine base, coaling station, fort, battery, torpedo station, dockyard, canal, railroad, arsenal, camp, factory, mine, telegraph, telephone, wireless, or signal station, building, office, or other place connected with the national defence, owned or constructed, or in progress of construction by the United States or under the control or the United States, or of any of its officers or agents, or within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, or any place in which any vessel, aircraft, arms, munitions, or other materials or instruments for use in time of war are being made, prepared, repaired. or stored, under any contract or agreement with the United States, or with any person on behalf of the United States, or otherwise on behalf of the United States, or any prohibited place within the meaning of section six of this title; or

(b) whoever for the purpose aforesaid, and with like intent or reason to believe, copies, takes, makes, or obtains, or attempts, or induces or aids another to copy, take, make, or obtain, any sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, document, writing or note of anything connected with the national defence; or

(c) whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, receives or obtains or agrees or attempts or induces or aids another to receive or obtain from any other person, or from any source whatever, any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note, of anything connected with the national defence, knowing or having reason to believe, at the time he receives or obtains, or agrees or attempts or induces or aids another to receive or obtain it, that it has been or will be obtained, taken, made or disposed of by any person contrary to the provisions of this title; or

(d) whoever, lawfully or unlawfully having possession of, access to, control over, or being entrusted with any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defence, wilfully communicates or transmits or attempts to communicate or transmit the same and fails to deliver it on demand to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; or

(e) whoever, being entrusted with or having lawful possession or control of any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, note, or information, relating to the national defence, through gross negligence permits the same to be removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or to be list, stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000, or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both.

Section 2
Whoever, with intent or reason to believe that it is to be used to the injury or the United States or to the advantage of a foreign nation, communicated, delivers, or transmits, or attempts to, or aids, or induces another to, communicate, deliver or transmit, to any foreign government, or to any faction or party or military or naval force within a foreign country, whether recognized or unrecognized by the United States, or to any representative, officer, agent, employee, subject, or citizen thereof, either directly or indirectly and document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blue print, plan, map, model, note, instrument, appliance, or information relating to the national defence, shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than twenty years: Provided, That whoever shall violate the provisions of subsection:

(a) of this section in time of war shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for not more than thirty years; and

(b) whoever, in time of war, with intent that the same shall be communicated to the enemy, shall collect, record, publish or communicate, or attempt to elicit any information with respect to the movement, numbers, description, condition, or disposition of any of the armed forces, ships, aircraft, or war materials of the United States, or with respect to the plans or conduct, or supposed plans or conduct of any naval of military operations, or with respect to any works or measures undertaken for or connected with, or intended for the fortification of any place, or any other information relating to the public defence, which might be useful to the enemy, shall be punished by death or by imprisonment for not more than thirty years.

Section 3
Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall wilfully make or convey false reports or false statements with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is at war, shall wilfully cause or attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the military or naval forces of the United States, or shall wilfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States, to the injury of the service or of the United States, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

Section 4
If two or more persons conspire to violate the provisions of section two or three of this title, and one or more of such persons does any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be punished as in said sections provided in the case of the doing of the act the accomplishment of which is the object of such conspiracy. Except as above provided conspiracies to commit offences under this title shall be punished as provided by section thirty-seven of the Act to codify, revise, and amend the penal laws of the United States approved March fourth, nineteen hundred and nine.

Section 5
Whoever harbours or conceals any person who he knows, or has reasonable grounds to believe or suspect, has committed, or is about to commit, an offence under this title shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both.

Section 6
The President in time of war or in case of national emergency may by proclamation designate any place other than those set forth in subsection:

(a) of section one hereof in which anything for the use of the Army or Navy is being prepared or constructed or stored as a prohibited place for the purpose of this title: Provided, That he shall determine that information with respect thereto would be prejudicial to the national defence.

Section 7
Nothing contained in this title shall be deemed to limit the jurisdiction of the general courts-martial, military commissions, or naval courts-martial under sections thirteen hundred and forty-two, thirteen hundred and forty-three, and sixteen hundred and twenty-four of the Revised Statutes as amended.

Section 8
The provisions of this title shall extend to all Territories, possessions, and places subject to the jurisdiction of the United States whether or not contiguous thereto, and offences under this title, when committed upon the high seas or elsewhere within the admiralty and maritime jurisdiction of the United States and outside the territorial limits thereof shall be punishable hereunder.

Section 9
The Act entitles "An Act to prevent the disclosure of national defence secrets," approved March third, nineteen hundred and eleven, is hereby repealed.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/espionageact.htm
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Espionage_Act_of_1917
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

'The Novel as a Propandanda Agent' - by Vigilant , Westralian Worker, 15 June 1917

The Novel as a Propaganda Agent by Vigilant

Narrative and conversation have ever been adopted, by men who desire to deliver great messages to the many, as the best literary vehicles for their thoughts. Plato’s “Republic,” which is, in fact, a treatise on communism, takes the latter form, and Sir Thomas More’s “Utopia” (No Place), in the former. More relates the experiences of a traveller in a country where production is carried on communal lines. “Republic” was written more than 2000, and “Utopia” 400 years ago. Neither work should be overlooked by the Labor propagandist, who would be well informed. Both are published in the Everyman Library (1/9 from Perth booksellers).
Neither however, meets the definition of a novel – in fact, the novel is a comparatively recent literary discovery. In 1740 Samuel Richardson, a country gentleman who is described as a “model of the proprieties,” wrote a series of model letters, for a “polite letter-writing” text-book. He conceived the plan of stringing the letters together into a plot, a story, and so produced the first novel. “Wowserish” is the only name for the tale, and possibly the form would not have survived had not Henry Fielding, who was by no means a wowser, written a smart satire upon Richardson’s “Pamela.” Pamela was a very good girl, who met the inevitable very bad man, but whose virtue proved unapproachable. Fielding’s “Joseph Andrews” tells of a very good boy, of unassailable virtue, who survives fearful temptations thrown in his way by ladies smitten with passion for him.

The pungent irony, screamingly comical situations, and shrewd delineations of character that the production displayed all combined to ensure an immense success for the new literary form. Unless the reader is prepared to stomach vulgarity capable of bringing the rouge of shame to the cheek of Ezekiel, one cannot recommend Fielding’s novels, but their importance in the history of English literature commands attention.

