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4 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2006 8:55    Onderwerp: 4 juni Reageer met quote

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:
Günstiger Fortgang der Kämpfe östlich der Maas

Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Juni.1916
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Gegen die von uns gewonnenen Stellungen südöstlich von Ypern richteten die Engländer mehrere Angriffe, die restlos abgeschlagen wurden.
Der Artilleriekampf nördlich von Arras und in der Gegend von Albert hielt auch gestern an, englische Erkundungsabteilungen wurden abgewiesen, mehrere Sprengungen des Feindes südöstlich von Neuville-St. Vaast waren wirkungslos.
Auf dem linken Maasufer wurde ein schwächlicher feindlicher Angriff westlich der Höhe 304 leicht zurückgewiesen, ein Maschinengewehr ist von uns erbeutet.
Auf dem Ostufer sind die harten Kämpfe zwischen Caillettewald und Damloup weiter günstig für uns fortgeschritten, es wurden gestern über 500 Franzosen, darunter 3 Offiziere, gefangengenommen und 4 Maschinengewehre erbeutet.
Mehrere feindliche Gasangriffe westlich von Markirch blieben ohne die geringste
Wirkung.
Bombenwürfe feindlicher Flieger töteten in Flandern mehrere Belgier, militärischer Schaden entstand nicht, bei Hollebeke wurde ein englisches Flugzeug von Abwehrkanonen abgeschossen.
Östlicher und Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Es hat sich nichts von Bedeutung ereignet.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2006 8:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 4

1916 Brusilov Offensive begins

On this day in 1916, the Battle of Lutsk marks the beginning of the Brusilov Offensive, the largest and most successful Allied offensive of World War I.

When the fortress city of Verdun, France, came under siege by the Germans in February 1916, the French pleaded with the other Allies, Britain and Russia, to mount offensives in other areas to force the diversion of German resources and attention from the struggle at Verdun. While the British plotted the offensive they would launch near the Somme River in early July, the first Russian response came more quickly—a failed offensive in March at Lake Narocz, in which Russian troops were slaughtered en masse by the Germans with no significant effect at Verdun. Still, the Russians plotted another diversionary attack in the northern region of the Eastern Front, near Vilna (now in Poland).

While the Vilna offensive was being planned, General Alexei Brusilov—a 63-year-old former cavalryman and aristocrat given command of the Southwestern Army (the Russians divided their army into three major groups, Northern, Eastern and Southwestern) in March 1916—pressed his superiors at a meeting in April that he be allowed to attack as well, although no action was planned for the southwestern section of the front. At the very least, Brusilov reasoned, his attacks would draw troops away from the other area and ensure the success of their offensive in the north. Though he was given the go-ahead, the other Russian generals had little confidence in Brusilov’s strategy.

Brusilov’s troops began their attacks on the Austro-Hungarian 4th Army at the city of Lutsk (now in Ukraine), on June 4, 1916, with an impressive bombardment from nearly 2,000 guns along a 200-mile-long front stretching from the Pripet marshes to the Bukovina region to the southwest, in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains. Though the Austrian troops at Lutsk, led by the over-confident Archduke Josef Ferdinand, outnumbered the Russians—200,000 men against 150,000—the success of the barrage obliterated this advantage, along with the Austrian front line, as Brusilov’s troops swept forward, taking 26,000 prisoners in one day.

Within two days, the Russians had broken the 4th Army, advancing 75 kilometers along a 20-kilometer-long front, and effectively ending Josef Ferdinand’s career. Some 130,000 casualties—plus the capture of over 200,000 prisoners—forced the Austrian commander, Conrad von Hotzendorff, to close down an offensive against Italy in the Trentino region to divert guns and divisions back east. On June 15, Conrad told his German counterpart, Erich von Falkenhayn, that they were facing the greatest crisis of the war so far—a fact that took Falkenhayn, who was optimistic about an imminent French surrender at Verdun, completely by surprise. Confronted with the Austrian panic against Russia, he was forced to release four German divisions from the west, a weakness that allowed a successful French counterattack at Verdun on June 23, just one day before the preliminary British artillery bombardment began at the Somme.

Dubbed “The Iron General” and respected and beloved by his troops, Brusilov relied on absolute preparedness for battle and on the execution of even the most minute detail of his orders. The June 4 attacks began a string of crushing victories against the Austrian army across the southwestern portion of the Eastern Front, forcing Germany to abandon plans for their own 1916 offensive in France in order to bail out their hapless ally—even as they confronted a new British offensive at the Somme in July. By September, Russian resources had began to run out, however, and the Brusilov Offensive reached its limits; it was shut down on September 20, 1916, having cost the Austro-Hungarian army a staggering total of 1.5 million men (including 400,000 taken prisoner) and some 25,000 square kilometers of territory.

Though turmoil and revolution shattered Russia in 1917, disintegrating its army and leading to its subsequent exit from the war—a fact that caused the success of the Brusilov Offensive to be largely forgotten—the offensive permanently secured more enemy territory than any other Allied offensive on either front. Moreover, a permanently debilitated Austria-Hungary never again played a significant role in the war. Its army was reduced to holding trenches against the weaker Italians, and Germany was left to fight virtually alone for the final two years of World War I.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign

4 June 1915 - At Helles, the British launched the Third Battle of Krithia on what was described as ‘an exquisite summer’s day’. Although the British broke through the Turkish lines towards Krithia, this advantage was not followed up and the Turkish line held. The British suffered more than 4,500 casualties, the French more than 2,000 and the Turks admitted to more than 9,000 dead and wounded.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/june-july-1915.html

The Third Battle of Krithia, 4th June 1915
Bryn Hammond (IWM)

After the failure of the Second Battle of Krithia, 6-8 May, Major-General Aylmer Hunter-Weston, commanding 29th Division, and tactically in charge of the Helles front, was still confident of success if an early attack was launched.
His opinions carried much weight with General Sir Ian Hamilton and GHQ and he was encouraged to maintain 'a ceaseless initiative' against the Turkish positions in front of Krithia and Achi Baba. British units received much-needed reinforcements in May and on 24 May Hunter-Weston was formally appointed commander of the British forces on the Helles front as GOC VIII Corps.

Meanwhile, the replacement of General d'Amade by General Gouraud as commander of the French forces on the peninsula resulted in the latter's willing co-operation in plans for the renewal of the offensive at Helles.

On 31 May Hamilton sanctioned plans to fight a general action in the Helles zone. However, this was to be an attack with strictly limited objectives NOT aimed at capturing Achi Baba in one day.

The Third Battle of Krithia was fought on 4 June and was the first of the campaign to take place under trench warfare conditions. Imagination and initiative were used in planning the operation, but despite early successes (particularly by the 42nd (East Lancashire) Division), the attack eventually failed, only minor territorial advances being made at heavy cost in casualties.

Although in some quarters it was argued that a further attack on the following day might have achieved a major breakthrough, it was Turkish counter-attacks that were almost successful in breaking the British front. It was only with considerable difficulty and with great determination by certain British units - particularly the Territorials of the 42nd Division - that these counter-attacks were defeated and the Helles front returned to trench deadlock.

http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/2/gallipoli/helles3Krithia.htm

A fuller account of the Battle of Krithia: http://www.iwm.org.uk/upload/package/2/gallipoli/pdf_files/Krithia3.pdf
Zie ook: http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/krithia3.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 16:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Keys Quadruplets

Alma and Flake Keys of Hollis, Oklahoma got the surprise of their life way back on June 4, 1915 when Almas' pregnancy produced four girls instead of the one child they had anticipated, instantly doubling the family size from four children to eight.

The four girls, Roberta, Mona, Mary and Leota, all named after women present during the delivery, weighed in at 16 pounds total, and amazingly all weighing around the four pound mark, were born in their parents bedroom in Hollis.
Alma and Flake had only one birth certificate on which they entered the girls name on one line and "All girls" as a note to the authorities.

