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15 mei

 
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Merlijn



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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2006 13:48    Onderwerp: 15 mei Reageer met quote

Englischer Gegenangriff bei Hulluch abgeschlagen
Großes Hauptquartier, 15. Mai 1916.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

In vielen Abschnitten der Front war die beiderseitige Artillerie- und Patrouillentätigkeit lebhaft.
Versuche des Gegners, unsere neugewonnene Stellung bei Hulluch wiederzunehmen, wurden, soweit sie nicht schon in unserem Artilleriefeuer zusammenbrachen, im Nahkampf erledigt.
Im Kampfgebiet der Maas wurden Angriffe der Franzosen am Westhange des "Toten Mannes" und beim Caillettewalde mühelos abgeschlagen.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2006 13:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ein neuer Erfolg am Tolmeiner Brückenkopf - Luftangriff auf Valona
Wien, 15. Mai 1916.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:

Gestern nachmittag entwickelten sich in mehreren Abschnitten lebhafte Artilleriekämpfe, die auch heute fortdauern.
Nachts belegten unsere Flieger die Adriawerke bei Monfalcone, den Bahnhof von Cervignano und sonstige militärische Anlagen ausgiebig mit Bomben. Alle Flugzeuge kehrten unversehrt zurück.
Westlich von San Martino warf unsere Infanterie den Feind aus seinen vorgeschobenen Gräben und schlug mehrere Gegenangriffe ab. Vorstöße der Italiener nördlich des Monte San Michele brachen zusammen. Die Stadt Görz stand abends unter Feuer. Auch nördlich des Tolmeiner Brückenkopfs drangen unsere Truppen mehrfach in die italienischen Gräben ein.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2006 13:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Großes Hauptquartier, 15. Mai 1915.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:

Bei Steenstrate am Ypernkanal wiesen wir einen nächtlichen feindlichen Angriff ab. An der Straße St. Julien-Ypern griffen wir weiter an und machten Fortschritte, drei englische Offiziere mit 60 Mann und einem Maschinengewehr fielen in unsere Hände. Die Zahl der seit dem 22. April bei Ypern von uns gemachten unverwundeten Gefangenen ist auf 110 Offiziere und 5450 Mann gestiegen, wozu noch über 500 verwundete Gefangene kommen.
Südwestlich von Lille entwickelten sich auch gestern heftige Artilleriekämpfe. Feindliche Infanterieangriffe erfolgten dort nicht. An der Lorettohöhe wurden die meisten feindlichen Angriffsversuche niedergehalten. Ein Angriff nördlich des Höhenzuges, der bis in unsere Gräben gelangte, wurde unter schweren Verlusten für den Feind abgeschlagen. Bei der Räumung von Carency und des Westteils von Ablain ist, wie jetzt festgestellt, ein in der vorderen Linie eingebautes Feldgeschütz und eine geringe Anzahl von Behelfsminenwerfern verloren gegangen. Außerdem fielen fünf von uns früher erbeutete französische Geschütze, und zwar drei kleine Revolverkanonen und zwei Mörser, die als Minenwerfer benutzt wurden, in Feindeshand zurück. Nördlich von Arras blieb es im allgemeinen ruhig.
Südlich von Ailly östlich der Maas nahmen wir einige feindliche Gräben, wobei 52 verwundete und 166 unverwundete Franzosen, darunter ein Bataillonskommandeur, gefangengenommen wurden. Drei feindliche Angriffe gegen unsere Stellungen an der Straße Essey-Flirey wurden abgewiesen. Im Priesterwalde setzten wir uns im Morgengrauen durch einen Vorstoß in Besitz eines feindlichen Grabens und machten hierbei einige Gefangene.

Der Kampf um Ypern

Großes Hauptquartier, 15. Mai 1915.
Der Kampf um Ypern gehört wohl mit zu den schwierigsten und interessantesten Operationen, die in diesem Kriege ausgeführt werden. Bereits im Oktober des Vorjahres stießen deutsche Truppen an diesem Punkte gegen die hier befindliche Stellung des Gegners vor, die dieser in stärkster Weise ausgebaut hatte. Das Gelände in Westflandern ist außerordentlich schwierig. Wenn man einen Blick auf eine Spezialkarte wirft, so erblickt man ein Gewirr von Wasserläufen, kleinen Waldstücken, Dörfern, Pachthöfen. Dazu kommt noch, daß hier in Westflandern ebenso wie etwa in Holstein die Wiesen und Felder vielfach durch Knicks abgeschlossen sind. Man kann daher wohl sagen, daß ein für Operationen im großen Stiele ungünstigeres Gelänge auf dem ganzen westlichen Kriegsschauplatz nicht zu finden ist.
Die Verbündeten standen bei Beginn Kämpfe an dem rechten Ufer des Yser-Ypern-Kanals in der Linie Keyem - Dixmuiden - Merckern. Südlich dieses Ortes war ihre Stellung brückenkopfartig um die Stadt Ypern gezogen und lief über Bixschoote - Langemarck - Poelkapelle - Passchendaele - Zonnebeke-Becelaere - Gheluvelt - Zandvoorde - Hollebeke- Wytschaete - Messines nach Süden weiter. Der Angriff wurde nun in der Weise angesetzt, daß die Deutschen zunächst im Norden von Ypern vorstießen. In langwierigen, außerordentlich heftigen Kämpfen wurden Keyem und Dixmuiden genommen und der Gegner auf das linke Yserufer zurückgeworfen. Besonders wichtig war die Wegnahme des heiß umstrittenen Dixmuiden, durch dessen Eroberung die Deutschen sich gleichzeitig ein Ausfalltor nach dem linken Yserufer erkämpften. An der Hauptstellung um Ypern waren zunächst nur geringere Erfolge zu verzeichnen. Becelaere sowie das weiter südwestlich zwischen Gheluvelt und Hollebeke liegende Dorf Zandvoorde wurden genommen und damit auch an dieser Stelle etwas Gelände gewonnen. Im Süden packten die Sachsen, die von Commines auf Warneton vorgegangen waren, außerordentlich energisch an. Wytschaete sowie das hochgelegene Messines wurden nach zäher Gegenwehr den Engländern entrissen und sogar das dicht südlich von Ypern liegende St. Eloi besetzt. Doch kam der Angriff an der das Vorgelände beherrschenden Höhe des Kemmelbergs zum Stehen.
Der Winter verstrich im allgemeinen ohne große Veränderungen in den beiderseitigen Stellungen. Sobald aber, das Frühjahr und damit die bessere Witterung herannahten, beschloß die deutsche Heeresleitung, eine energische Offensive gegen die Ypern-Stellung einzuleiten. Der Plan wurde derartig gefaßt, daß ein konzentrisches Vorgehen gegen die Stellung der Verbündeten möglich wurde, und zwar sollte zunächst die Nordfront der feindlichen Stellung eingedrückt werden, um so der eigenen vorzüglichen Artillerie Gelegenheit zu geben, gegen Flanke und Rücken der vorgeschobenen Stellung von Langemarck - Passchendaele zu wirken.
Der erste Stoß wurde gegen das am Yser-Ypern Kanal gelegene Dorf Drie Grachten gerichtet, das genommen und auch trotz aller Gegenstöße der Verbündeten gehalten wurde. Von hier aus wurde dann der Angriff auf die feindliche Hauptstellung verfügt, die sich in der Linie Bixschoote - Langemarck - Poelkapelle befand: der wichtigste Stoß wurde längs des Kanalufers in der Richtung auf Het Sas geführt. Auch dieser Angriff glückte, und als der Abend des 22. April hereinbrach, befanden sich Steenstraate, Het Sas und Langemarck in deutschem Besitz. Bei Steenstraate wurde auch der Yserkanal überschritten und nach schwerem Kampf das auf dem linken Ufer liegende Dorf Lizerne erstürmt. Es wurde dann an dieser Stelle des Kanals ein Brückenkopf angelegt und damit eine neue Übergangsmöglichkeit auf das linke Yserufer geschaffen. In den folgenden Tagen wurde der Angriff weiter erfolgreich nach Süden vorgetragen. Pilkem und Kersselaere wurden erstürmt, und nachdem der Angriff starker, auf Saint Julien sowie gegen den Brückenkopf von Lizerne vorgehender feindlicher Kräfte abgeschlagen worden war, in breiter Front die Linie St. Julien - Gravenstafel angegriffen.
Unter dem Schutze eines mächtigen Kreuzfeuers, das von Norden und Osten vernichtend in die Reihen der Verbündeten hineinfuhr, rückte die deutsche Ostgruppe auf Zonnebeke vor und gewann nach Fortnahme dieses Ortes Anschluß an die von Norden vorstoßenden deutschen Truppen. Die Front um Ypern hatte damit eine bedeutende Verengerung erfahren, und die Verbündeten zogen ihre Truppen in die Linie Fortuin - Zevenkote - Polygoneveld zurück. Auch diese Stellung aber wurde eingedrückt. Zuerst fiel Fortuin und einen Tag später wurde auch die Ostfront in der Linie Zevenkote - Westhoek - Polygoneveld durchbrochen und der Gegner, der abermals unter heftigem Flankenfeuer schwer leiden mußte, aus Eksternest zurückgeworfen.
Auch im Süden waren deutsche Truppen gegen die Ypern-Stellung vorgegangen und hatten dem Gegner Hollebeke entrissen sowie den Angriff auf Klein-Zillebeke vorgetragen. Da gleichzeitig ein neuer, heftiger Anlauf von Osten her erfolgte, bei dem der Schloßpark von Helrenthage, das Dorf Eksternest sowie die Ferme Het Papotie in die Hände der Deutschen fielen, so war damit die enge Verbindung zwischen Ost- und Südgruppe hergestellt sowie der Kreis um Ypern ganz bedeutend enger gezogen.
Die heutige Stellung des Gegners läuft etwa in der Linie 700 Meter südwestlich Fortuin über Frerenberg westlich Eksternest an dem Ostrande des Waldes östlich Zillebeke entlang.
Der Gewinn an Gelände in der stark befestigten Ypern-Stellung, welche die Verbündeten für uneinnehmbar hielten, ist sehr bedeutend. Der Ring um Ypern ist wesentlich enger geworden und ein Vorstoß des Gegners in dem sich kreuzenden Feuer unserer Batterien aussichtslos. Hierzu kommen noch seine schweren Verluste an Menschen- sowie vor allem auch an Kriegsmaterial, das er trotz zähester Gegenwehr in deutscher Hand zurücklassen musste. Hinzu kommt noch das moralische Moment: die Verbündeten, gedrückt durch das Bewußtsein, eine für uneinnehmbar geltende Stellung verloren zu haben, unsere braven deutschen Truppen aber, gehoben in dem Bewußtsein des Sieges, in dem festen Vertrauen, daß alles, was ihnen auch in den Weg kommt, deutschem Heldenmute und deutscher Tätigkeit weichen muß.