The fact that the novel deals with possible, or at least feasible events, set in a background of historic fact and real institutions, give it it’s great value as a propaganda medium. We students of economic, social and sex problems desire to understand certain views, aspects and phenomena of society. Treatises such as Marx’s “Capital”. Henry George’s “Progress and Poverty,” or Edward Carpenter’s “Love’s Coming of Age,” are a brilliant achievement of abstract reasoning and such work must form the basis of our economic education. But if we end there, we become mere academician, quoters of Marxian texts, learned humbugs afflicted with mental ingrown toenails. On the other hand to mistake mere novel reading for study is to cultivate an inexact and lazy habit of mind.

It is possible, too, to fall under the moral domination of a particular action-writer, or even of a fictitious character, The soul has been defined as a “complex of emotions,” and an artificial complex of emotions, created by a novelist, might well function as a soul.

“Hereward the Wake,” “Buffalo Bill,” and “Sexton Blake” undoubtedly exert an influence, akin to personality, upon boys, while George Eliot’s Felix Holt, Dickens’s Sidney Carton (in the “Tale of Two Cities”), and Bernard Shaw’s John Tanner and Sandida must influence men and women in much the same way. Nor can it be argued that the personality is entirely that of the author, for authors themselves frequently fall under the domination of their own creations.

This may seem like a digression, but it helps our inquiry by showing the immense power for convincing wielded by the novelist.

To resume: - The treatise is an effort of abstract logic. It is theoretic. The novel is an attempt to prove by experiment. In studying physiology we form a theory concerning say, nerve machinery. We proceed to verify by obtaining a human body no longer required by its owner. We painfully unravel the nerve system. We use chemical stimulants, and electric current. We obtain certain results, and eventually uphold, modify, or abandon our tentative theory. In social science, we form a theory concerning say, sex relations.

No way of experimenting is possible save by watching the problem develop for the next hundred years. But the novelist adopts a subterfuge. We cannot take a real person and examine his “complex of emotions.” We have no units to measure by, no instruments capable of gauging the quantity, no reagents to reveal the quality of the various emotions that make up the “complex”. But we can create a fictitious complex, and watch it develop.
Thus H. G. Wells created a complex called Ann Veronica. He puts it together piece by piece in the first few chapters. Both he and the reader become thoroughly familiar with it – know just what it thinks and feels, what it may be expected to do. In fact, we lose our own personality and become this new creation, Ann Veronica. We are given a set of surroundings including other complexes less detailed in character. The breath of life is breathed into Ann’s mouth, and off she and we go.

But, you object, is Ann an impossible complex? Has Wells created a real woman, or has his over-fertile brain spawned a psychological monster? The answer cannot be absolute. You may disapprove of Ann, but if she drags you with her – if you become Ann – then her complex is not impossible – to you. Under given circumstances you would, in reality, become Ann. Some others may find the psychological strain too great. Wells’ solution of the puzzle will not do for them.

The power of the novelist rests, not so much in his literary ability as in his knowledge of man, his analytic faculties, his insight into motives and emotions. Dickens was neither so scholarly nor so fine a writer as Thackerary, but he was a greater novelist, because, to take the common expression, his characters “lived”. Everyone knows Peckaniff and Micawber. The terrible Madam Detrage can be visualised by everyone of us, nodding, counting, knitting, as one by the one the bloody trophies of Terror fall from the guillotine.

But, be not led astray. The novelist cannot be held excused from the obligation to write good English. Novel readers, unfortunately, are often satisfied if the ‘moral,’ or the story is there. Generally speaking, your novel writer who can’t write English isn’t to be trusted in his presentation of facts and indeed, his sentiment is usually of the gabby goody-goody order. Mistrust him.

Well, I set out to say something about novels of interest to the workers and I’ve hardly commenced. To tell truth, my muse of late has been away flirting with someone else. Tonight, she won’t stop whispering to me, tho she knows her column’s full.

So, despite her, we must be content with a prosy catalogue (mainly for beginners) of a few worth-while propagandist novels. H.G. Wells, in “Tono Bungay,” deals with the career of a patent-medicine humbug. His “World Set Free” combines in a remarkable way criticism of the social structure, and the scientific-magic factor so common in his earlier works. “Ann Veronica” should be compared with Grant Allen’s “Woman Who Did,” and Bernard Shaw’s “Unsocial Socialist.” But in fairness to Shaw read also his “Sanity of Art,” (an essay) before firing your revolver at a statute of Apollo. To “Felix Holt” and Kingsley’s “Alton Locke,” both stories of radical leaders, may be added. “The Conflict” by Graham Philips. Jack London’s “Iron Heel,” Bellamy’s “Looking Backward,” and Well’s “Sleeper Awakens,” are three attempts at forecast of the future – pessimistic, optimistic and fantastic, respectively.

Upton’s Sinclair’s “Jungle” comes very nearly under the ban on the count of indifferent literary value, but “The Metropolis” is much freer from blemish. But remember, - young propagandists, and recruits to the movement – one of the books you should make up your minds to read is Carlyle’s “French Revolution”. Carlyle understood better than anyone at his time, how much bread had to do with sentiment, and sentiment with revolution. Dickens’ “Tale of Two Cities,” may be read as a light introduction to the subject.

“VIGILANT”

http://john.curtin.edu.au/fitzgerald/collection/pen5.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 21:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Piave, 15-23 June 1918

Last Austrian offensive on the Italian front during the First World War. German troops had been withdrawn to the Western Front, and the Germans expected the Austrians to be able to at least hold their own against Italy now that they no longer had to fight the Russians. Unfortunately, the Austrians managed to recreate a two front war for themselves. Both Baron Svetozan Borojevic von Bojna, commanding on the Paive front, and Franz con Conrad, commanding on the Trentino front, demanded control of the great offensive, and a stupid compromise was reached whereby they both launched attacks simultaneously. It was almost impossible to move troops from one front to the other with any speed, while the Italians were fighting on interior lines and were easily able to move troops to respond to any threat. Not only that, the Austrian army by this point did not have the capacity to support two major campaigns, and so by splitting the attack, the Austrians doomed it from the start. Both attacks were launched on 15 June. Borojevic had some initial success, but Conrad's attack stalled from the start, allowing the Italian commander, Armando Diaz, to use his reserves to support the Piave front. Unable to gain reinforcements, Borojevic was forced to retreat back over the River Piave, and by the morning of 23 June was back where he had started, although at the cost of 150,000 men and of any effectiveness remaining in his army.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_piave.html

Conrad von Hotzendorf on the Battle of the Piave River, 14 June 1918

Soldiers!