On hand to deliver the girls and sign the birth certificate was Dr. William Carrol Pendergraft, M.D, who in his lifetime of medical practice delivered thousands of babies in and around south west Oklahoma. None of which however, were quite as well known as the Keys Quads.

From the time they were nine months old until into their early adult life, the girls were put on display at state fairs and early television programs for people to see. According to Roberta Keys Torn, people would recognize them later in life and comment "We paid twenty five cents to see you when you were little" The sisters response was generally, "Do you want your money back?

Their celebrity status earned them all free college educations at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, and to earn money the sisters went on stage, as a natural quartet, singing and playing the saxophone. They all graduated together in 1937.

When asked how she would like to be remembered in 2006, Roberta, the only living member of the "Keys Quartet" replied, "As somebady who gave back."
Susan Torn Young, Robertas daughter, added, "Your kids and your grandkids will remember you as a person who had character, as well as a person who was a character."

http://www.incrediblebirths.com/Quadruplets/Keys_quadruplets_1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 18:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter re Officer Wilde, Friday 4 June 1915

PUBLIC TRUSTEE OFFICE 3 & 4 CLEMENTS INN, STRAND, LONDON W.C.
4th June 1915.
Titanic Relief Fund

Dear Mr. Corkhill,

Mr. Allen had a personal interview with Mrs. Smith, the widow of Captain Smith, yesterday afternoon, who is anxious that you should be good enough to consider her claim that the allowance, in respect of the four children of Mr. Wilde the First Officer, should be reconsidered. I have no doubt the matter has been properly dealt with by your Committee, but shall be very glad if you will kindly send her a short report of what your Committee has done for them. Mrs. Smith's address is: The Nook, Runcolm, Cheshire.

Yours faithfully
P. L. Swain, Hon. Secretary, Examining Committee,.
P. F. Corkhill, Esq. Town Hall, Liverpool.

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/letter-re-officer-wilde.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Military Intelligence Office
Cairo 4.6.15

I haven't written since I got your wire as I was waiting for details. Today I got Father's two letters. They are very comfortable reading:- and I hope that when I die there will be nothing more to regret. The only thing I feel a little is, that there was no need surely to go into mourning for him? I cannot see any cause at all - in any case to die for one's country is a sort of privilege: Mother and you will find it more painful and harder to live for it, than he did to die: but I think that at this time it is one's duty to show no signs that would distress others: and to appear bereaved is surely this condemnation.

So please, keep a brave face to the world: we cannot all go fighting: but we can do that, which is in the same kind.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1915/150604_family.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 18:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LONDON GAZETTE, 4 JUNE, 1915.

Board of Trade (Harbour Department),
London, 1st June, 1915
.
H. 6252.

The Board of Trade have received, through
the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a
copy of a Telegram, dated May 29th, from His
Majesty's Ambassador at Madrid, stating that
an outbreak of plague is reported at Pinar del
Rio, Cuba; and Vasco de Gama, Goa.

Board of Trade (Harbour Department),
London, 2nd June, 1915.

H. 6337.
The Board of Trade have received, through
the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a
copy of a Telegram, dated 1st June, from His
Majesty's Ambassador at Madrid stating that
plague is reported at Guanabacoa, near
Havana, and at Rio de Janeiro.

http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/issues/29183/pages/5388/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 18:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Lutsk, 1916

The Battle of Lutsk of 4-6 June 1916 heralded the launch of the Russian Brusilov Offensive and started the remarkable run of sweeping successes enjoyed by Russian Commander Alexei Brusilov until the Offensive later ran out of steam.

Lutsk had earlier suffered the attentions of the abortive Austro-Hungarian so-called 'Black-Yellow' offensive in 1915. It had subsequently been heavily fortified as a reserve position by the Austro-Hungarians.

The little-respected commander of the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army, Archduke Josef Ferdinand, was consequently complacent in his firm belief in the impregnability of his line's defences. Furthermore, with an advantage of 200,000 men set against the Russians' 150,000, he was confident in his numerical supremacy.

Thus General Kaledin's success in smashing through the Austro-Hungarian lines on 4 June, and in clearing the hills overlooking Lutsk of its defenders on 5 June proved a shattering wake-up call for Josef.

With the pounding of Russian artillery - creating more than fifty breaches in barbed wire defences - the Lutsk defenders fled in wholesale panic; however extensive use of barbed wire around Austro-Hungarian fortified positions meant that many were unable to escape and consequently taken prisoner by the Russians.

Virtually decimating his army he suffered the loss of 130,000 men in just two days; the scale of the setback consequently broke his career, with Austria-Hungary's dominant ally, Germany, requiring Josef's dismissal.

Nor was Josef's Fourth Army alone; the Austro-Hungarian Seventh Army was similarly deeply affected as the Russian steamroller continued its inexorable advance. The initial success of the Brusilov Offensive almost succeeded in knocking Austria-Hungary from the war.

The Austro-Hungarians lost a staggering 1.5 million men (including 400,000 taken prisoner) and ceded some 25,000 square kilometres of ground during the overall campaign.

Furthermore with the launch of the Brusilov Offensive any hopes the Austrians harboured of bringing about victory in the east were extinguished. Austrian attacks in Italy ceased; and Romania finally entered the war with the Allies.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/lutsk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 18:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Otto Ernst Zisarsky, WW1 casualty 3 Feb 1884- 4 June 1917

http://www.flickr.com/photos/cam37/1354933124/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

(...) In May 1916, preparations were made for Kitchener and Lloyd George to visit Russia on a diplomatic mission. Lloyd George was otherwise engaged with his new Ministry and so it was decided to send Kitchener alone.

A week before his death, Kitchener confided to Lord Derby that he intended to press relentlessly for a peace of reconciliation, regardless of his position, when the war was over, as he feared that the politicians would make a bad peace.

On 4 June 1916, Lord Kitchener personally answered questions asked by politicians about his running of the war effort; at the start of hostilities Kitchener had ordered two million rifles with various US arms manufacturers. Only 480 of these rifles had arrived in the UK by 4 June 1916. The numbers of shells supplied were no less paltry. Kitchener explained the efforts he had made in order to secure alternative supplies. He received a resounding vote of thanks from the 200+ Members of Parliament who had arrived to question him, both for his candour and for his efforts to keep the troops armed; Sir Ivor Herbert, who, a week before, had introduced the failed vote of censure in the House of Commons against Kitchener's running of the War Department, personally seconded the motion.

In addition to his military work, Lord Kitchener contributed to efforts on the home front. The knitted sock patterns of the day used a seam up the toe, that could rub uncomfortably against the toes. Kitchener encouraged British and American women to knit for the war effort, and contributed a sock pattern featuring a new technique for a seamless join of the toe, still known as Kitchener stitch.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Kitchener,_1st_Earl_Kitchener
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pulitzer Prize

4 June 1917 – The inaugural awarding of the Pulitzer Prize.

http://todays-creators.com/june/4-june

Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by Hungarian-American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City. According to the administrators of the Pulitzer Prize the correct pronunciation of the name should sound like the verb pull, as in "Pull it, sir".

Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of these, each winner receives a certificate and a US$10,000 cash award. The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal, which always goes to a newspaper, although an individual may be named in the citation. (...)

The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer, journalist and newspaper publisher, who founded the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and bought the New York World. Pulitzer left money to Columbia University upon his death in 1911. A portion of his bequest was used to found the university's journalism school in 1912. The first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. Recipients are chosen by an independent board.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulitzer_Prize
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CHATEAU-THIERRY, THE BATTLE FOR BELLEAU WOOD

Chronology: Belleau Wood, Day-by-Day

3 June 1918 - Units of German 237th Division occupy Belleau Wood.

4 June 1918 - Determined German assault against American line turned back. .There as significant failure in coordination between 2dn Bn, 5th Marines around Les Mares Farm and 1st Bn, 5th Marine, on the right of 2/5's position near Champillon. The German attack failed to take advantage of this gap between the units and attacked directly against the farm. By this time, the divisional artillery brigade and machinegun battalions had arrived. Many Marines, however, were feeling hungry because their kitchens were still stuck on the road trying to catchup. The failure of the attack on 4 June at the farm is generally acknowledged a the high water mark of the German offensive. It is the closest the Germans got to Paris, about 50 miles away. Future Commandant, Lt. Lemuel Shepard distinguished himself as the 55th Company defended the farm itself.