Laatst aangepast door Merlijn op 15 Mei 2006 13:59, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2006 13:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 Austrians launch massive offensive on Trentino Front

On this day in 1916, the Austrian army launches a major offensive operation against their Italian enemies on the Trentino front, in northern Italy.

After considering their options carefully, and weighing offers from both sides, Italy had accepted considerable promises of post-war territory from the Allies and declared war on Austria-Hungary (but not on Germany) on May 23, 1915. This opened up a new front in World War I, stretching 600 kilometers—most of them mountainous—along Italy’s much-contested border with Austria-Hungary in the Trentino region. Upon declaring war, the relatively ill-equipped Italian army immediately advanced into the South Tyrol region and to the Isonzo River, where Austro-Hungarian troops met them with a stiff defense. The snowy and treacherous terrain made the region poorly suited for offensive operations, and after several quick Italian successes, combat settled into a stalemate.

The Austrian offensive of May 15, 1916, began with an opening bombardment of the Italian positions by nearly 400 guns. Though they resisted gamely, the Italians were driven off the mountain peaks and forced to retreat south of the town of Rovereto. Nine days after the offensive began, a heavy snow fell, putting a halt to the Austrian advance before they could capture the 4,000-foot peak of Mount Pasubio. Within a week, however, the offensive resumed, and the Austrians continued their resolute advance through the mountain peaks and passes. By the final day of May, thoroughly exhausted but triumphant, they had captured 30,000 Italian prisoners and gained a total of 12 miles of territory since the start of the offensive.
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Festubert, 1915

Forming part of French Commander-in-Chief Joseph Joffre's Artois Offensive in the spring of 1915 - his second large-scale infantry assault following the Champagne Offensive in December 1914 - the Battle of Festubert, in the Ypres Salient, was fought by the Allies (British, Canadian and Indian troops) against the Germans from 15-27 May 1915.

The Festubert attack was launched by Sir Douglas Haig in response to pressure applied to the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) by Joffre, and was the BEF's second attack during the offensive, following an assault upon Neuve Chapelle four days earlier on 9 May.

Preceded by a four day artillery bombardment by over 400 guns firing 100,000 shells, the attack around the village of Festubert was launched at night on 15 May by two divisions of mostly Indian infantry, and made rapid initial progress, despite the failure of the preliminary bombardment to effectively destroy the German Sixth Army front line defences (under Crown Prince Rupprecht). Under attack, the Germans retreated to a line directly in front of the village.

A further assault upon these lines, by Canadian troops, was begun on 18 May, but was unsuccessful in the face of German artillery fire. In heavy rain some Allied troops began to prepare trenches to consolidate the small gains made thus far. During that same evening the German front line received a further injection of reserves.

Renewed attacks by the Allied forces between 20-24 May resulted in the capture of Festubert village itself, a position held until the German advance of spring 1918. Despite having captured Festubert however, the Allied forces had advanced less than a kilometre; consequently the attack was ended on 27 May, with the British having suffered some 16,000 casualties during the action.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/festubert.htm

Battle of Festubert, 15-27 May 1915

The battle of Festubert, 15-27 May 1915, was the second British contribution to the second battle of Artois, the major Allied spring offensive of 1915. The first British attack, at Aubers Ridge (9-10 May), was a disaster. The BEF suffered 11,000 casualties without achieving anything.

The French attack on 9 May had achieved a dramatic success, capturing part of Vimy Ridge, but the Germans had counterattacked, forcing the French back off the ridge. General Joffre called on the British to mount another attack to prevent the Germans moving troops to the French front. Sir John French agreed to mount a new attack.

This attack would be made to the south west of Neuve Chapelle, the scene of the failure of 9 May. As at Neuve Chapelle the 1st Army under General Douglas Haig would launch a two pronged assault on the German lines. The gap between the prongs would be rather narrow, effectively leaving a German strong point in the middle of the British attack.

Festubert marked a significant step on the journey from the search for a breakthrough to the war of attrition. Aware that the Germans were expecting an attack, Haig set limited objectives for the advance, and made it clear that the main purpose of the battle was to grind down the Germans. The attack was preceded by a 60 hour artillery bombardment in which over 100,000 shells were fired, but large parts of the German lines survived intact.