For months and months, resisting victoriously amidst the glaciers and the snows, accomplishing faithfully your duty in the tempests of winter, you have looked down upon the sunny plain of Italy.

The time to go down into it has come. Like a whirlwind, you will overthrow the false and perjured ally of the past, as well as the friends she has called to her help. You will prove to the world that nobody can resist your heroism.

Your fathers, your grandfathers, and your ancestors, have fought and conquered the same enemy with the same spirit.

I am sure you will not fall below them, and even that you will rise above them. Heart and soul with you, I shall follow your movements, which will be an irresistible rush towards victory.

Confiding firmly in you, I cry to you: "Overthrow everything before you."

FIELD-MARSHAL CONRAD

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/piave_hotzendorf.htm

The Battle of the Piave River, 1918

The Battle of the Piave River comprised the last major Austro-Hungarian attack on the Italian Front and virtually heralded the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian army on the way to the dismantling of the empire.

The main assault, fought between 15-22 June 1918, was prompted by German demands upon their ally to launch an offensive across the Piave river - which was situated a bare few kilometres from key Italian cities such as Venice, Padua and Verona - now that the Russians had withdrawn from the war. It was also intended as a belated follow-up to the spectacularly successful combined German/Austro-Hungarian offensive at Caporetto the previous autumn.

However the Austro-Hungarian of June 1918 was quite different from the one that had triumphed at Caporetto eight months earlier. It was demoralised, equipment and other supplies were perilously low, and while apparently demonstrating superior numbers of divisions to their Italian counterparts individual unit strengths were notably weakened.

At the same time the Italian army had been the beneficiary of burgeoning Allied war munitions production. Furthermore, incoming Chief of Staff Armando Diaz had taken care to deploy adequate defences along the Piave.

However both Austro-Hungarian commanders on the spot - Boroevic and former Commander-in-Chief Conrad - were in favour of an attack along the Piave (Conrad much more so than Boroevic), although both (in a state of unhelpful rivalry) demanded significant reinforcements before an attack could commence.

This led to newly-installed Chief of Staff Arz von Straussenberg's decision to split forces equally between the two commanders, 58 divisions in total (against 57 Italian).

Although the Austro-Hungarians intended to advance in a pincer movement Straussenberg's decision to divide his forces meant that neither commander had sufficient strength in depth to achieve a knock-out blow. Straussenberg determined to open the attack with a direct assault on the river by Boroevic's forces, to be followed with an attack in the Trentino by Conrad.

Thus Boroevic opened the offensive with his Fifth and Sixth Armies on 10 June, crossing the Piave along the coast. His forces had advanced several kilometres in the face of heavy Italian counter-attacks before he was obliged to beat a retreat on 19 June.

However, re-crossing the rapids of the Piave proved problematic and enabled the Italians to attack Boroevic in the flank. By the time Boroevic had successfully re-crossed the river on 22 June his forces had suffered some 150,000 casualties.

Meanwhile Conrad's attacks along the Trentino from 15 June by his Tenth and Eleventh Armies, intended at the capture of Verona, proved of little effectiveness. Faced with strong counter-attacks by the Italian Fourth and Sixth Armies (which included British and French troops) the Austro-Hungarians suffered 40,000 casualties within a week.

The comprehensive failure of the offensive served merely to hasten the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian army, which effectively ceased to exist as a single cohesive force. Its dismantling was finalised by the Italians at the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in the autumn.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/piaveriver.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 21:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kate Richards O'Hare

Kate Richards O'Hare (1877-1948) was a prominent American Socialist anti-war activist during World War I.

As the editor of the National Rip-Saw, a socialist journal, O'Hare critiqued American society from a socialist perspective. After the outbreak of war in 1917, O'Hare led the Socialist Party's Committee on War and Militarism. Due to her anti-war activities, she was imprisoned by the government for violating the Espionage Act of 1917, but in 1920 was pardoned by President Warren Harding after a nationwide campaign to secure her release. While in prison, she met the anarchists Emma Goldman and Gabriella Segata Antolini, and worked with them to improve prison conditions.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kate_Richards_O'Hare

Excerpts from letter from Kate Richards O'Hare to "Sweethearts," 15 June 1919

June 15, 1919.

Dear Sweethearts:

Once again the longed for time has come to send a message to my loved ones, and in spite of the frightful heat and discomfort, I shall be happy in my slow task of penning my weekly letter. I suppose it is needless to say that the heat of the last few days has been something frightful. I know how hot it can be in St. Louis, but you at least can stay out of doors until night makes indoors bearable, but we are shut in our cells at six, still heated and sweaty with the long day's labor, and your imagination can supply the further details.

I am still fairly well, but beginning to feel the inevitable sense of weakness from the enervating effect of heat and lack of air. There are sixty women in the shop and seven half-windows, and they are placed at least ten feet above the floor and therefore useless as a means of ventilation. There are three very antiquated fans whose ancient and creaking joints sing an everlasting wailing song of protest, but they are all bunched over the matron's desk and the lower end of the rooms is absolutely without means of ventilation. The one full-sized window in the shop is right beside my machine and it is the only possible means of securing a direct current of air through the shop, but it is nailed down good and tight and the glass has been painted thickly over, making it utterly useless either for light or air. As a result we are forced to work all the time in the heart and glare of artificial light. Recently the foreman, who is not a bad sort of kid, chanced to be in a good humor and I asked him why the window had been made useless and suggested that the architect had evidently meant it to provide light and ventilation and asked him to have it opened. He consulted the shop matron and reported that it was impossible. When I insisted on a reason, he said that there was a legend that once upon a time a girl inmate had committed the heinous crime of smiling out of that window at a male inmate of the other side. Naturally, rampant virtue was outraged and from that day down to this, all women have been punished for that crime. The crime was committed years ago and the girl has long since gone, but a long procession of women have had starved lungs and injured eyesight because of that affront to propriety. It is amazing what an insatiable appetite for vengeance propriety has, for the end seems lost in the dimness of the future. I fear that some of these hot nights there will be nothing left of me but a pool of melted grease under my machine and that the representatives of the "land of the free" will be compelled to gather up the remains with a soup spoon and send it home to you in a milk bottle, but praise the Lord, your giddy young wife will be saved from snares and pitfalls of flirtation.