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ct_bw.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Philips to the Minister in Switzerland (Stovall) asking to not recognize Bolshevik government

File No. 861.00/1933 [Telegram]

Washington, June 4, 1918, 4 p.m.

Your 3535, June 1, 11 a.m. Department prefers that you have no relations whatever with Bolshevik representatives. This Government does not recognize the Bolshevik authorities, either de facto or de jure.

Phillips

http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/government/foreign-relations/1918/june/4.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MILITARY MEDALS
AWARDED TO MEMBERS OF QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY NURSING SERVICE AND THE TERRITORIAL FORCE NURSING SERVICE DURING THE GREAT WAR

LUTWICK, Marie Daw, ARRC
Acting Sister, QAIMNS Reserve
London Gazette 4 June 1918
For bravery and devotion to duty during an hostile bombing raid when in company with the Matron who was severely wounded and a Sister who was killed. She crossed the open bomb-swept ground alone in order to procure help. Subsequently she returned to the CCS and continued to work for many hours, under conditions of great danger.

MAXEY, Kate, RRC
Sister-in-Charge, Territorial Force Nursing Service
London Gazette 4 June 1918
For gallantry and conspicuous devotion to duty displayed during a recent hostile bombing raid on a CCS. Although severely wounded herself, she went to the aid of another Sister, who was fatally wounded, and did all she could for her. Later, although suffering severe pain, she showed an example of pluck and endurance which was inspiring to all.

http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/122.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Congress Approves Nineteenth Amendment

On June 4, 1919, Congress, by joint resolution, approved the woman's suffrage amendment and sent it to the states for ratification. The House of Representatives had voted 304-89 and the Senate 56-25 in favor of the amendment.

Disagreement on whether the best strategy was to pursue enfranchisement through a federal amendment or by individual state campaigns had divided the women's suffrage movement in 1869. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony worked for a federal amendment under the banner of the National Woman Suffrage Association, while Lucy Stone led the American Woman Suffrage Association's state-by-state battle for the vote.

In 1890, the two groups united to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). NAWSA combined both techniques to secure voting rights for all American women. A series of well-orchestrated state campaigns took place under the dynamic direction of Carrie Chapman Catt, while the new National Woman's Party, led by Alice Paul, used more militant tactics to obtain a federal amendment.

In his 1916 book Woman's Suffrage By Constitutional Amendment, Congressman Henry St. George Tucker of Virginia argued that enfranchising women by constitutional amendment would violate the Constitution:

For three-fourths of the States to attempt to compel the other one-fourth of the States of the Union, by constitutional amendment, to adopt a principle of suffrage believed to be inimical to their institutions, because they may believe it to be of advantage to themselves and righteous as a general doctrine, would be to accomplish their end by subverting a principle which has been recognized from the adoption of the Constitution of the United States to this day, viz., that the right of suffrage — more properly the privilege of suffrage — is a State privilege, emanating from the State, granted by the State, and that can be curtailed alone by the State.

Henry Wade Rogers, a Yale University law professor, offered a different perspective in "Federal Action and State Rights," an essay within the 1917 collection Woman Suffrage by Federal Constitutional Amendment, compiled by Carrie Chapman Catt. He argued that previous constitutional amendments set a precedent for the demands of suffragists:

…the Fifteenth Amendment provides that "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color or previous condition of servitude…" If woman suffrage is a sound principle in a republican form of government, and such I believe it to be, there is in my opinion no reason why the States should not be permitted to vote upon an Amendment to the Constitution declaring that no citizen shall be deprived of the right to vote on account of sex.

Rogers's position prevailed. Women's active participation in the war effort during World War I and their broadening role in society highlighted the injustice of their political powerlessness. On August 18, 1920, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified.

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/jun04.html
Zie ook http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1920womensvote.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 4, 1919 - U.S. Occupation of Costa Rica

When the Costa Rican government was overthrown in a coup by the Flores party, the U.S. government landed Marines to protect American interests in the republic.

http://www.indiana.edu/~league/1919.htm
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Treaty of Trianon

Treaty of Peace Between The Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary And Protocol and Declaration, Signed at Trianon June 4, 1920

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN,
These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHOSLOVAKIA,

These Powers constituting with the Principal Powers mentioned above the Allied and Associated Powers,

of the one part;

And HUNGARY,

of the other part;

Whereas on the request of the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government an Armistice was granted to Austria-Hungary on November 3, I918, by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, and completed as regards Hungary by the Military Convention of November 13, 1918, in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded, and

Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers are equally desirous that the war in which certain among them were successively involved, directly or indirectly, against Austria-Hungary, and which originated in the declaration of war by the former Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government on July 28, I914, against Serbia, and in the hostilities conducted by Germany in alliance with Austria-Hungary, should be replaced by a firm, just, and durable Peace, and

Whereas the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has now ceased to exist, and has been replaced in Hungary by a national Hungarian Government:

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries:

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
Mr. Hugh Campbell WALLACE, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America at Paris;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED STATES OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH OOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA:
The Right Honourable Edward George VILLIERS, Earl of DERBY, K.G., P.C., K.C. V.O., C. B., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;
And

for the DOMINION of CANADA:
The Honourable Sir George Halsey PERLEY, K. C. M. G., High Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom;

for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA.
The Right Honourable Andrew FISHER, High Commissioner for Australia in the United Kingdom;

for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND:
The Honourable Sir Thomas MACKENZIE, K.C.M.G., High Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom;

for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA:
Mr. Reginald Andrew BLANKENBERG, O.B.E., Acting High Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United Kingdom;

for INDIA:
The Right Honourable Edward George VILLIERS, Earl of DERBY, K.G., P.C., K.C.V.O., C.B., Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:
Mr. Alexandre MILLERAND, President of the Council, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
Mr. Frédéric FRANCOIS-MARSAL, Minister of Finance;
Mr. Auguste Paul-Louis ISAAC, Minister of Commerce and Industry;
Mr. Jules CAMBON, Ambassador of France;
Mr. George Maurice PALÉOLOGUE, Ambassador of France, Secretary-General of the Minister for Foreign Affairs;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY:
Count Lelio BONIN LONGARE, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of Italy at Paris
Rear Admiral Mario GRASSI;

HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN:
Mr. K. MATSUI, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS:
Mr. Jules VAN DEN HEUVEL, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Minister of State;
Mr. Rolin JACQUEMYNS, Member of the Institute of Private International Law, Secretary-General of the Belgian Delegation;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC:
Mr. Vikyuin Wellington Koo;
Mr. Sao-Ke Alfred SZE;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC:
Dr. Rafael Martinez ORTIZ, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Cuban Republic at Paris;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES:
Mr. Athos ROMANOS, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of the Hellenes at Paris;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA:
Mr. Carlos A. VILLANUEVA, Charg‚ d'Affaires of the Republic of Nicaragua at Paris;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA:
Mr. Raoul A. AMADOR, Chargé d'Affaires of the Republic of Panama at Paris;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC:
Prince Eustache SAPIEHA, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at London;
Mr. Erasme PILTZ, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at Prague;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC:
Dr. Affonso da COSTA, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;
Mr. Joao CHAGAS, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Portuguese Republic at Paris;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA:
Dr. Jon CANTACUZINO, Minister of State;
Mr. Nicolae TITULESCU, formerly Minister Secretary of State;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS AND THE SLOVENES:
Mr. Nicolas P. PACHITCH, formerly President of the Council of Ministers;
Mr. Ante TRUMBIC, Minister for Foreigri Affairs;
Mr. Ivan ZOLGER, Doctor of Law;

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SIAM:
His Highness Prince CHAROON, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of H.M. the King of Siam at Paris;

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHO-SLOVAK REPUBLIC:
Mr. Edward BENES, Minister for Foreign Affairs;
Mr. Stephen OSUSKY, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London;

HUNGARY:
Mr. Gaston de BÉNARD, Minister of Labour and Public Welfare;
Mr. Alfred DRASCHE-LAZAR de Thorda, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary;

WHO, having communicated their full powers found in good and due form, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war will terminate.