The attack went in early on 15 May. It was more successful than at Aubers Ridge, with some British units reaching and capturing the German front line. Over the first few days of the battle, the British were able to capture more segments of the German front lines, but on 17 May the Germans pulled back to their second line, 1,300 yards behind the original front line.

After a series of failed attacks on 18 May the British rested and replaced some units in the front line. An attack by two Canadian Brigades on 24 May failed to achieve any success, and on the following day all further attacks were cancelled to save ammunition. The battle ended with a series of unsuccessful German counterattacks, aimed at recapturing their original front lines.

The fighting was not as deadly as at Aubers Ridge. Over the thirteen days of the battle, the British suffered 16,000 casualties, most during the first four days of the battle. The British advanced up to 1,300 yards, but in most cases this only took them to the new German lines. The French attack in Artois continued into June, and also turned into a battle of attrition, but again without achieving any significant successes.

Rickard, J (267 August 2007), Battle of Festubert, 15-27 May 1915 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_festubert.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Mei 2010 15:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Case of Considerable Interest - Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in Canada

Arthur Conan Doyle. Letter to Greenhough Smith, 15 May 1914.
Letter to Strand editor Greenhough Smith asking him to forward proofs of a story c/o Grand Trunk Pacific, Montreal. The story mentioned is probably “Danger!” a tale Conan Doyle wrote to urge England to take measures to prepare for imminent war. World War I began later that year.

May 15/14

My dear Smith

I’m sorry to have bothered you, but I had the advice of several experts and could see that there were points of debate which would be open to criticism.

I hope if you send proofs to America they will be from this final form.

I really think now that it is shot-proof. Nous verrons!

My address after Tuesday next will be c/o Grand Trunk Pacific. Montreal. That applies for six weeks.

With all best wishes till July 11th—on which happy day I’ll be back in England.

Yours very sincerely,
A Conan Doyle

http://ve.torontopubliclibrary.ca/case_of_considerable_interest/letter_to_smith_1914.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Battle of Bullecourt, 3–15 May 1917

(...) Part of Bullecourt was seized by the British on 7 May and ten days later all the ruins were in their hands. On 15 May the Australians fought off a final German counter-attack and the enemy decided to leave this piece of the Hindenburg Line to Australia. One Australian historian described the fighting at Bullecourt as the taking of a small, tactically useless village at a cost of more than 7,000 Australian casualties.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields/bullecourt-may-1917.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Battle of Artois

15 May 1915 - Général Foch ordered further attacks against Neuville Saint-Vaast and Souchez which had refused to succumb to the French, but these all failed and both he and Général Joffre, the French Commander in Chief, agreed that it would be the best part of a week before any further attempts could be made.

On the left the 21e DI attacked night and day without cease driving the Germans back crater by crater until the French had taken Ablain Saint Nazaire, and ultimately Notre Dame de Lorette.

The church at Ablain stands today as a reminder of the devastation that was wrought in the village. It had been built in 1505 and was considered a masterpiece of Gothic architecture. Following two weeks of combat its former glory been reduced to a shell pitted husk.

The Germans had made good use of the time to bring up fresh Divisions and had undertaken to either strengthen those lines that hadn't been taken or create new ones where the French had met with success.

Once again though, it was the advantage in heavy artillery that was proving the irresistible force in favour of the Germans.

The daily run of attack and counter attack began to decrease as the situation stabilised, though fighting within the Labyrinth must have continued to be hot and heavy as the 53e DI records having used up over 20 000 grenades over a three day period.

Now that the French had gained a new front line planning was put into motion for further attacks to push on the advantage.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_artois.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

15 May 1915 - Major-General William Throsby Bridges, commander 1st Australian Division, was wounded in the thigh by a Turkish sniper in Monash Valley. He died on 18 May on his way to Egypt aboard the hospital ship Gascon. His last words were: Anyhow, I have commanded an Australian Division for nine months.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/may-1915.html

William Throsby Bridges

Major General Sir William Throsby Bridges KCB, CMG (18 February 1861 – 18 May 1915) served with Australian forces during World War I, and was the first Australian to reach general officer rank. He was also the first Australian general to be killed during the war, at Gallipoli on 18 May 1915. (...)

In May 1914, Bridges was appointed Inspector General of the Army. He was in Queensland when the war began, and arrived in Melbourne on 5 August 1914. Bridges met with the cabinet and was charged with the creation of an expeditionary force of 20,000 men for overseas service. He chose much of his staff from available graduates from the Duntroon college.

Bridges and his command sailed from Albany, Western Australia, on 26 October 1914. En route, the destination was changed from England to Egypt and Bridges arrived there on 30 November 1914. As commander of the 1st Australian Division, Bridges landed at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli at around 7:30am on 25 April 1915.

While touring the lines on 15 May 1915, Bridges was shot through the femoral artery by a Turkish sniper. Dragged to safety, he was evacuated to the hospital ship Gascon. Infection set in but amputation was deemed impossible since he had lost so much blood.

Made aware of Bridges' imminent death, King George V knighted him on 17 May. He died the following day on board the hospital ship.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Throsby_Bridges

Search Australian Honours - Advanced Search

Name: BRIDGES, William Throsby
Award: The Order of the Bath - Knight Commander (Military)
Post-nominal: KCB(M)
Date granted: 22 May 1915
Citation: Australian Imperial Force

http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au/honours/honour_roll/search.cfm?aus_award_id=1082381&search_type=advanced&showInd=true
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The World's Greatest War [advertising supplement], 15 May 1915

Advertising supplement, which accompanied recruitment letter, promoting a book entitled The World's Greatest War

http://hpcanpub.mcmaster.ca/media/world039s-greatest-war-advertising-supplement-15-may-1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Mei 2010 16:01, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 15:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Title: Gallipoli Diary - Author: Edward P. Cox

Saturday 15/5/15. W. KRITHIA ROAD
NZ Brigade still in rest bivouac
but today men worked on beaches constructing
stores & unloading goods. Usual shell
fire over our ground but no one was
injured in our lines. Fighting continues
in the firing line & artillery very
active during evening. Aeroplane
reconnaissance by our people was
very much in evidence – four
machines being up together. The
enemy daily waste hundreds of
rounds of shrapenal on them but
as yet to no purpose.

http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-CoxDiar-t1-body-d8.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 16:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries

Edie is at Casualty Clearing Station No. 3 near Ypres.

[May] 14th
7 a.m. - All the other 3 have gone for a bath, as we were on duty until past 10 p.m. I prefer for once in a way not to hurry so I am not going to. Still pouring - guns going - shall dress slowly now.
10 p.m. - Busy day, fine weather, sunny and cold, big convoy in 2 Germans and 2 Indians amongst them. I was not busy after tea, so strolled in the garden and first watched 2 of our aeroplanes flying boldly and daringly over the G. lines. They rose from the aerodrome and flew straight to the G’s lines and were at once fired at - circled round, came back and flew over again and were again fired at. I watched the shells bursting, happily they all did well below the aeroplanes. Next I watched the sunset, which was beautiful a rich golden one. I usually watch it while we are at dinner, we have our door which leads to the garden open, and from my place at table I always get a picture of country and sunsets of all colours and shades. The birds are all now in full song, thrushes specially noticeable. The country is most interesting and less flat than at Pop.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol1/html/VolText.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 16:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Proclamation on Panama Canal - 1914

To the People of Michigan,

Greetings:

Whereas, Congress by special enactment has planned for a world celebration of the Nation's achievement in the completion of the Panama Canal; and

Whereas, The President of the United State has invited the several states and foreign countries to participate in the event as an expression of patriotic pride in the Nation's gift to the world. And it having been decided to memorialize the event by a world Exposition at San Francisco to be known as the Panama-Pacific International Exposition; and

Whereas, the last Legislature adjourned without having made provision for Michigan representation at the Exposition;

Now Therefore, I, Woodbridge N. Ferris, Governor of Michigan, believing that Michigan, believing that Michigan should be adequately represented, do hereby earnestly appeal to all the citizens to contribute and assist in the patriotic campaign for funds, in order that the State may have a suitable Building in which to show to the world the products, progress and development of her commerce, manufacturers and agriculture. All contributions should be sent to John W. Haarer, State Treasurer, Lansing, Michigan.

Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the State, at Lansing, this fifteenth day of May, 1914.

http://www.ferris.edu/library/SpecCollections/WNF/writings/PanamaProclamation1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sykes-Picot Agreement - 15 & 16 May, 1916:

1. Sir Edward Grey to Paul Cambon, 15 May 1916

I shall have the honour to reply fully in a further note to your Excellency's note of the 9th instant, relative to the creation of an Arab State, but I should meanwhile be grateful if your Excellency could assure me that in those regions which, under the conditions recorded in that communication, become entirely French, or in which French interests are recognised as predominant, any existing British concessions, rights of navigation or development, and the rights and privileges of any British religious, scholastic, or medical institutions will be maintained.
His Majesty's Government are, of course, ready to give a reciprocal assurance in regard to the British area.

2. Sir Edward Grey to Paul Cambon, 16 May 1916

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency's note of the 9th instant, stating that the French Government accept the limits of a future Arab State, or Confederation of States, and of those parts of Syria where French interests predominate, together with certain conditions attached thereto, such as they result from recent discussions in London and Petrograd on the subject.

I have the honour to inform your Excellency in reply that the acceptance of the whole project, as it now stands, will involve the abdication of considerable British interests, but, since His Majesty's Government recognise the advantage to the general cause of the Allies entailed in producing a more favourable internal political situation in Turkey, they are ready to accept the arrangement now arrived at, provided that the co-operation of the Arabs is secured, and that the Arabs fulfil the conditions and obtain the towns of Homs, Hama, Damascus, and Aleppo.

It is accordingly understood between the French and British Governments---

1. That France and Great Britain are prepared to recognize and protect an independent Arab State or a Confederation of Arab States in the areas (A) and (B) marked on the annexed map, under the suzerainty of an Arab chief. That in area (A) France, and in area (B) Great Britain, shall have priority of right of enterprise and local loans. That in area (A) France, and in area (B) Great Britain, shall alone supply advisers or foreign functionaries at the request of the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States.

2. That in the blue area France, and in the red area Great Britain, shall be allowed to establish such direct or indirect administration or control as they desire and as they may think fit to arrange with the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States. 3. That in the brown area there shall be established an international administration, the form of which is to be decided upon after consultation with Russia, and subsequently in consultation with the other Allies, and the representatives of the Shereef of Mecca.

4. That Great Britain be accorded (1) the ports of Haifa and Acre, (2) guarantee of a given supply of water from the Tigris and Euphrates in area (A) for area (B). His Majesty's Government, on their part, undertake that they will at no time enter into negotiations for the cession of Cyprus to any third Power without the previous consent of the French Government.

5. That Alexandretta shall be a free port as regards the trade of the British Empire, and that there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards British shipping and British goods; that there shall be freedom of transit for British goods through Alexandretta and by railway through the blue area, whether those goods are intended for or originate in the red area, or (B) area, or area (A); and there shall be no discrimination, direct or indirect against British goods on any railway or against British goods or ships at any port serving the areas mentioned.

That Haifa shall be a free port as regards the trade of France, her dominions and protectorates, and there shall be no discrimination in port charges or facilities as regards French shipping and French goods. There shall be freedom of transit for French goods through Haifa and by the British railway through the brown area, whether those goods are intended for or originate in the blue area, area (A), or area (B), and there shall be no discrimination, direct or indirect, against French goods on any railway, or against French goods or ships at any port serving the areas mentioned.

6. That in area (A) the Baghdad Railway shall not be extended southwards beyond Mosul, and in area (B) northwards beyond Samarra, until a railway connecting Baghdad with Aleppo via the Euphrates Valley has been completed, and then only with the concurrence of the two Governments.

7. That Great Britain has the right to build, administer, and be sole owner of a railway connecting Haifa with area (B), and shall have a perpetual right to transport troops along such a line at all times.

It is to be understood by both Governments that this railway is to facilitate the connexion of Baghdad with Haifa by rail, and it is further understood that, if the engineering difficulties and expense entailed by keeping this connecting line in the brown area only make the project unfeasible, that the French Government shall be prepared to consider that the line in question may also traverse the polygon Banias-Keis Marib-Salkhab Tell Otsda-Mesmie before reaching area (B).

8. For a period of twenty years the existing Turkish customs tariff shall remain in force throughout the whole of the blue and red areas, as well as in areas (A) and (B), and no increase in the rates of duty or conversion from ad valorem to specific rates shall be made except by agreement between the two Powers.

There shall be no interior customs barriers between any of the above-mentioned areas. The customs duties leviable on goods destined for the interior shall be collected at the port of entry and handed over to the administration of the area of destination.

9. It shall be agreed that the French Government will at no time enter into any negotiations for the cession of their rights and will not cede such rights in the blue area to any third Power, except the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States without the previous agreement of His Majesty's Government, who, on their part, will give a similar undertaking to the French Government regarding the red area.

10. The British and French Governments, as the protectors of the Arab State, shall agree that they will not themselves acquire and will not consent to a third Power acquiring territorial possessions in the Arabian peninsula, nor consent to a third Power installing a naval base either on the east coast, or on the islands, of the Red Sea. This, however, shall not prevent such adjustment of the Aden frontier as may be necessary in consequence of recent Turkish aggression.

11. The negotiations with the Arabs as to the boundaries of the Arab State or Confederation of Arab States shall be continued through the same channel as heretofore on behalf of the two Powers.

12. It is agreed that measures to control the importation of arms into the Arab territories will be considered by the two Governments.

I have further the honour to state that, in order to make the agreement complete, His Majesty's Government are proposing to the Russian Government to exchange notes analogous to those exchanged by the latter and your Excellency's Government on the 26th April last. Copies of these notes will be communicated to your Excellency as soon as exchanged.

I would also venture to remind your Excellency that the conclusion of the present agreement raises, for practical consideration, the question of the claims of Italy to a share in any partition or rearrangement of Turkey in Asia, as formulated in article 9 of the agreement of the 26th April, 1915, between Italy and the Allies.

His Majesty's Government further consider that the Japanese Government should be informed of the arrangement now concluded.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Sykes-Picot_Agreement
Zie ook http://electronicintifada.net/bytopic/historicaldocuments/20.shtml
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 14 Mei 2010 19:51, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 19:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of Asiago, 1916

Tired of continually defending his line along the Isonzo River in the seemingly endless Battles of the Isonzo, Austro-Hungarian Chief of Staff Conrad von Hotzendorf resolved to mount an offensive of his own during the early part of 1916.

Conrad approached his German counterpart, Erich von Falkenhayn, with details of a planned attack along the Trentino designed to knock the Italians out of the war in a single combined blow.