Aside from the effects of the heat and lack of air, I am quite well and my time is so fully occupied that the weeks go by very quickly. I can with difficulty realize that it was two months yesterday since prison doors closed on me and the "world was really made safe for democracy." They have been strange months, but valuable ones and packed with a thousand lessons, emotions and interests that could only come in this way. I have no regret for them and no bitterness towards those responsible, for I feel that I am serving the cause better here than outside and in addition, I am gathering material and data that will make it possible for me to make an effective fight for prison reforms.

* * *

…Tell Dr. Barnes that the books he sent are in danger of being worn out. It is amazing what an interest Hart's "Psychology of Insanity" has for the more intelligent women, and there is an amazing number of them here. Mr. Lovell sent me his copies of "Freud's Theories of Neurosis" and "Man's Unconscious Conflicts." I wonder if there is such a thing as a small medical dictionary? If any of my medical friends have such a thing, ask them to lend it to me. I am often at loss to explain technical terms. I wish Dr. White could be induced to rewrite his "Mechanism of Character Formation" in the simple, understandable style of Hart's books. I know of nothing that would be so valuable here, and for the inmates of all prisons. I would like a copy of Freud's "Psychopathology of Every Day Things." Wonder if any of our friends has it. I exhibit such a strange mental kink that so far I cannot explain. We sew a ticket in the back of every jacket. I always have one ticket left and have to go over my work to find the unfinished piece and it is invariably number twelve in my stack.

So many of the comrades are concerned over how Emma Goldman and I reconcile our differences. Of course, the differences exist. Emma is an anarchist and I am a political Socialist, and I pressure that the two theories are as far apart as the poles, but somehow theories don't seem very important here. The brutal, naked tragedies of life crush them out. When one lives with wrecked lives, broken hearts and sick souls, abstract theories somehow lose force. So far as Emma and I are concerned, the shades of Marx and Bakunine can rest in peace. All of our time and energy is consumed in feeding hungry stomachs and supporting faltering spirits. Instead of arguing theories, we discuss such vital matters as which has the greatest amount of nutriment, two pounds of peanut butter or one of the cow variety, at the same price. Instead of hurling anarchist texts at me Emma raps on the wall of the cell and says, "Get busy Kate, it's time to feed the monkeys, pass the food down the line." I think it would be a godsend if a lot of theoretical hair-splitters and hobby-riders went to prison; it might teach them some of the big, vital lessons of life.

It is three o'clock now and I suppose you are out at Chaminade with the boys. The others have just gone to chapel and I want to finish while quiet reigns. I am sacrificing my fresh air again today, rather than endure the spiritual nausea of the chapel services. You know I vowed that I would attend chapel regularly so that I need not lose my most valuable privilege, but I simply cannot do it. It is too much for even my placid temper. I have too much respect for the message of Jesus to have it made hateful and disgusting by coarseness and ignorant bigotry. If I could know in advance when the young priest is to officiate I would take advantage of the fact. He is not at all objectionable for he has the common sense to reduce his theology to the minimum and he is well bred, clean faced and shows some signs of spirituality.

I suppose you read "Joy among the Philistines" in the New Republic. It is a wonderful article and a clean, wholesome confession by Weyl, who is in that instance the spokesman for millions of Americans. I am enjoying the divine comedy of being behind prison bars while events absolutely and completely vindicate me. Surely the so-called Peace Treaty places us forever in the immortal roster of prophets. In the very near future a certain document will stand forth as quite as great as the Declaration of Independence. However, I would rather have less vindication for myself and more justice for war-cursed humanity. My intelligence told me all the time that there was nothing to hope for, but my heart clung to the hope of a miracle.

I must close now and rest for the girls will soon be back and there will be no quiet until the lights go out.

Love and kisses to my darlings.

KATE.

http://womhist.alexanderstreet.com/kro/doc008c.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 21:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Timeline of the Irish War of Independence

15 June 1920:Percival Lea-Wilson, a District Inspector in the R.I.C. who was stationed at Gorey was shot dead by the IRA outside his Gorey home on 15 June 1920, on the orders of Michael Collins.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Timeline_of_the_Irish_War_of_Independence
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

15 juni 1915 - Minister de Broqueville zette het licht op groen voor de oprichting van een militair telegraafstation omdat de Fransen plotseling sterk begonnen aan te dringen om het project in Baarle-Hertog toch verder te zetten. Zij wensten dat er naast het luisterstation ook een post voor radiogoniometrie werd geïnstalleerd. De Fransen leverden een complete goniometrische uitrusting en hadden zich er bovendien toe verbonden het personeel hiervoor op te leiden. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

15 juni 1915 - Bij een woordenwisse­ling met Nederlandse militairen had veldwachter Andreas Wouters uit zelfverdediging zijn revolver getrokken en vijf waar­schuwingsschoten in de lucht afgevuurd. De oorzaak van dit opstootje was het feit dat er een illegale kroeg, uitgebaat door Nederland­se militairen op het grond­gebied van Baarle-Hertog, werd gesloten na een klacht van de veldwachter bij de Nederlandse opperbevelhebber, gene­raal Snijders. (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=188:06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Generaal-Majoor Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski (1892-1967)

Generaal Stanisław Franciszek Sosabowski, een van de meest bekende soldaten in de recente Poolse militaire geschiedenis, werd geboren op 8 mei 1892 in Stanislawow, een stad die toen in Oostenrijk-Hongarije en heden ten dage in de Oekraïne ligt. In deze stad groeide hij op en volgde hij onderwijs op de basisschool en later op het Gymnasium. De vroege dood van zijn vader in 1904 bracht hem verantwoordelijkheden die aan zijn leeftijdsgenoten onbekend waren. (...)

In 1914 werd hij naar het Russische front gestuurd. Zijn vuurdoop was bij de stad Przemysl. Aan het front kreeg hij te maken met het dagelijkse soldatenleven: honger, kou en ontberingen. Deze tijd vormde zijn visie op militair leiderschap, een visie die in zijn hele diensttijd richtinggevend zou blijven. Hij was er van overtuigd dat een bevelhebber nooit meer van zijn ondergeschikten dient te eisen dan van zichzelf en dat een commandant een order eerst aan zichzelf dient voor te leggen.