From that moment and subject to the provisions of the present Treaty official relations will exist between the Allied and Associated Powers and Hungary.

Lees verder op http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Treaty_of_Trianon
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Trianon
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 19:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Articles of War

Approved June 4, 1920

WASHINGTON, GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 1920

http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USA/ref/AW/index.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postduiven in oorlogstijd
Militaire belang is enorm

Het houden van postduiven in oorlogstijd is een linke bezigheid. In plaats van een geinige liefhebberij wordt het opeens een activiteit met een groot strategisch belang.

Het houden van postduiven tijdens de Eerste Wereldoorlog was van militair belang. Alle strijdende partijen hebben daarom op grote schaal gebruik gemaakt van deze vliegende koeriers. Dat schrijft Heim Meijerink op de site ‘Postduiven, helden in de Eerste Wereldoorlog’, waarop hij een uitgebreide studie heeft geplaatst.

Uit eerder onderzoek bleek al dat in deze oorlog het aantal postduivenverenigingen in Haarlem daalde van acht naar één. Zoals Marijke den Hollander van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven zei: “Vanwege de vrees voor militaire spionage werd de duivensport verboden. Wie toch met zijn duiven op stap ging riskeerde dat ze in beslag werden genomen."

Meijerink schreef aan deze redactie: ‘Het afgelopen jaar heb ik mij verdiept in een historisch onderwerp waarover in Nederland vrijwel niet gepubliceerd is: het gebruik van postduiven in oorlogen.’ Het is inderdaad een vergeten hoofdstuk, dat zeer de moeite waard is om verder uit te zoeken.

In de Tweede Wereldoorlog bijvoorbeeld was het houden van postduiven ronduit een levensbedreigende zaak. De bezetter beschouwde het houden van deze beesten militair-strategisch van grote waarde en trad daarom keihard op tegen overtreders. Er zouden zelfs complete onderduikcircuits zijn opgezet om topduiven uit handen te houden van de Duitsers. Op deze manier hoopten duivenhouders hun sport te redden totdat Nederland weer was bevrijd.

Meijerink heeft onder meer het verhaal van de Franse heldenduif Vaillant opgeschreven. Op 4 juni 1916 werd deze losgelaten op fort Vaux tijdens de Slag bij Verdun, met in een kokertje de volgende boodschap: ‘Wij bezwijken langzamerhand onder gasaanvallen. We moeten dringend ontzet worden. Dit is mijn laatste duif. Getekend, commandant Raynal.’

Waarop Meijerink vervolgt: ‘De duif keerde echter meteen terug in het fort omdat er te veel gas hing. Een tweede poging lukte wel en hoewel het fort uiteindelijk toch in Duitse handen viel, herinnert een monument ter plaatse nog altijd aan de duif Vaillan,t die vergiftigd door het gas stervend zijn hok binnenviel. De vogel ontving postuum medailles, werd opgezet en kreeg een plekje in het Franse legermuseum.’

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/31911328/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilhelm II van Duitsland

Friedrich Wilhelm (Willem) Viktor Albert (Potsdam, 27 januari 1859 - Doorn (Nederland), 4 juni 1941), uit het Huis Hohenzollern, was van 1888 tot 1918 de laatste koning van Pruisen en de derde en laatste keizer van het Duitse Keizerrijk. (...)

Hij stierf op 4 juni 1941 in Doorn aan een longembolie - de Duitse bezetters stonden op wacht voor de poorten. Zijn wens om op zijn begrafenis geen hakenkruisen te tonen werd niet ingewilligd. Hitler liet een reusachtige krans bezorgen: de rouwlinten daaraan waren wel degelijk met dit nazi-symbool getooid. Onder de paar honderd aanwezigen was ook een Nederlandse fotograaf die ondanks de strenge beveiliging een fotoreportage wist te maken.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilhelm_II_van_Duitsland
Zie ook http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/onderzoek/onderwerpen/wilhelm-ii
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Woensdag 4 Juni 1919.

Valkenswaard.

- Zondag na de Hoogmis verloor mevr. H. haar handtaschje dat een groote waarde vertegenwoordigde. Het werd gevonden door R. en aan de eigenaresse ter hand gesteld, die den eerlijken vinder een flinke belooning schonk.

- Van de verschillende personen, die eenige dagen geleden naar België gingen, om daar eens te gaan zien, werden allen ingepikt, en aan een keuring onderworpen. De goedgekeurden werden oogenblikkelijk opgesloten; wat hen te wachten staat, weet men niet. De afgekeurden konden naar Holland terugkeeren.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19191.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HET VEERTIEN PUNTENPLAN VAN PRESIDENT WILSON

Op 4 juni 1918, tijdens een rede in Mount Vernon, de voormalige residentie van George Washington, voegde hij [Wilson] wederom vier punten aan zijn programma toe, ditmaal de “four points” genaamd.

In het kort kwamen ze hier op neer:
1: Onpartijdigheid en rechtvaardigheid tussen de volkeren.
2: Definitieve regeling van het recht op zelfbeschikking.
3: Voor alle volkeren de zelfde morele principes.
4: Een nadere uitwerking van de stichting van een Wereld vrede organisatie.

Ditmaal werkte de oorlogssituatie in zijn voordeel.

De Duitsers waren een groot offensief begonnen en in juni stond de zaak er voor de geallieerden zeer slecht voor. Die raakten dan ook in paniek en vreesden de oorlog alsnog te gaan verliezen.

Ze smeekten de USA om meer troepen te zenden en men leek nu meer bereid om naar Wilson’s plannen en voorstellen te luisteren.

Lees zéker verder op http://www.ssew.nl/vredesverdrag-versailles-1919
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Jun 2010 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1919)

4 juni 1919 - De wapens die via de gemeente in 1914 werden ingeleverd, bleken goed bewaard gebleven in de magazijnen der pyrotechnie (Antwerpen-Zuid). (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=192:10-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1919&catid=90:oorlog
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2010 10:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SOLDIER AND DRAMATIST

BEING THE LETTERS OF HAROLD CHAPIN, AMERICAN CITIZEN
WHO DIED FOR ENGLAND AT LOOS ON SEPTEMBER 26TH, 1915.


To his Wife.

June 4th, 1915.