Falkenhayn, under pressure on both Eastern and Western fronts (notably at Verdun in the west, begun in February that year), refused to commit German resources to the plan. Conrad, convinced of the soundness of the plan, nevertheless determined to press ahead without German assistance.

His plan was to drive through the Trentino's mountain passes and to occupy Italy's northern plain, thereby trapping Italian forces along the Isonzo in addition to those based in the Carnic Alps.

What transpired is an offensive alternately referred to as the Battle of Asiago and the Trentino Offensive. It was to be the sole offensive initiated by the Austro-Hungarians on the Italian Front before Caporetto in October 1917, and was the only major Austro-Hungarian action to occur away from the Isonzo.

Launched on 15 May 1916 during a lull in the Italian Isonzo offensives (of which there had been five to date, most recently in March 1916) the attack was planned by Conrad himself and nominally executed by Archduke Eugen.

The Austro-Hungarian initiative was well-timed. The Isonzo sector was quiet pending another Italian assault, and the Austro-Hungarian lines in the Balkans and in the East appeared sufficiently stable to justify action elsewhere.

Conrad therefore assembled 18 divisions of Dankl's Eleventh Army and Kovess' Third Army. As battle began the Austro-Hungarians enjoyed a notable superiority in artillery (some 2,000 guns) and outnumbered the Italians' infantry by four-to-one.

Meanwhile Luigi Cadorna had taken note of Conrad's actions in deploying forces to the Trentino and consequently ordered General Roberto Brusati's Italian First Army to prepare itself for an unexpected attack.

While Cadorna's action in warning Brusati was certainly well-judged it came undone with Brusati's decision to ignore his instructions; instead he determined to continue with preparations already in hand to launch local attacks of his own.

The consequence was painful for the Italians. Archduke Eugen's Third and Eleventh armies stormed the Italian positions along a 70km front and, at least initially, succeeded in achieving substantial gains. The Italians were pushed back 8km behind Posina in the centre of their line by 22 May, and then a further 10km beyond Asiago within a further week.

Asiago itself - scene of the offensive's heaviest fighting - was evacuated by the Italians on 29 May. Fortunately for the Italians the ruggedness of the terrain served to impede the Austro-Hungarian supply chain and gave Cadorna an opportunity to save the situation.

Calling upon his Russian allies to mount a distracting offensive on the Eastern Front aimed at drawing Austro-Hungarian forces away from the Trentino (taking the form of the Russian Brusilov Offensive), he abruptly abandoned plans to continue the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo and redeployed half a million men to the Trentino by use of a highly efficient railway system.

These acts of sharp thinking saved the situation for the Italians and by 2 June the position in the Trentino had been stabilised. Archduke Eugen was obliged to withdraw his troops to a position just 5km in front of where he had started.

Casualties were heavy. In suffering approximately 150,000 losses the Austro-Hungarians were never again able to launch a major offensive without German assistance. The Italians lost around 147,000 men but, perhaps more crucially, the Trentino offensive dispelled pacifist sentiment at home amid fears of invasion. Antonio Salandra's government fell and was replaced by Paolo Boselli.

Fortunately for Luigi Cadorna military salvation was just around the corner. On 6 August 1916 he launched the Sixth Battle of the Isonzo, also known as the Battle of Gorizia, in which the Italians finally succeeded in establishing a bridgehead across the Isonzo River and in capturing Gorizia.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/asiago.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 20:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916: Jesse Washington lynched after conviction

Lynching is such a vile word. Likely taken from the name of Captain William Lynch of Virginia (circa 1780), the term for administering justice while dispensing with a trial had, by 1916, long since taken on its more common meaning of a white-on-black public killing.

But Jesse Washington’s case defies this simple definition, straddling the line between state execution and an unrestrained populace. Washington’s brutal lynching at the hands of a white mob in Waco, Texas, on May 15, 1916, clearly fits the definition, and the particularly grisly details of his demise conjure all-too-familiar images of violent racism in the pre-Civil Rights South; but in another more disturbing way, Washington was effectively executed, his punishment carried out not by the state of Texas, but by the people themselves.

Washington was born in 1899, a black farmhand who may or may not have been mentally retarded.* While his life is not well-documented, his death most certainly is. Washington was arrested on May 8 of that year for the rape and murder of Lucy Fryer, the 53-year old wife of a well-to-do cotton farmer. Fryer was found bludgeoned to death. Washington was spared for a week by the Waco sheriff, who successfully took him into custody before a pre-trial mob got their hands on him; Washington was then sent to Dallas for holding to prevent a local incident. To appease the mob, he was transferred back to Waco and tried for the crime just one week later.

It’s unclear whether Washington was guilty — evidence is scant and the trial lasted just one hour, but Washington appears to have had ample opportunity to perpetrate the act and is purported to have confessed — but his guilt or innocence in the matter was not on the mob’s mind. On May 15, the well-attended trial ended, and in four minutes, the jury reached its guilty verdict. Before the 17-year old could be sentenced, and with little or no resistance offered by any of the various legal entities in the courthouse, several hundred of the onlookers (some brandishing weapons) rushed Washington and carried him out the doors. Outside, a larger crowd waited to beat and castrate him. A chain was thrown around Washington’s neck, and he was dragged to the town square, where he met an immense crowd as well as the pile of dry goods boxes that was to be his end.

By some estimates, up to 15,000 (mostly white, though not exclusively white) people watched the horrible events unfold; without question, Waco’s mayor as well as several other public officials watched from their second-story perch at town hall on one side of the square. Washington was tossed onto the boxes and coal oil was poured over him. The other end of the chain was thrown over what has become known as the Hanging Tree, and the fuel below Washington’s feet was set ablaze. Immersed in the flames, he attempted to climb the blisteringly hot chain multiple times, each time to be lowered back into the cauldron. It’s unclear how long Washington was alive, but the event lasted more than an hour, after which his fingers and teeth were claimed as souvenirs, his body parts were separated from the torso, and the remains of Washington were dumped in a bag so they might be dragged once more through the Waco streets.

Also watching from the mayor’s position was a cameraman who wanted to sell photographs of Washington’s charred corpse as postcards. Fred Gildersleeve snapped a series of images which would briefly make Waco the most shamefully famous city in the nation. Gildersleeve’s work paints a portrait of a town possessed by spite and uncontrolled rage: thousands of white spectators standing about the burning body of Washington from above, then hundreds of blacks gathered around his burned and brutalized remains from ground level. Others took pictures as well,
some more disturbing than others.

A complete and startlingly brutal account of this murder is given by Patricia Bernstein in her 2005 book The First Waco Horror: The Lynching of Jesse Washington and the Rise of the NAACP, which also tracks the increased viability of the NAACP in the wake of the slaying. What makes this case noteworthy for this column, though, is that Washington was found guilty prior to his lynching, and he would doubtless have received a state-supported death sentence. At the time, Texas law would have allowed for a public hanging; presumably, the spectacle surrounding Washington’s execution would have been just as significant (though not nearly as gruesome). Instead, vigilante justice was administered on the young farmhand, and his case because a linchpin for the Civil Rights movement. As with other lynchings of the time, no persons were charged in the incident, though it was obvious that there was significant planning involved and, from some of the images, that some form of self-appointed executioner actively participated in the deed.

Unlike a state-sponsored execution, though, Washington’s death raised the ire of the jury foreman, who harshly criticized the court for not protecting him. And because he was lynched, his cause was also taken up by several Northern papers, pushed into the national spotlight by NAACP secretary Royal Freeman Nash and Elisabeth Freeman.** Over 90 years later, the town of Waco is still dealing with the Waco Horror. The lynching has reared its head multiple times as many residents have pushed for a plaque to be erected on the site of the lynching, as one was for a distressingly large number of prior lynchings in Waco. Some in the town continue to resist, asserting that Washington’s guilt absolved the mob of responsibility for its act.