Op 15 juni 1915, aan de rivier de Lesna, raakte Sosabowski door granaatscherven gewond aan zijn rechterknie. Hij kwam in het ziekenhuis te Lublin. Door deze verwonding kon hij zijn knie enkele jaren niet gebruiken. In 1917 trouwde Stanisław Sosabowski met Maria Tokarska. In datzelfde jaar werd hun zoon Stanisław Janusz geboren. Sosabowski had toen de rang van Sergeant I in het Oostenrijkse leger. Hij was meerdere malen gedecoreerd voor moed en dapperheid. Hij had niet de vereiste opleiding tot Oostenrijks reserve officier doorlopen. Toch werd hij op basis van zijn conduitestaat en zijn eerder behaalde diploma van scouting officier bevorderd tot Onderluitenant in het Oostenrijkse leger. In 1918 werd hij bevorderd tot Luitenant. Hij kwam in contact met veel Polen die dienst deden in het Oostenrijkse leger. Alsook met leden van de Poolse Militaire Organisatie onder bevel van de (toen nog) Majoor Seweryn Burhardt-Bukacki.

Alleen interessant voor 'Slag om Arnhem'-fanaten... http://www.sosabowski.com/dutchgeneralcv.html
Zie ook http://www.go2war2.nl/artikel/1410/Sosabowski-Stanislaw.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frederick William Campbell

Frederick William Campbell VC (1867 - June 19, 1915) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Details - He was 48 years old, and a lieutenant in the 1st (Western Ontario) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 15 June 1915 at Givenchy, France, Lieutenant Campbell took two machine-gun detachments forward and in face of heavy fire reached the German front line trench with one gun which he kept in action after nearly all his detachment had been killed or wounded. When the German counter-attack came, Lieutenant Campbell advanced his gun still further and by firing about 1,000 rounds succeeded in holding the enemy back, but was mortally wounded and died four days later.

Grave/memorial at Boulogne Eastern Cemetery, Plot II, Row A, Grave 24, Headstone.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Frederick_William_Campbell

Citation

For most conspicuous bravery on 15th June, 1915, during the action at Givenchy. Lt. Campbell took two machine-guns over the parapet, arrived at the German first line with one gun, and maintained his position there, under very heavy rifle, machine-gun and bomb fire, notwithstanding the fact that almost the whole of his detachment had then been killed or wounded. When our supply of bombs had become exhausted, this Officer advanced his gun still further to an exposed position, and, by firing about 1,000 rounds, succeeded in holding back the enemy's counter-attack. This very gallant Officer was subsequently wounded, and has since died.
—London Gazette, No. 29272, 20 August 1915

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William_Campbell
Zie ook http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=167874
Zie ook http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=10311432
Foto's: http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/virtualmem/photos&casualty=167874
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Duitse duikbootwapen in de Eerste Wereldoorlog

De zogenaamde ‘eingeschränkte U-Bootskrieg’ kreeg een voorlopige climax met de torpedering van de ‘Lusitania’ op 7 mei 1915 door de U20. Een week eerder was de U20 vanuit Emden uitgevaren met het bevel Engelse troepentransporten vanuit Liverpool te ondervangen. Op 7 mei en met slechts twee torpedo’s voer kapitein Walter Schwieger weer huiswaarts. Hij had te kampen met dichte mist en ruwe zee. In dit weer ontkwam een grote pantserkruiser. Om 14:20 uur ontdekte Schwieger iets voor de Ierse Zuidkust, iets wat leek op meerdere schepen getuige de ‘vier schoorstenen en de vele masten’. Het bleek echter één schip te zijn. Om 15:10 uur werd op 700 meter afstand een boegtorpedo afgevuurd. Het bronzen onding trof het betreffende schip aan stuurboord achter de brug. Schwieger beschrijft wat er daarna gebeurde als volgt: ‘ongewoon sterke detonatie, gevolgt door enorm grote rookwolken (…) er volgt een tweede explosie, alsof munitie de lucht ingaat.’

De oude ervaren voormalige stoomschip kapitein kijkt door zijn periscoop en leest de naam van het schip: ‘Lusitania’, en bemerkt dat de schoorstenen zwart zijn geverfd, dat de rederijtekens zijn overgeschilderd en dat het schip geen vlag voert. Schwieger vuurt geen tweede torpedo af. Hij kan het niet opbrengen en verwacht dat hulpbiedende schepen snel ter plekke zullen zijn.

De internationale pers viel over deze dramatische gebeurtenis heen.

Uit de, met name Britse kranten, komt de „onverhulde wens” dat de Amerikanen zich aan de kant van de Britten zullen scharen in de strijd tegen Duitsland. De Lusitania-kwestie voedde een sterk anti-Duits sentiment in de VS en vormde de aanzet tot de inmenging van dat land in de oorlog. ‘Aanzet’ is het juiste woord want Amerika reageerde pas op 15 mei met scherpe kritiek. Het kwam hierop neer dat de VS eisten dat de duikbootcampagne werd stopgezet, omdat de wijze waarop Duitsland dit wapen gebruikte in strijd zou zijn met de ‘lawful business’ van Amerikaanse burgers over zee of waar dan ook. Amerikaanse burgers hadden het volste recht om hun zaken uit te voeren zonder het risico te lopen hun leven te riskeren.

Bethmann Hollweg zwichtte voor de druk en besloot op 15 juni 1915 tot het verbieden van het torpederen van grote passagiersschepen, inclusief vijandelijke. Juist deze vijandelijke passagiersschepen werden gebruikt voor het vervoer van troepen en munitie.

Lees vooral verder op http://www.ssew.nl/duitse-duikbootwapen-eerste-wereldoorlog
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tweede Kamerverkiezingen 1917.

Aanleiding - Grondwetsherziening van 1917. Hiermee wordt het algemeen evenredig mannenkiesrecht ingevoerd, het publiek- en bijzonder onderwijs gelijkgesteld, en wordt met terugwerkende kracht het pensioen van kamerleden verhoogd.

Bijzonderheden - Onder het motto "laat zitten wat zit" werden de wijzigingen doorgevoerd. De 7 zittende partijen spraken af om geen tegenkandidaten aan te voeren in elkaars kiesdistricten. Tegenstanders van de Grondwetsherziening waren onder meer verenigd in de Actie tegen aanhangige Grondwetsherziening.