Well my dear, we've been married five years to-day; and what's your opinion of married life? Fairly stirring it's been; hasn't it? You ill twice, me ill once, Vallie ill once (you see I am not counting mumpses). Us burnt out once; Shaftesbury Avenue, Glasgow (assorted), Victoria Square, St. John's Wood---plenty of variety in our settings---and now you grubbing along on short rations and me---what the devil am I doing? At the moment I am Caretaker-Commandant (rank my own invention) of the Ecoles M--- feeding well, sleeping well and getting absolutely no exercise or excitement. Parts of the buildings are at present occupied by a company of the -----'s out of the trenches for a few days rest. They are a tough lot of old regulars, most of them west country or Welsh, who have been out here since October; high spirited and rowdy but (like all the British out here) models of behaviour where women are concerned (by which I do not mean saints) and adored to the verge of being turned into hobnailed juggernauts by all the children they come across. Our men also make a great impression here by their genuine affection for dogs. The poor beasts are abominably treated by the lower classes and ignored by the upper of this town and district. As a matter of fact they are rather beastly to their children, too; and as for horses---

Curiously enough the favourite accusation against them at home---that of "doing the troops down" --is not true. Certain things are villainously expensive:---razor blades; tobacco; brushes, and other manufactured trifles, but the people themselves---especially in the villages---will frequently refuse all payment for coffee, bread and butter or even---though less frequently --eggs. I never go up to the A.D.S. now without calling on the one peasant family still living in that stirring neighbourhood and taking coffee (au lait) and galette (quite different to Galette Bernevalaise) with them for which they religiously refuse all payment. I tried to tip the family brat a half franc the last time up. It was rescued and returned to me with insult. These people have been all but ruined: their larger fields all shell holes; half their out buildings and windows demolished by the reverberations of our artillery and carelessness of troops billeted therein (chiefly the former I am glad to say) and the railways and canals they depend upon torn up or full of strange craft and running into the enemy lines. They are far from hopeless, though. The enemy will have to pay, they say.

I made a foolish mistake early in this letter:--- "no excitement." I had a little yesterday---nothing much but a little. Coming back from my daily visit to H.Q. whizz bang whizz bang whizz bang---bang---the fourth so close on the heels of the third that the whizz was lost (that's when I take a dislike to them: no fair warning) and a square about as far ahead of Mayhew and myself as from 85 Talbot Road to the letter box was neatly dented in each comer. We retired round a house (the range was along the road) until the "bombardment" seemed over, then hurried up. First sight; a tall sergeant taking down his trousers coram populo to inspect the damage to his posterior aspect---not great. We advised him where our hospital (and a drink) were waiting for such as he, and proceeded with the usual job of locating the old woman and stopping the bleeding until an ambulance arrived (Mayhew went for it at once).

She was in the back room of the house before which the shell had fallen, her feet on a chair and her poor loose old stockings dripping nice bright arterial blood on to the stone floor. An unusual complication, son mari was sitting on the stairs (which were in the room) his eyes rolled up---curious pale grey eyes---suffering from our old friend "shock" and also bleeding like a stuck pig.

A gas pipe had been severed and the neighbourhood was discussing "le gaz"; of course missing the obvious reason for the smell that pervaded it. A regular, an officer and myself got ourselves nice and bloody and dabbed the old lady and son mari (whom she kept discussing) with water: he came unshocked suddenly and took to weeping, then Mayhew and the ambulance returned and we bandy-chaired them out to stretchers and slid them in and cursed the assembling crowd and went home to tea.

Nice story isn't it? With variations any day's story of this pleasant sunny and prosperous little city. Sometimes the old woman is killed outright; sometimes she has a leg blown off and dies on the way to, or after reaching, hospital; sometimes she is accompanied thither by a smashed child or two---more rarely by a man---more rarely still by a soldier. Occasionally she mingles her pint or two of blood with the more generous supply tapped from a horse. Very occasionally you find her searching herself rapidly and reporting with natural surprise---in view of the fact that she certainly is an old woman---that she hasn't been touched. Sometimes this that or the other is her share but always she has one. She is the old woman of the day to be added to the list of all the old women of last week and the week before.

The joke of it all is that old women have no Military significance.

Love to you all.

Don't be horrified at me---I must sarcast a little when I feel that way.

http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/memoir/chapin/Chapin05.htm#98
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2011 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 4, 1914 - Dedication of Arlington Monument
Calvin E. Johnson Jr., June 4, 2011

While they lived, few criticized the men of Union Blue and Confederate Gray.

Let me tell you of the Arlington National Cemetery where this nation honored the men who fought for the Confederacy, the Union and those men and women who fought our nations’ wars since the War Between the States.

Did you know there are 245,000 service men and women, including their families, buried at Arlington?

The world famous Arlington National Cemetery is located in the shadow of the Custis-Lee Mansion (Arlington House) that was home to General Robert E. Lee and family until 1861 at the beginning of the War Between the States. This cemetery is on the Virginia side of the Potomac River across from the nation’s capital.

In 1864, Union soldiers were first buried here and by the end of the war the number rose to 16,000.

The Union burial site at Arlington National Cemetery is at section 13. Also buried in Arlington include: President John F. Kennedy, General Jonathan M. Wainwright and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

Around the start of the 20th century this country also honored the men who fought for the Confederacy. This site of men who fought for “Dixie” is located in section 16.

There is an inscription on the 32.5 foot high Confederate monument at Arlington National Cemetery that reads, “An Obedience To Duty As They Understood it; These Men Suffered All; Sacrificed All and Died!”

Some claim this Confederate Monument at Arlington may have been the first to honor Black Confederates. Carved on this monument is the depiction of a Black Confederate who is marching in step with the White soldiers. Also shown is a White Confederate who gives his child to a Black woman for safe keeping.

In 1898, President William McKinley, a former Union soldier spoke in Atlanta, Georgia and said, ” In the spirit of Fraternity it was time for the North to share in the care of the graves of former Confederate soldiers.

In consequence to his speech, by Act of the United States Congress, a portion of Arlington National Cemetery was set aside for the burial of Confederate soldiers. At this time 267 Confederate remains from and near Washington were removed and re-interred at this new site.

In 1906, the United Daughters of the Confederacy asked permission from William Howard Taft to erect a monument. Taft was at the time serving as the United States Secretary of War and was in charge of National Cemeteries.

With permission the Arlington Confederate Memorial Association was formed and the United Daughters of the Confederacy was given authority to oversee work on the monument.

An agreement and contract was made with Sir Moses Ezekiel who was a Jewish Confederate Veteran by the record of his service at the Battle of New Market while he was a Cadet at Virginia Military Institute. Work started at his workshop in Italy in 1910, and upon his death in 1917, the Great Sculptor, was brought back home and buried near the base of the Arlington Confederate Monument.

Sir Moses Ezekiel was honored in his life by being Knighted by the German and Italian Governments.

On June 4, 1914, the Arlington monument was unveiled to a crowd of thousands that included former Confederate and Union soldiers.

The Memorial Event was presided over by President Woodrow Wilson and the people applauded the stirring speeches given by: General Bennett H. Young- Commander In Chief of the United Confederate Veterans; General Washington Gardner-Commander In Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic and Colonel Robert E. Lee - grandson of General Lee.

The Confederate monument unveiling was concluded by a 21 gun salute and the Arlington monument was officially given to the United Daughters of the Confederacy and was given back to the U.S. War Department for keeping and accepted by President Woodrow Wilson who said:

“I am not so happy as PROUD to participate in this capacity on such an occasion, Proud that I represent such a people.”

Since Woodrow Wilson, wreaths have been sent to both sections of Arlington, including the Confederate section, to honor those who died for freedom. Some Presidents have also spoken at Arlington on Confederate Memorial Day.

http://canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/37226
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2011 19:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Claresholm Review, 4 juni 1914: Soldier of fortune tells of Mexican war

http://peel.library.ualberta.ca/newspapers/CHR/1914/06/04/1/Ar00102.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Jun 2018 7:36, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Training with British Army in Flanders - June 4 - August 20, 1918 - 78th Division

US National Archives - Gepubliceerd op 3 mei 2017.
Creator(s): Department of Defense. Department of the Army. Office of the Chief Signal Officer.

Filmpje... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZwA6zlaBnA
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Percy Toplis



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Diary Of Commander Joseph K. Taussig, Commander, Little

Tuesday - June 4 - At sea

The Barry (Lt. Comdr. Enrich) was within two miles of us at daylight. After exchanging recognition signals, and giving him necessary information about the number, course, and speed of the chasers, he signalled that he would relieve me. So I turned over my mine charge to his keeping and the Little was headed back for Ponta Delgada. I had the choice of speeding up to 20 knots and getting in Wednesday evening, or proceeding at 10 knots and getting in Thursday morning. I chose the latter as in that case we can stop tomorrow and have a target practice which opportunity I have been looking for. . . .