Washington’s case raises two of the critical issues in the modern death penalty debate: culpability of the executioner (and witnesses), and cruelty of punishment. Nobody in the mob was prosecuted for the crime, and in the Waco of that day, it would have been unusual if someone had; today, we take little interest in the state executioner but would vociferously condemn such mob action. On a similar note, Washington’s death was barbaric and brutal, and few would argue that such an execution should be undertaken through legal channels, but recent Supreme Court cases have found it difficult to identify the meaning of “cruel and unusual punishment”. The debate continues in the United States, but these are two arguments, posed by Cesare Beccaria, that caused Leopold II to outlaw capital punishment in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1789, and cases like Washington’s suggest they should continue at the very least to give us pause today.

* Some accounts state simply that he was illiterate, and if this is the litmus test for mental retardation in the early 1900s, around 6 percent of the population fell into that category.

** Freeman worked tirelessly to drag information from Waco’s inhabitants, her actions likely sparking papers like the local Waco Times-Herald to quickly shut the door on the case; that paper officially apologized 90 years later for its and other newspapers’ roles in venerating the lynch mob.


http://www.executedtoday.com/2008/05/15/1916-jesse-washington-lynched-after-conviction/
Zie ook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse_Washington
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 May 1916, Commons Sitting

GERMAN NAMES (ALTERATION).


HC Deb 15 May 1916 vol 82 c1112 1112

Captain CHARLES BATHURST asked the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether he will consider the desirability, in fairness to persons of British extraction, whose names were assumed by persons of German nationality between the outbreak of war and the 12th October, 1914, as for instance in the case of Karl Klosch, who during this period assumed the name of Charles Bathurst, of making the prohibition of such assumption which became operative on the latter date retrospective as from the 4th August, 1914, so that all such piracy during the War may receive like treatment?

The SECRETARY of STATE for the HOME DEPARTMENT (Mr. Herbert Samuel) The hon. Member is under a misapprehension. The prohibition to which he refers is already retrospective. Article 25A of the Aliens Restriction Order prohibits both the assumption and the continued use by an alien enemy of a name other than that by which he was ordinarily known before the War. I have no information as to the particular case referred to in the question, but will be glad to make inquiry if the hon. Member can furnish me with details.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/may/15/german-names-alteration
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 May 1916 - "The Floorwalker" (film) is Released

The Floorwalker was Charlie Chaplin's first Mutual Film Corporation film, made in 1916. It starred Chaplin as a customer in a department store who finds out the manager is stealing money from the store.

It was noted for the first 'running staircase' used in films which is used for a series of slapstick that climaxes with a frantic chase down an upward escalator and finding they are remaining in the same position on the steps no matter how fast they move. Edna Purviance played a minor role as a secretary to the store manager, played by Eric Campbell.

Late in the film, Chaplin and the store's floorwalker stumble into opposite doors of an office and are intrigued by their likeness to each other. They mirror each other's movements to deft comic effect in a highly influential "mirror scene."

This scene has been duplicated many times, most famously in the Marx Brothers film Duck Soup. Later renditions can be found in the Bugs Bunny cartoon Hare Tonic, the Mickey Mouse cartoon Lonesome Ghosts, and in the TV series Family Guy and The X-Files. A scene in The Pink Panther, with David Niven and Robert Wagner wearing identical gorilla costumes, mimics the mirror scene. Harpo Marx did a reprise of this scene, dressed in his usual costume, with Lucille Ball also donning the fright wig and trench coat, in an episode of I Love Lucy. Additionally, an early episode of The Patty Duke Show contains a mirror scene in which the characters Patty and Cathy Lane (both played by Patty Duke) act out a version similar to the one found in the film Duck Soup.

http://timelines.com/1916/5/15/the-floorwalker-film-is-released
Zie ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UcLIqY_0EIY
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 20:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Viv

Marcinelle
Charleroi
15/5/19

Dear Love

There’s very little in the way of news nowadays. Just had another letter from P. also one from D. a couple of days back. They expect to get married about 5th June and both want me to hurry up and get across for the event but I’m afraid that’s out of the question. Our draft on the 19th is only 60 & 1 officer. Our next draft, the finals one, is put off until 31st so I will probably only land in England on the 5th. We had a sort of a final review at Charleroi yesterday. It went off well and all the boys tried their best to make it a success. There were about 5 or 6 thousand civilians out on the ground as well as the Mayor & Corporation of Charleroi who stood hatless in the sun for half and hour about while General Hobbs addressed the parade. I spent two days this week on Courts Martial & expect to put in the whole of next week. Some of the cases are rather serious and difficult, especially in the matter of collecting witnesses and we will probably have to travel about collecting evidence in various places so we’re booked for a fine old picnic.

The weather has been quite good lately and the country is now looking its best with all the trees etc. covered with their first fresh leaves and the fields showing a nice sprinkling of flowers. The old battlefields, now quiet will be a wild mass of flowers and the various details will be unrecognizable. I have been thinking of a run down to Bullecourt but it will require 5 or 6 days and I can’t get that many clear of duties but I may manage it while I am down at Amiens if we go down there next week. I am not sure of having the time, even so because its very hard getting about in the ruined regions where there are no means of conveyance away from the main railway lines.

The weather has been keeping very fine these last few days and the whole country is looking splendid reminding me of our own spring consequently making me homesick. However it won’t be many more months before I get back and then I think I will grow roots and stay in one the one best place in the world. With all my love Viv.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/viv_10.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 20:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from Vern

Gallipolli
Saturday 15/5/15

Dear Mum,
This is a red – letter day for me, for this morning I become a commissioned officer and henceforth am Lieut Smythe V.E., etc. On the strength of this I am sending you a cable with the good news and in it I am asking you to write to ## & Fred to let them know. They will be delighted, as you all will be. You will tell Flo, without being asked, therefore I did not mention her in the cable. My officer was shot last Sunday & is seriously wounded, so the Colonel recommended me for appt as 2nd Lieut and acting signalling officer. I hope they don’t make me permanent Sig. officer, because I would rather be in the firing line, where there is much more chance of promotion. I think I’d have got my commission even if the officer was not shot, for he had done splendid work, and was pretty sure of getting his promotion, and in that case I’d have got his place. I’m glad of this, for it seems rotten to get promotion by another’s misfortune. I can now write more than one page and my letters will not be censored, altho’ I cannot give any forbidden news as we are put on our honour not to. Also we must put our signatures on the envelopes as a guarantee that we have written nothing of a censorable nature. Have heard nothing from Bert yet, as we have had no mail lately. The chances are that I shall not hear from him till he returns to us. He is either at Lemnos, Alexandria, or Cairo. Probably Lemnos, as he’s only slightly wounded. I hope he gets back soon, for while there’s fighting there’s good chance of promotion, and from what I can hear Bert was doing good work when he got hit.

One of my mates has been specially mentioned in despatches, and I think he’s good for a D.C.M. Have heard nothing of Ralph Dixon; I hope he’s not badly wounded; he’ll be cut up about it, for he was very anxious to win promotion.