Uitslag - Alle Tweede Kamerleden behielden hun zetel. De verkiezingen werden gehouden op dinsdag 5 juni 1917. Toen werden 50 kamerleden herkozen. De stemming in de 50 kiesdistricten waar wel een tegenkandidaat op de lijst stond vond plaats op vrijdag 15 juni 1917. Alleen in Amsterdam leidde dit tot een herstemming, waar uiteindelijk het SDAP lid Adriaan Gerhard kon aanblijven. Oud-minister Samuel van Houten stond te Groningen als tegenkandidaat op de lijst.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tweede_Kamerverkiezingen_1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 22:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

15 juni 1917 - Het zeilschip 'Albertine Beatrice', op weg van Nederlands-Indië naar Nederland met 3.875 balen tabak, onder kapitein E. Meuleman, wordt bij de ingang van het Kanaal door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'U 82' getorpedeerd en met kanonvuur tot zinken gebracht. Bron: L.L. von Münching: 'De Ned. koopvaardij in WO I' in: 'DBW' jrg. 59 nr. 3 (2004)

http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=6&d=15
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karl Popper

De filosoof Karl Popper werd geboren in Wenen, Oostenrijk. Na het einde van de Eerste Wereldoorlog beschouwde Karl Popper zichzelf enkele maanden lang als communist. Een schietincident op 15 juni 1919, toen de politie het vuur opende op een menigte demonstranten, en daarbij twaalf arbeiders doodde en tachtig andere verwondde, maakte echter dat hij zich er voorgoed van afwendde, om vervolgens zijn leven lang een intellectuele strijd te voeren tegen communisme, nazisme en andere vormen van totalitair denken.

In 1937 ontvluchtte Popper en zijn vrouw hun geboorteland dat in de ban van het nationaal-socialisme was geraakt en trok naar Nieuw-Zeeland. Popper wist waarover hij schreef in 1943 (66 jaar geleden!) en het loont beslist de moeite om uit dit boek ook deze paragraaf in extenso te citeren:

‘Met deze formulering bedoel ik niet, bijvoorbeeld dat wij de uitspraken van onverdraagzame levenshoudingen altijd zouden moeten onderdrukken; zolang we ze kunnen tegengaan met rationele argumenten en ze ten aanzien van de bevolking onder controle kunnen houden, zou deze onderdrukking erg onverstandig zijn.

Maar we zouden het recht moeten opeisen om ze, indien nodig, zelfs met geweld te onderdrukken; want het kan gemakkelijk erop uitdraaien dat zij niet bereid zijn ons op het niveau van de redelijke argumentatie tegemoet te komen, maar integendeel beginnen met iedere argumentatie af te wijzen; zij kunnen hun volgelingen verbieden naar redelijke argumenten te luisteren, omdat ze zogezegd bedrieglijk zijn, en hen leren deze argumenten te beantwoorden door het gebruik van hun vuisten of wapens.

Daarom zouden we, in naam van de verdraagzaamheid, het recht moeten opeisen de overdraagzamen niet te tolereren. We zouden moeten vooropstellen dat iedere beweging die onverdraagzaamheid predikt, zichzelf buiten de wet plaatst, en we zouden de aansporing tot onverdraagzaamheid en vervolging als misdadig moeten beschouwen, net zoals we de aansporing tot moord, of ontvoering, of tot de terugkeer naar de slavenhandel, als misdadig zouden moeten beschouwen.’


http://brabosh.com/2009/06/17/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 15 Juni 1920.

Valkenswaard.

Drankbestrijding. Woensdag zal door de R. K. Drankbestrijdersvereeniging "St. Nicolaas" eene groote propagandavergadering gehouden worden in de zaal van den heer Swinnen alhier. Als spreker zal optreden de ZeerEerw. Pater Henricus uit Helmond. Onderwerp: Andermaal ten strijde. "Waartegen, Waarvoor, Waarmee".

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19201.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 23:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maurice Paléologue- An Ambassador's Memoirs

Thursday, June 15, 1916. - The Russians are engaged in a ceaseless advance on Tarnopol and Czernovitz; they have crossed the Strypa and the Dniester. The number of their prisoners has now reached 153,000.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/mpmemoirs/2_9.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 23:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mayse, Amos William (Will)

Letter

Date:June 15, 1916
To:Betty
From:Amos William Mayse

291494 C. Coy
No 12 Platoon
222nd Battl CEF
Camp Hughes

Dear Betty:-

Another line or two I don't know yet whether I shall be home on Saturday, my pass is in, but don't know if it has been approved or no. If I get it I shall be home sometime Saturday before noon, & shall be able to stay until Monday evening - so shall be able to have a nice time together we must get out a little with the kiddies. This is the busy life, I am up before 5 am & at it until after Lights-out it is generally about 11 P.M. before I am able to turn in.

Well dear the captain told me today that he was making me Sergeant, so I suppose I shall have the 3 stripes when I see you again - that will 13 or 14 dollars per month more than at present, you will get $ 25 separation instead of $ 20.�� & I shall get I think 30� per day increase.

They are beginning to reduce a good many of the various officer's Pte. etc to the ranks because they are not showing themselves efficient - I have nothing but commendation from the Colonel & my Company officers for my work sence I came here, so that from now on my lot will be a little more congenial. I certainly am not afraid on not making good. Another piece of good news you will find in the personal of the enclosed letter - Don't fail to write in this regard so that I can keep the Emerson people right after it

Received your letter sence I started this, am glad you have had the taps etc fixed, though they certainly charge some however that's the city - In case I forget when I come, I will tell you what I need to bring back with me - a mug for shaving - 2 soft towells - suit of pyjamas - fountain pen & ink. Am going to write a straight business letter to Emerson - you don't say anything about Mrs. Riley neither Mr. Findlay.

I do hope Billy is not hurt let the doctor see him if he is still complaining.

Harry Aylward is in a London Hospital & has been taken off the danger list poor boy he was pretty badly shot up. Mrs. Aylward's nephew (Maynard) has been seriously wounded also.