Had throttle drill for the engine room force. Had the usual gun drills – pointing and fire control. We have three everyday that the weather permits as a matter of principle.

Source Note: D, RNW, Joseph K. Taussig Papers, Mss. Coll. 97.
https://www.history.navy.mil/research/publications/documentary-histories/wwi/june-1918/diary-of-commander-j.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Jun 2018 8:11, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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4 June 1918: Brandenburgs vs. F2A flying boats

"The respect that some German and Allied fliers had for each other was never more apparent than on 4 June 1918 when a patrol of British F2A flying boats from Felixstowe and Yarmouth were attacked by German Brandenburg WY.19 and W.29 seaplanes.
In the ensuing fight a number of aircraft on either side were shot down and one of them, flown by Lieutenant Robertson, was floating wrecked and upside down on the water. One of the German seaplanes alighted alongside and the pilot asked Robertson whether he wanted to be picked up and taken as a prisoner-of-war to Zeebrugge or to take his chance on being picked up by the Royal Navy.
Robertson politely declined the offer of assistance, and with that the German pilot saluted his fallen adversary, took a picture of him and took off. Robertson was later rescued by the Royal Navy."

http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/showthread.php?t=18860

On this day 4 June 1918 Four seaplanes attack German patrol

A patrol of three Felixstowe F.2A and an H.12 Large America from Felixstowe and Yarmouth attacked 14 German Brandenberg WY.19 and W.29 seaplanes. In the ensuing fight the RNAS shot down six of the enemy for the loss of one Felixstowe over a 3½ hour battle.

The Felixstowe F.2A was in use at almost every flying boat station of the RNAS. It was a first-class flying machine, capable of long patrols. It carried two pilots and an armament varying from four to seven Lewis machine-guns: single or twin guns in each of the front and rear cockpits, another above the pilot's seats and sometimes a beam gun on either side. Two 230 lb (104 kg) bombs could be carried beneath the lower wings. The Felixstowe inherited the 'spider's web' patrolling of the North Sea from the Curtiss H.12, and scored numerous successes over enemy submarines and airships.

By various improvisations some Felixstowe F.2As could carry enough fuel for more than nine hours' flying, but in the spring of 1918 an alternative attempt was made to increase the combat radius, by towing the aircraft on a lighter behind a Royal Navy destroyer into the scene of action.

https://www.fleetairarmoa.org/news/on-this-day-4-june-1918-four-seaplanes-attack-german-patrol
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4th June 1917 - Worcestershire

THE CALLING UP OF DOCTORS – The emergency Sub Committee reported that there were 188 doctors on the Worcestershire panel, of which 39 had already joined the Army; 85 were over military age, 21 had received the calling up notice, and 44 had not replied to a circular sent by the Committee, but the Committee were informed that the majority were over military age. The Chairman said a letter had been received from the Insurance Commissioners on the question of the calling-up of medical practitioners, and pointing out the importance of removing, so far as possible, the strain of the practitioners remaining in civil work. Insured persons might be notified not to make unnecessary demands on the time and services of doctors.

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1917/06/bigamy-at-ombersley/
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Socialist International - June 1917: Soldiers and Workmen. Establishment of Councils Like Russian. Demand for Statement of Peace Terms
Source: Report on “Socialist Convention On The War” in the Manchester Guardian, 4 June 1917, “From our Special Correspondent,” p.5.

LEEDS, SUNDAY NIGHT.

The Labour, Socialist, and Democratic Convention to hail the Russian revolution and organise a British democracy, was held in Leeds to-day. The meetings were to have taken place in the Albert Hall, as stated in the columns yesterday, but the engagement was broken off by the owners. The Coliseum, however, a larger building with accommodation for about 3,500 persons, was placed at the service of the Convention after the Watch Committee had intimated its readiness to extend the six days’ licence attached to the building.

In this the Watch Committee showed more tolerance than owners of most of the large hotels in the city, who apparently had agreed among themselves not to give accommodation to the delegates. Many of the delegates had “booked” in advance at hotels where, on other occasions, they had been personally welcomed, but in every case, as far as I have been able to ascertain, such bookings were cancelled upon an affirmative answer being given to the question; “Are you attending the Labour Convention?” As the private accommodation found by local Socialists was far from adequate in such an emergency, 200 or 300 were provided for by a lodging bureau opened by the Socialists of Bradford, and a considerable number had to be billeted in improvised dormitories at the great hall of the Engineers’ Club.

The Convention was presided over by Mr. Robert Smillie, president of the Miners’ Federation, who was supported on the platform by many of the well-known leaders of the Independent Labour party and the Socialist party, and by Mr. Roden Buxton and Mrs. Despard. Mr. Tom Mann, Mr. Bertrand Russell, and Miss Sylvia Pankhurst sat among the general body of delegates, who numbered nearly 1,200, and represented trades councils and unions, local Labour and Socialist parties, women’s organisations, and various democratic bodies.

On the whole the conference was of an orderly character. A “breeze,” started by a decision of the Standing Orders Committee to accept certain amendments and reject others – which position was overthrown by the conference determining to confine itself to the resolutions on the agenda, – developed into a storm later on, when Mr. Tupper protested against consideration not having been given to the amendment sent in by his union, and demanded to know, in the event of no indemnities being given, who would recompense the widows and orphans of merchant seamen who had lost their lives while bringing food to the country. At this time the hour for adjournment had passed, and after about ten minutes of excitement, in which an appeal was made to the conference “to have some dignity;” the Chairman adjourned the meeting.

Among a number of messages read was one from the Executive Committee of the Workmen’s and Soldiers’ delegates in Petrograd, sending fraternal greetings, and expressing the hope of meeting representatives from the Convention between July 15 and 30, and mentioning Stockholm as the most convenient meeting place.

Six soldiers at Blackpool wrote saying they would like to see “the establishment of a society on lines similar to those of the Council of Workmen and Soldiers in Russia, for we are quite convinced that the great majority of men in the army are in sympathy with Russian aims.”

THE SPEECHES - The Chairman, in opening the conference, said that but for the Russian revolution he did not think it would have been possible for the convention to have been held. We in this country were gradually reaching the position in which we could not call our souls our own. The right to call our bodies our own went a considerable time ago. It was strange indeed that the light should have come from the down-trodden people of Russia. If it was right that the Russian people should be congratulated on securing freedom, surely it could not be wrong for Britain to desire freedom also.

After remarking, with respect to the attempts to prevent the meeting by mob law, “we have not come here to talk treason; we have come here to talk reason,” Mr. Smillie contended that there was real need for linking together the civil and military populations of this country by means of an organisation such as the Council of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Delegates in Russia. At the present time, he said, our soldiers were inarticulate. They had no organisation, no right to have an organisation, to defend their claims and to call attention to their grievances.

It was pretty well agreed now, he continued, that peace could not be brought about by what was called the “knock-out” blow. (Cheers) There was no doubt that when peace did come it would be peace by negotiation. (Renewed cheers.) Was there any use, therefore, in murdering a few million more of our sons? He had no desire to see Russia enter into a separate peace with Germany. (Cheers.) That would be a calamity not only to Russia itself, but to the democratic peoples of the world. But he thought the Russian people were entitled to say they were ready and anxious to make peace and to ask us to state our position. If we and our other allies had the courage to do so – and ultimately we should have to do it – and if, instead of aiming at Imperialism and spread-eagleism, we aimed at giving liberty to the peoples of Europe to govern themselves in their own way, he believed the German Government would be forced by public opinion in Germany to negotiate on moral terms, or the German people would take the steps taken by Russia.