It’s rather a remarkable thing that not one of the signalling section has been killed. Four of them have been grazed, but after being patched up they were able to keep to their duty. This is a most beautiful place and we get a superb sunset every afternoon. I drew a sketch of part of the battle ground, but will not be able to send it through. The last mail we got contained a nice big letter each for B & I from you which I will answer in brief. Was very sorry to hear of Percy’s misfortune. You’d have thought the Dept would have been decent enough to have over looked it especially under the circumstances in which he took the day off. If he’d have gone off, to have a spree I suppose nothing would have been said. They’re a lot of bally rotters. Has he secured any other work yet? and what at? I hope he gets a good job. Does he still think of leaving Australia? It’s rotten to think that he should be dismissed just as he was to sit for the Senior’s exam. Oh well, tis an ill wind that blows no good, so let’s hope he’ll get something better by change. The Smythes are a pretty hard lot to crack! Am glad to know that Viv is returning to Sydney, - in fact he’s probably there now. It will be better for all concerned. Just fancy Percy meeting old Laugy! What a chat they must have had. As you say, “Amurika” is the dizzy limit alright. I wonder what they’re going to do about the Lusitania business. I suppose President Wilson will send a wire to the Kaiser telling him he’s a naughty man and should not do such rude things! America! Always boasting of their liberty. They’re about the rottenest nation on this earth. Maisie is not in that rotten country Mum. She’s in Canada, thank goodness. I had a nice letter from her by last mail. She is gradually getting better. I’d like to be able to go home thro Canada after the war so that I could call on her. It would be lovely. Did I tell you that I lost all my kit on the third day. I didn’t mind loosing my kit so much, as it is fairly easily replaced but I was sorry to lost my camera, and a bundle of envelopes. I had already taken a couple of photos of the scene of this our first battle, and I could now get plenty of interesting photos. I was sorry to lose the envelopes also. I’ve only got two left so until I get more I’ll have to use cartridge cases, with a card board label, such as many of the chaps are now using.

I also got a nice letter from Mrs Fox. When you see her tell her I’ll write to her before long. She must by now have given me up as a bad job for I have not written to her for such a long time. But Bert keeps her well posted, and now that he’s laid up for a while, he will be able to give you all the news. I hope he brings some envelopes back with him.

Well Mum, there’s little else to tell, as I cannot give you any news as to our whereabouts, movements etc. Oh, by the way, my salary now is, I think, seventeen and sixpence (17/6) per day, three and six 3/6 field allowance, and 3/- per day deferred. Bit of an improvement eh? If the war lasts any length of time, as it seems likely to, I ought to have a decent nest egg on my return. It’ll be a bit of a shock to drop back to about £3.10.0 per week on my return, wont it? Am glad to learn that all at home are O.K. and hope next letter will bring news of Percy having secured good employment. Best love & wishes to all, and regards to Trewallyn folk.

Your loving son Vernie.

P.S. While at Kenso, Norm Dixon introduced us to a couple of his cousins – very nice girls – and they wrote to Ralph saying that the people of the nice boys they had met at Kenso, were living a few houses away form them in Kogarah! Perhaps you have made their acquaintance?
V.

http://smythe.id.au/letters/v_5.htm
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Major Warships Sunk in World War 1 - 1917

15 May 1917

Borea, Italian, Nembo class Destroyer
Sunk in gun battle with Austro-Hungarian destroyers Csepl and Balaton off the Albanian coast whilst defending a convoy.

Scorpione, Italian, Sirio Torpedo Boat
Collision with French gunboat Surveillante, Pantelleria.

Boutefeu, French, Bouclier class Destroyer
Hit a mine laid by the German submarine UC25 and broke in two off Brindisi.

http://www.worldwar1.co.uk/sunk17.htm
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World War I Casualty Lists - May 15, 1918

Gen. Pershing Reports 121 Casualties; Making Total of 5,682 in Overseas Army
Washington, May 15. - The War Department today made public a list of 121 casualties in the American army abroad, bringing the total from the beginning to 5,682. The list contains the names of three killed in action, three died of wounds, five died of disease, one died of accident, seven died of other causes, six wounded severely, forty-nine wounded slightly, eight wounded in action, and thirty-nine missing in action.

Eight commissioned officers are named in the list. Captain George C. Freeland and Lieutenant James F. Crawford are reported missing in action. Captain Clarence F. Jobson and Lieutenants King Alexander, Clarence M. Archer, Robbins L. Conn, John N. Dickerson, and George Howard were slightly wounded.

Lees verder... http://distantcousin.com/military/wwi/nytcasualties/1918/may/15.html
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Finnish Civil War

The Finnish Civil War was a part of the national and social turmoil caused by World War I (1914-1918) in Europe. The war was fought in Finland from 27 January to 15 May 1918 between the forces of the Social Democrats led by the People's Deputation of Finland, commonly called the "Reds" (punaiset), and the forces of the nonsocialist, conservative-led Senate, commonly called the "Whites" (valkoiset). The Reds were supported by Russian Soviet Republic, while the Whites received military assistance from the German Empire.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Finnish_Civil_War
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15 May 1918, Commons Sitting → PRISONERS OF WAR.

NETHERLANDS GOVERNMENT.


HC Deb 15 May 1918 vol 106 cc344-6 344

§ Mr. JOWETT asked the Under-secretary of State for War (1) whether he is aware that the Central Prisoners of War Committee complain that the War Office have forbidden them to send any food or clothing to British prisoners interned in Holland; if he is aware of the effect of this prohibition having regard to the urgent need of the interned prisoners for food and clothing; whether he will take steps to have the prohibition removed; (2) if he is aware of the complaints that are being made by the relatives of prisoners of war interned in Holland on account of the difficulty there has been in sending money or necessities to them through the care committee, notwithstanding the requirements of the prisoners; if he is aware that in the matter of clothing some of the prisoners are especially in need by reason of the fact that on leaving prisoner camps in Germany they left behind as much clothing as possible for the relief of new prisoners, expecting they would themselves be better supplied in Holland; and what steps he is taking to remove the cause of the complaints?

§ Mr. MACPHERSON The Netherlands Government have, under contract with His Majesty's Government, undertaken to supply food for British prisoners of war interned in Holland. Owing to the shortage of supplies in that country, the Government have recently been obliged by popular feeling to reduce the ration of 345 bread and meat to that which is allowed to Dutch civilians. It seems probable that this ration is low, and the question of obtaining the permission of the Netherlands Government to supplement this with supplies from this country is under consideration. It is not considered advisable to allow essential articles of food which are rationed in this country to be sent to Holland.

The officer in charge of British interned in Holland has a considerable stock of uniforms on hand. These are issued when required and replaced on demand. The difficulties in regard to the transmission of money from this country to Holland are recognised, and it is hoped to make arrangements in the near future whereby these difficulties will be largely obviated.

§ 62. Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS asked the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) whether the Government has yet received from the German Government full details of the trial of Sergeant E. A. Boyd, Royal Naval Air Service; and, if not, or in the event of the Government not being satisfied with the reply, and in view of the fact that this man is working out his harsh sentence, will the Government at once notify the German Government of its intention to make reprisals unless Sergeant Boyd is forthwith released and treated properly as a prisoner of war?

§ Mr. J. HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) I would refer my hon. Friend to the answer I circulated on Monday last, not knowing it was my hon. Friend's intention to postpone it.—[See OFFICIAL REPORT, 13th May, 1918, col. 61.]

§ Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS Will the hon. Gentleman consider that, as this unfortunate Sergeant Boyd has already suffered nearly six months of this very harsh imprisonment, it will soon be too late to make strong representations?

§ Mr. HOPE I said in my answer, which I carry in my mind, that no reply had been received from the German Government, and that the question of retaliation in this and other cases was before the military authorities.