Well must close now again = this is the life - certainly a most strenuous one. Lots of love & kisses & hugs to my little Son & Daughter - also yourself dear. Good-Bye & God bless you sweetheart

Yours lovingly

Will

xxxxxxxxx Betty
xxxxxxxxx Shirley
xxxxxxxxx Billy

http://www.canadianletters.ca/letters.php?letterid=9482&docid=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Jun 2010 23:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

M.F.P. Tractor Biplane

The M.F.P. Tractor Biplane was built in 1916 by Polson Iron Works using unique steel construction method. Designed by Walter H. Phipps of the Steel Constructed Aeroplanes Co, NY. Constructed by the Polson Iron Works, Toronto, Canada. Three people formed the M.F.P company: J.B. Miller, Walter L. Fairchild, Walter H. Phipps

www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1916/1916%20-%200504.html
This is the first page of an article titled, "The M.F.P Tractor Biplane," published in "Flight", June 15, 1916, (page 504) and reproduced (in PDF format) on the site of Flightglobal.com The topic of this page is the construction and flights tests of model B 2 biplane constructed in steel by Polson Iron Works, designed by W.H. Phipps, using little or no welding. This page includes a front view (as above) and a rear view of the biplane.

www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1916/1916%20-%200505.html
Plan, side and front elevation to-scale drawings, the second page of the article "The M.F.P Tractor Biplane," published in "Flight", June 15, 1916, (page 505)

www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1916/1916%20-%200506.html
Three views showing the construction of the fuselage and main planes, the third page of the article "The M.F.P Tractor Biplane," published in "Flight", June 15, 1916, (page 506)

www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1916/1916%20-%200507.html
The fourth and last page of the article "The M.F.P Tractor Biplane," published in "Flight", June 15, 1916, (page 507), showing the biplane in flight, two three-quarter views of the plane, and specifications of models B2, C and D.

http://www.polsonironworks.com/Plane1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2010 17:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tandorini schreef :

15 juni.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2011 18:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remembering today Edward Brittain
Sherwood Foresters (Notts and Derby Regiment), Killed in Action at the Assagio Plateau on the Italian Front fighting the Austrian counter-offensive 15th June 1918, brother of Vera Brittain, the author of 'Testament of Youth'.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=164993
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Jun 2011 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Scottish, English and Italian Troops Deployed on the Plateau

The night of 14/15 June 1918 on the Asiago plateau was damp, with a thick mist forming in hollows and valleys
. At 3 am precisely Allied observers in mountain-top OPs saw hundreds of signal flares burst into life above the enemy trenches. This was immediately followed by twinkling pin-points of light on the slopes behind as masses of light and medium guns, many dragged forward from the northern valleys during the night, opened fire. Behind the northern ridges sudden flashes revealed the presence of heavier artillery pieces: Operation Radetzky had begun.

The [preliminary] Austrian barrage fell mainly on the Allied front line, but signals centres, ammunition dumps and road junctions received attention. The Granezza and Carriola bases were hit, and some shells even whistled over the escarpment to upset staff in the foothill supply dumps. The bombardment lasted for over four hours, and was followed by a massive infantry attack, launched from assembly areas just forward of the Austrian wire. The initial objectives, in the French and British sectors, were Granezza and Carriola, and the edge of the escarpment

The 23rd Division (Major-General Sir James Babington), cover[ed] a front of about 5,500 metres, had 68 and 70 Brigades in the front line and 69 Brigade in reserve. The situation facing the division was complicated. It was holding the line in preparation for the Allied offensive. . . Yet at the same time the division had to prepare for a heavy enemy bombardment, if not an attack. In view of this, and in accordance with current defense doctrine, the front line was only lightly manned. Unfortunately all battalions were seriously under-strength, so the front line was very lightly manned indeed. Apart from the ravages of 'flu', many officers, NCOs and men were absent on leave or attending courses. . .

During the battle the division [would be] attacked by elements of three k.u.k. divisions…The front line was manned by five British battalions. It was briefly breached in two places, but the k.u.k. attackers were quickly evicted and suffered horrendous losses. . . The right front battalion [Edward Brittain's unit], holding the San Sisto Ridge, was 11/Sherwood Foresters, 'The Men from the Greenwood', (Lieutenant-Colonel CE Hudson, DSO MC), with a frontage of about 1,000 metres.

Lees verder:
http://www.worldwar1.com/itafront/vbp.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Country diary 1918: meadow alive with colour and the sound of birdsong
Manchester Guardian, 15 June 1918

15 June 1918: Colour shimmered in the sun and seemed to pervade everything

Surrey - The morning air was so light that it hardly touched the tops of the tall poplars, yet it was strong enough to sway poppies in the wheat and make yellow charlock tremble slightly in a farther outfield. Colour shimmered in the sun and seemed to pervade everything; a sense of it came with the rich scent of hay, raked, cocked, waggoned, and pronged by young women, who did everything but shape the stack which now stands on a log foundation near the wood. There timber, mostly ash, was cleared early in the year; birds who had used it as a great grove flew aimlessly across; it then lay bare, a place of the dead, and itself a dead place. Now it is a green copse alive with song; finches twitter, a yellow-hammer perches on the five-barred gate which spans the cart road, foxgloves line the ditch bank. The young sprouted ash with hazel hushes make an underwood through which you must push your way, the open spaces are green with ferns, and in the evening, from birches which were left standing, a blackcap whistles a short but strong tune.
A hare sits in the dry meadow from which the grass has gone, and at sunset innumerable insects, with moths, flutter under trees near where the brambles are in flower and honey-suckles sweeten a slight wind.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/11/country-diary-meadow-alive-with-colour-and-birdsong-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Field Message, Captain Edward C. Fuller, 15 June 1918

Presumed final field message sent by Captain Edward C. Fuller, assigned to the 75th Company 6th Marine Regiment, to his Commanding Officer. Accounts differ as to how Captain Fuller was killed , however, records indicate he was killed in action on 12 June 1918 at the Battle of Belleau Wood, France.

"C.O. 1st Bn.
I reached open ground at end of center of woods, no indication of enemy.
Fuller".


12 of 15 juni? Vreemd verhaal... https://www.flickr.com/photos/usmcarchives/5957769705
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Spectator, 15 June 1918, Page 3: Mr. G. H. Roberts, the Minister of Labour...