The first resolution congratulated the Russian people upon their revolution. It was moved by Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, M.P., seconded by Mrs. Montefiore (British Socialist Party), and carried without discussion.

Mr. Macdonald, M.P., said that when the war broke out organised labour in this country, owing to a great lack of oversight and political intelligence, lost the initiative; instead of seeing that it took the initiative into its own hands and did not become a mere echo of the opinions of the governing classes. Those classes were never yet able to make anything but a patched-up peace or a military truee, and had never yet done anything but extend the bounds of militarism every time that militarism proved itself a failure. The Russian revolution had given them chance to take hold again of the initiative, and while the war was on was their chance. Let them make their own proclamations, establish their on diplomacy and see to it that they had their own international meetings. The call of the Russian democracy had made it impossible for any Government to deny the right of the people to meet together and make up their minds as to what they wanted and ask the Government to carry out their mandate.

Peace Terms - Mr. Philip Snowden, M.P., moved a resolution in favour of “peace without annexation or indemnities and based on the rights of nations to decide their own affairs,” and calling upon the British Government “immediately to announce its agreement with the declared foreign policy and war aims of the democratic Government of Russia.” They had been told, he said, that millions of the manhood of Europe had already been killed or maimed, yet the only talk of statesmen to-day was about preparations for the continuance of the war into next year or the following year. Their only concern seemed to be to get more men to feed the cannons’ mouth.

“For three years,” he continued, “we have been appealing to the Government to state its peace terms. The time has come for us to tell the Government what our peace terms are.” (Cheers.) Commenting on the debate in the House of Commons and the speeches of Lord Robert Cecil and Mr. Asquith, Mr. Snowden contended that it was useless and absurd to accept the formula “no annexation” and a the same time to contemplate the retention of 400,000 square miles of territory held by Germany before the war, even on the conditions laid down by Mr. Asquith that this was no militarism, but part of the fulfilment of the divine mission laid on the British people to relieve the oppressed wherever they might be found. (Laughter.) He counselled the democracy to see that the statesmen of this country did not accept the formula “no annexation” before obtaining from them definite statement as to what they meant by it. It would be delusion and a mockery so long as those statesmen stood by the terms and conditions of the Allied Note to President Wilson. That Note must be repudiated. As understood by the Russian democracy, “no annexation” did not mean there should be no change of territorial boundaries after the war. If a permanent peace was to be established there would have to be readjustment of territory. The Russian declaration provided that there should be no transfer of territory against the will of the people concerned.

Mr. Roden Buxton said that Russia had caused a great wave of feeling in favour of democratic diplomacy to pass all over the world. Russia was going to work no longer under th old-fashioned methods of secret diplomacy, and had entered into open and free communication with the peoples of the world. In this matter Governments must be the servants, not the masters, of the people. The English people must see to it that in future they were not left in the dark by secret treaties, made in their name but behind their backs.

The resolution was carried with only two dissentients.

The third resolution called upon the Government to proclaim its determination to carry into immediate effect a charter of liberty establishing complete political rights for all men and women, freedom of speech and of the press, an a general amnesty for all political and religious prisoners. This was moved by Mr. C.E Ammon (British Socialist party), seconded b Mrs. Despard, supported by Mr. Pethick Lawrence and Mr. Bertram Russell, and adopted.

Workmen and Soldiers - Mr. W.C. Anderson, M.P., moved the last resolution, calling upon the constituent bodies of the convention to establish local councils of workmen’s and soldiers’ delegates on the lines of those in Russia, and proposing that the conveners of the convention should be appointed as a provisional committee to assist in the work of organisation. This, he said, he regarded as the “ugly duckling” of the resolutions. The “Morning Post” had spoken of it as a violation of the law, as an incitement to the subversion of army discipline and military authority. The resolution had no such intention. What they had to say was that soldiers and workmen alike were men, that in the reconstruction of Britain they were alike bound to play a most important part, and that in order to do this they must join hands. It was said that any step on such lines to give expression to the views of soldiers and workmen was in the nature of a revolution. The present Prime Minister had told labour to be audacious – after the war. (Laughter.) If they waited till after the war there would be very little to be audacious about. The peace that would some soon must be a peace made by the people, for the people, and with the stamp of the people upon it. Besides linking together the common interests of soldiers and workmen, such an organisation would strengthen trade unionism and organised labour.

Mr. Robert Williams (Transport Workers), in seconding the resolution, defined its meaning as “the dictatorship of the proletariat.”

In supporting the resolution, Mrs. Philip Snowden said that one of the most poisonous lies of a perjured press during this war had been the impression it had endeavoured to convey that the movement which those present at the Convention represented was alien, and antagonistic to the soldiers and their interests.

Almost the only definite note of opposition was sounded by Mr. J.L. Toole (Manchester Branch of the National Union of Clerks), who pointed out that there was sufficient organisation already in existence to deal with the various objects specified in the resolution, and that, as this country was suffering from an entirely different set of circumstances from those in Russia, the formation of a committee to co-ordinate the work of the existing labour organisation would be preferable.

The Convention, however, adopted the resolution almost unanimously, and decided to send the following cablegram to the Workmen and Soldiers’ Council in Russia:-

“The largest and greatest convention of labour, Socialist, and democratic bodies held in Great Britain during this generation has to-day endorsed Russia’s declaration of foreign policy and war aims, and has pledged itself to work through a newly constituted Workmen’s and Soldiers’ Council for an immediate democratic peace. The Convention. received your telegram of congratulation. with gratitude and enthusiasm.”

The conveners of the Convention to constitute the nucleus of the Provisional Committee of the new Council are Messrs. H. Alexander, O.G. Ammon, W.C. Anderson, M.P., Mrs. Despard, Messrs. E.C. Fairchild, J. Fineberg, F.W. Jowett, M.P., G. Lansbury, Ramsay MacDonald, M.P., T. Quelch, R. Smillie, Philip Snowden, M.P., and R. Williams.

A request was made from the body of the Convention that thirteen others should also be selected at once by the Convention, but the meeting adopted a recommendation that the Provisional Committee should call district conferences as soon as possible to appoint other members.

OPEN-AIR MEETING PROHIBITED - In the evening an open-air demonstration was to have been held in Victoria Square, at which Mr. Robert Smillie was to have been the chief speaker. So much feeling had been aroused in the city against the objects of the Convention, particularly the proposition to set up a Council of Workmen’s and Soldiers’ delegates on the lines of that in Russia, that on Saturday the Home Secretary sent a telegram specially authorising the Lord Mayor and the Chief Constable to prohibit any open-air meeting in connection with the Convention, if they were satisfied it would cause grave disorder. Posters were at once distributed by the Lord Mayor and the Chief Constable prohibiting the holding of the meeting, and the evening demonstration therefore was also held in the Coliseum, though a small section of the delegates in the afternoon clamoured for the outdoor meeting to be held, in order, as was said, to demonstrate that the Convention was determined “to act as well as talk.”

Police Check Hostile Crowd - The evening demonstration, like the Convention meetings, was only open to ticket-holders. In the course of it an attempt was made by a crowd of some thousands outside to burst the doors open, but a strong force of police, intervened and cleared all the pavements around the building. Large numbers of people however, lined up in Cookridge Street, the main thoroughfare in which the Coliseum stands, and as the audience, about 3,000 strong, emerged there was much booing. The presence of the police, however, prevented any trouble.

https://www.marxists.org/history/international/social-democracy/1917/leeds-guardian.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2018 7:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4th June 2017: my trip to West Flanders for a very personal remembrance (Part 1)

This coming Sunday I will travel from my home in Berlin to West Flanders in Belgium for a very special and personal act of remembrance. I will meet my parents there – they are making the trip from the UK. Our precise destination is the Ferme Olivier Cemetery, between Poperinge and Ieper, the resting place of Private Hubert Bertram Hancock. Hubert, or Bert, was my great grandfather’s brother (on my mother’s side), who fell aged 32 in Belgium on 4th June 1917. We are marking the centenary of his death.