... made an admirable speech at Dartford on Sunday last on "Humanizing Industry." On the one hand, he urged that an employer should pay every employed person "such a wage as would enable him and those de- pendent on him to live a decent life." On the other hand, he warned workmen that they could not have higher wages and social reforms unless they increased their output. The "ca' canny" policy is as ruinous to the workman as it is to the employer and the community. Mr. Roberts said that the impersonal nature of the relationship between employer and employed was the greatest blot on modern industry. It is difficult, in view of the increase not merely of limited companies but also of great combinations among companies, to restore anything like the old personal connexion between employer and workman, but the institution of joint Works Committees will help to promote the friendly relations between the two parties which tend to avert friction.

http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/15th-june-1918/3/mr-g-h-roberts-the-minister-of-labour-made-an
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 juni 1918: Toen de oorlog ook de doden trof
Olivier Neese

"Op weinig plaatsen kan je nog zo veel schade van de Eerste Wereldoorlog zien als op de centrale begraafplaats van Brugge." Dat zegt Jos Demarée, die alle beschadigde graven inventariseerde van de twee mislukte bombardementen op La Brugeoise.

La Brugeoise is tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog een van de belangrijkste strategische plaatsen voor de Duitse bezetter. In de fabriek kunnen kanonnen worden hersteld, granaten gefabriceerd en allerlei artillerie opgeslagen, én dat relatief dichtbij het front. Vanaf de herfst van 1916 bombarderen de geallieerden op regelmatige basis de fabriek, vanaf mei 1918 worden de aanvallen ferm opgedreven. Maar niet alle bombardementen raken hun doel. "In de nacht van 15 op 16 juni 1918 én op 16 juli 1918 landen de bommen niet op La Brugeoise maar wel op de nabijgelegen begraafplaats", weet Jos Demarée. "Mogelijks komt het door de wind of door het te vroeg of te laat lossen van de bommen, maar het blijft zeer bizar...

Lees verder op http://kw.knack.be/west-vlaanderen/nieuws/geschiedenis/15-juni-1918-toen-de-oorlog-ook-de-doden-trof/article-longread-323891.html . Wél eerst even registreren!
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Worcestershire - 15th June 1918

Uit de lokale pers:

Mr. and Mrs. G. Clarke, of 16, Church Walk, St. Clement’s, Worcester, have received, from their son, Gunner A. Clarke (who is serving with the R.F.A. in France), a card of commendation sent to him by the General of his division. It reads as follows: “To Gunner A. Clarke, R.F.A. – I wish to place on record my appreciation of the conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty displayed by you on the night of 20-21st May, 1918. When the camouflage and some charges were set on fire by a direct hit on one of the pits, although ordered to get under cover, you rushed forward and put out the fire at great personal risk, thereby preventing the explosion of the main dump.” Gunner Clarke has now been awarded the Military Medal. Before the war he was employed at the G.W.R. Sheet Department, and is an old St. Clement’s schoolboy. He joined up in September, 1914, and has served in France and Italy, having been overseas since April, 1915. During that time he has been home once.

Rifleman W. Maund (son of Mrs. Maund, of 90, Blakefield Road, St. John’s, Worcester), died from wounds on April 24th. He first joined the Army at the age of 15, enlisting in the Royal Horse Artillery. In due course he went to France and served there for some time before the authorities discovered his real age. They sent him home to wait until he was 18. He re-enlisted on his eighteenth birthday in April, 1917. He went to France again last Easter and received wounds which proved fatal. Prior to the war, he was employed by Messrs. McNaught, Tything, Worcester.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1918/06/battle-of-the-piave-austro-hungarians-launch-a-renewed-attack-on-the-italian-line-in-the-north-east-along-the-river-piave-the-attack-is-beaten-off-fighting-continues-to-24-june/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

BERWICK ADVERTISER, 15 JUNE 1917: LOCAL NEWS

Berwick Lad Seriously Injured by Motor Tractor. – On Wednesday afternoon James Swan (18), apprentice motor mechanic, residing at 21 Wallace Green, Berwick, employed by the Berwick Garage Company, Hide Hill, met with serious injuries at the farm of East Ord, while working a motor tractor plough. The lad, who is presently employed by the Food Production Department, had been doing something to the machinery while in motion, when a portion of his coat, which was not buttoned, was caught, and he was dragged in among the wheels.
He sustained severe injuries before the machine could be stopped, his left arm being broken at the elbow, while his head, which struck one of the large wheels, was cut open. Dr C. G. Maclagan was driven out by Mr H. E. Blackney, manager of the Berwick Garage, and attended to the lad’s injuries. Five stitches had to be inserted in the wound on the head. The lad was afterwards conveyed to the Berwick Infirmary, where he is progressing as well as can be expected.

Military Wedding at Berwick.- Yesterday afternoon an interesting military wedding was solemnised in Berwick Parish Church, the contracting parties being Miss Hilda Shield, daughter of Mr and Mrs Shield, Golden Square, and Second- Lieut. Ralph Hedley of the Machine Gun Corps, youngest son of the Ralph Hedley, North Shields.The best man was the bridegroom’s brother, Captain John Herbert Hedley, of the Lincolnshire Regiment, who is presently home on leave from France, while the bridesmaids were Miss Edith Hornsby of Durham, and Miss Dora Shields, sister of the bride.
Following the ceremony the brides’ parents held a reception in the Long Room of the Corn exchange when a large number of guests were entertained. The presents received were numerous and valuable, and included several cheques.

War Time Cookery.- It will be observed from our advertising columns that a public meeting is to be held in the Queen’s Rooms, Berwick, on Thursday evening, 21st June, for the purpose of providing a course of lessons and demonstrations in war time cookery for women without payment of any fee. An address is to be given by Miss Howman, superintendent of domestic subjects under the Northumberland County Education Committee, and the Mayoress will preside to which all are cordially invited. He hour of meeting is 7pm.

https://www.northumberlandarchives.com/2017/06/16/this-week-in-world-war-one-15-june-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Jun 2018 9:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 15 June 1917 → Commons Sitting → MILITARY SERVICE.

ALIENS.

Mr. KING asked the Undersecretary of State for War whether on 3rd and 4th June there were disturbances in Leeds, in the course of which several soldiers were injured and their homes attacked; whether above 200 Russian Jews have enlisted in the British Army from Leeds alone and that their families complain that the homes of these men have been violated and the businesses and work of their friends destroyed; and whether he will take some steps to restore confidence and create enthusiasm among the Allied alien population?

Sir G. CAVE My hon. Friend has asked me to reply to this question. I have not had time to make inquiry, but am obtaining a report on the points mentioned.

https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1917/jun/15/aliens
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