As part of the overall war effort Bert was insignificant. He was one of thousands to die on Flanders fields. 410 others are buried at Ferme Olivier beside him. But he was a brother, a son, a part of a family, his loss a very personal and individual tragedy. As every loss in war or otherwise always is.

Lees verder op https://jonworth.eu/4th-june-2017-trip-west-flanders-personal-remembrance-part-1/
Hier deel 2: https://jonworth.eu/4th-june-2017-ferme-olivier-cemetery-part-2/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2018 7:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The War Diaries of Roger Stamp: June 1917

Monday 4 June 1917 – Today a reorganisation of the company took place, now we have two instead of four platoons; in each platoon is a bombers, rifle, grenade and Lewis gun section. I have the bombing section in my platoon. This afternoon had a working parade for clothes; I got a shirt and handkerchief.

http://heritage.stockton.gov.uk/people/june-1917/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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The World War I Diaries of Balloonist Cyril Gordon Jones

4th June 1917
Hot sunny day. Balloons up most of the day.
Stevenson (No 1AD) came over and winch P78 was tested and pass serviceable.
No 3 and 4 Sectn (13th Coys) balloons were inflated with gas. FM37 (No 4 Section) was found to be unserviceable and it was replaced by Reserve balloon BM95.
BM95 inflated with tubes. FM62 (No2 Sectn) inflated with ..... tubes. Ten balloons up for first time today.
Went to 13th Coy and informed Howard of all 2nd Brigade Traffic Regulations. Examined lorry hit by shell.
FM43 found to be leaking and a few panels repaired. Feared porous Informed Currin. Met Barker a friend of mine in Tanks.

https://www.ww1balloondiaries.org/copy-of-1917-army-book-063
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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“Freetown, Sierra Leone, June 4th 1917, by Stubbs.”

Landscape view of Freetown and the mountains behind taken from the SS Durham Castle, a troop ship on route to South Africa. The image is from an album chronicling the war time experiences of Archibald Clive Irvine (1893-1974) in East Africa.

Foto... http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15799coll123/id/81460
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Richard Willis Fleming's Digital Diary

4 June 1916 - Service in our mess tent this morning. I think we are the only Church of England unit in the 156th Brigade. I spent nearly all the rest of the morning bathing and basking. A very quiet day.
Poulteney arrived here this morning with fifteen men from the Ammunition Column to take over the ammunition dump here.
An official report in tonight that there has been a big naval action in the North Sea and that each side has lost fifteen ships.

https://generic.wordpress.soton.ac.uk/ww1digitaldiary/2016/06/04/4-june-1916/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Festubert, 4 - 14 June 1915

On 4 June 1915 the 6th Seaforth Highlanders took over the front line from the Canadians just to the north of Festubert. The trenches were in a bad state and much battlefield debris lay about, including the bodies of the dead. 'D’ Company found itself in a very dangerous position in the 'Canadian Orchard' that was exposed to fire from almost every direction and only accessible by a path that ran over open ground.

Because of the poor state of the breastworks great care was necessary as enemy snipers were very active in the area. In the two days spent in the line Lieutenant Cumming was wounded in the chest and lost a finger and one man was killed. Twenty year-old Private Kenneth Mackenzie, a forester on the Altyre Estate, Forres, died on 6 June 1915 having received a severe wound in the chest and two broken legs. His grave was lost and he is commemorated on the Le Touret Memorial to the Missing.

About 20 other men were also wounded. During the night of 6 June the 5th Seaforths relieved the Morayshire battalion and they returned to Lacouture, however, before having time to settle in, they were on the move again, this time nearer to the line at Le Touret. The following day the fine weather broke and a thunderstorm flooded the battalion out of its bivouacs, so they were given permission to move back to Lacouture and into billets.

On 10 June it was again raining heavily as they moved up to the trenches; a difficult and unpleasant journey was made worse as each man had to carry a large number of empty sandbags as well as his normal equipment. After struggling forward to the front line to deliver their loads, they then took up their positions in the reserve line. An unpleasant and muddy three days were spent suffering frequent shelling and having to carry equipment forward each night to help improve the front line.

Those at the battalion HQ were also subjected to some attention by the German artillery and one morning their breakfast, which had been laid out ready, was blown into the air by a shell exploding nearby. Later the same day the Adjutant, Captain Doig, was wounded in the arm and Captain William Macdonald was appointed to take his place, with Lieutenant Kennedy taking command of 'C' Company. An unfortunate training accident also befell two of the battalion's officers, Lieutenants William Petrie and Edmund John Sulley, who were attending bombing school to learn the rudiments of using hand grenades; the latter, who was born in Dumfries on 11 July 1893 and was an actor, lost his right eye in the accident.

The 6th Seaforths then took over the front line from the 8th Argylls on 13 June, with the following day turning out to be a sad one as a sniper killed 20 year-old Lieutenant David Stewart as he was going to the aid of a wounded man. His loss was deeply felt as he had been a member of the battalion for a number of years. He was the first officer of the Morayshire battalion to be killed and the local press gave his death extensive coverage. As well as being known in the area through being an apprentice solicitor in his late father's practice, Stewart and McIsaac, and his membership of the Territorials, he was also known to many others through his links with the Boy Scout movement. He had been a member of the Elgin Academy Troop and later Assistant Scoutmaster, while for the two years prior to the war he was the Secretary of the Boy Scouts Local Association. Sad as that day was, much worse was soon to follow.

Source: Edited extract from 'The Spirit of the Troops is Excellent: the 6th (Morayshire) Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders, in the Great War 1914-1919', by Derek Bird
https://www.edinburghs-war.ed.ac.uk/Moray/Fighting-Front-6th-Seaforth-Highlanders/Festubert-4-14-June-1915
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Walter Lionel Paine, 4 June 1915 - Oundle School

Captain Walter Lionel Paine, Old Oundelian and the first Housemaster of Crosby, was killed in action at Gallipoli on 4 June 1915.

He was the sixth son of Mr and Mrs G W Paine and was born in Upper Norwood on 2nd March 1881. He attended Mr Mallinson’s school in Dulwich and came to School House in Oundle in 1894. Two years later he won a prestigious Senior School Scholarship and was later Captain of the School 1899-1900, and stroked the school crew until, unluckily, he was diagnosed with a heart problem and was forced to give up strenuous sports.

From Oundle he went to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge having won a Senior Classical Scholarship. In 1903 he returned to Oundle as a classics master, took a year off to study French at the Lycee d’Amiens, and in 1907 became the first Housemaster of the new Crosby House. He left Oundle in 1909 and went to Whitgift School in Croydon.

At the outbreak of war he failed to gain a commission and so he enlisted as a private in the Grenadier Guards. His talent and ability led to rapid promotion. In December 1914, he was given a commission as Lieutenant in the King’s Own Royal Lancasters and just one month later was promoted Captain and Adjutant.

In May 1915, he was sent to Gallipoli with the 1st Lancashire Fusiliers. They had famously landed at Helles on 25th April and won six Victoria Crosses in one day – the so-called 6 VCs before breakfast. Captain Walter Paine was killed leading his men in the ill-fated advance of 4th June at Cape Helles and was buried in Twelve Tree Copse cemetery, close to where he fell. He was 34 years old at the time of his death.

In the Lancashire Fusiliers regimental town of Bury, they still hold an annual memorial service to the ‘Lost Lancashires’ on Gallipoli Sunday, the Sunday nearest to April 25th.

https://www.oundleschool.org.uk/Walter-Lionel-Paine-4-June-1915?returnUrl=/World-War-memorials
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Jun 2018 8:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Nation, 4 June 1914

"Pressure from the southern Slavs is bound to increase."

http://roadstothegreatwar-ww1.blogspot.com/2014/06/100-years-ago-quotes-from-june-1914.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
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