§ Mr. JOYNSON-HICKS Will the hon. Gentleman explain to the military authorities that it will be too late, as this man will have served his harsh sentence?

§ Mr. HOPE The matter has been brought very closely before the military authorities.

§ General Sir IVOR PHILIPPS Can the hon. Gentleman say when we may expect an answer and a decision on this matter?

§ Mr. HOPE Of course, a question of retaliation of this kind cannot be treated in isolation from other similar questions, and the whole question of retaliation has now become a Cabinet one.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/may/15/netherlands-government
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Occupation of İzmir

Landings, 15 May 1919 - On May 15, 1919, twenty thousand Greek soldiers landed in İzmir and took control of the city and its surroundings under cover of the Greek, French, and British navies. Greeks of İzmir and other Christians, who formed the minority according to Ottoman sources and a majority according to Greek sources, greeted the Greek troops as liberators. According some other sources, Christian population was "perhaps a bare majority, more likely a large minority in the Smyrna Vilayet, which lay in an overwhelmingly Turkish Anatolia." It has been recorded, before WWI, that the Greeks alone numbered 130,000 out of a total population of 250,000, while the Ottoman ruling class referred to the city as Infidel Smyrna (Gavur Izmir) due to its strong Greek presence.

First Day of the Occupation - The landings proved to be chaotic and one of the examples of atrocities, which would continue during the rest of the conflict, occurred in that very day. Von Mikusch notes: “The Christian crowd rages and yells… Many fall under the bayonet thrusts. The men are forced to tear the fezes from their heads and trample them underfoot – the worst outrage for a Mohammedan – all who refuse are cut down with the sword. The veils are torn from the women's faces. The mob begins to plunder the house of the Mohammedan”.

There were several Westerner eye-witnesses to the events that took place in Izmir. In such a report, Commanding Officer of the USS Arizona wrote: Old men, unarmed, and other unoffending civilian Turks were knocked down by the Greeks, killed by stabbing with knives or bayonets, and then afterwards, having their valuables and clothes stripped off their bodies, were thrown into the sea...Specific instances are cited by these same eyewitnesses where Turkish soldiers and officers were bayoneted from behind by their Greek guards, while the rabble rifled their pockets and then threw their bodies into the sea. Many of the worst instances of inhuman treatment of the Turks were while they were under arrest and on open sea front at noonday.

Donald Whitall, British resident of İzmir stated that: From the custom-house up to the Kramer Palace Hotel I was the unwilling witness of the massacre of some thirty unarmed men, who were being marched with hands up. This butchery was committed by Greek soldiers entirely...Close to the landing place of the Cordelio boats I saw a lot more shot down.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_%C4%B0zmir#Landings.2C_15_May_1919
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15 May 1919, Written Answers (Commons)

SURRENDERED ENEMY WARSHIPS.


HC Deb 15 May 1919 vol 115 c1783W 1783W

Lieutenant-Colonel HILDER asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if any decision has been arrived at in regard to the disposal of the surrendered enemy warships by sinking the same in mid-ocean?

Dr. MACNAMARA No decision has yet been come to. The question is under consideration by the Peace Conference.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/may/15/surrendered-enemy-warships
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May 15 1919: Edith Cavell reburied in Norwich

Edith Cavell was buried next to the place where she was shot. After the end of the First World War, her coffin was exhumed and brought back to England.

A state funeral was held in Westminster Abbey on 15th May 1919, but according to her family’s wishes, her coffin was taken to Norwich Cathedral, and she was buried for the last time there on 19th May 1919.

A service is held at her graveside every October, on the nearest Sunday to the date of her death.

http://www.webhistoryofengland.com/?p=855
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Germany and the Treaty

Those who sign this treaty, will sign the death sentence of many millions of German men, women and children.
- Count Brockdorff-Rantzau, leader of the German delegation to Versailles (15 May 1919).

http://www.johndclare.net/peace_treaties5.htm
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15 May 1920 - Wanganui mayor shoots poet

The victim of the shooting, poet and returned soldier Walter D'Arcy Cresswell, alleged that Mayor Charles Mackay had made homosexual overtures to him. The incident, which occurred in the mayor’s office, brought Mackay’s 11-year career as mayor of Wanganui to a shocking end. Cresswell was only slightly injured.

Cresswell claimed that Mackay (who’d previously sought treatment for his homosexuality) had made sexual advances, then panicked when faced with the prospect of public exposure. But Cresswell, later known to be a homosexual himself, may not have been an entirely innocent party. Following the shooting, there was widespread speculation that he had been enlisted by others to blackmail the mayor into resigning. This has never been proven.

Mackay was convicted of attempted murder and sentenced to 15 years' hard labour. While in prison he was declared bankrupt. Mackay’s wife divorced him and resumed her maiden name, which was also taken by their daughters. Wanganui's Mackay Street was re-named Jellicoe Street and his name was removed from the foundation stone of the city's Sarjeant Gallery. Mackay’s portrait was taken from the council chambers and destroyed, and he was not mentioned in local histories for another 50 years.

Released from prison in 1926, Mackay travelled to England. After a failed business venture it is thought that he worked as a journalist. In 1928 he moved to Berlin and worked as a reporter and English language teacher. The following year he was covering the May Day riots for a British newspaper when he was shot and killed by a German police officer, who mistook him for a communist. Representatives from the British Embassy and German Foreign Office attended his funeral.

In 1985 Mackay’s name was reinstated to the inscription on the Sarjeant Gallery’s foundation stone.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline&new_date=15/5
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Uit de Nieuwe Koerier van 15 mei 1915

Waubach. Zaterdagmiddag arriveerde aan de grens alhier een wagen waarvan de lading door rijksambtenaren zou worden onderzocht. Een der ambtenaren geraakte bij dit geval iets over de Duitsche grens. De Duitsche posten, die in zijne nabijheid waren grepen den man, die de vergissing te laat in zag, vast en sleepten hem weg. 't Schijnt dat de ambtenaar, d.W., sterk tegen de smokkelaars optrad en daardoor bij de grenswacht niet in een goed blaadje stond. De heer d.W. is verder naar Duitschland getransporteerd. Van een en ander is telegraphisch aan de regeering in Den Haag mededeeling gedaan. Reeds in van overheidswege een onderzoek ingesteld.

http://www.limburger.nl/article/20100515/TOENENNU/392008859#15_mei_1888,_1897,_1900,_1915,_1926
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2010 23:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Zaterdag 15 Mei 1915.

Valkenswaard. Smokkelen. Nu den smokkelhandel in petroleum begint af te nemen, neemt die in tarwebloem weer toe; geheele partijen worden den laatsten tijd aangehouden. Ook benzine begint aftrek te krijgen; althans in één der laatste nachten wist onze waakzame landweergrenswacht, even buiten Valkenswaard, 12 bussen of 120 liter benzine in beslag te nemen, die men poogde naar België uit te voeren.
Naar beweerd wordt zou de infanterie te Leenderstrijp in denzelfden nacht eveneens 12 bussen of 120 liter benzine hebben aangehouden.

Hinderwet. Bij den rijwielhandelaar H. L. werden ruim 200 liter benzine door de maréchaussée in beslag genomen ingevolge de Hinderwet. Den dag te voren had L. nog 360 liter ingeslagen, doch de rest gelukkig al verkocht. Oppassen is in dezen tijd de boodschap.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1915.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2010 10:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brief van Wolfgang Stammler - 15 mei 1915

Bij Vieville, den 15den Mei 1915.

Dat Kornmesser gesneuveld is, doet mij zooveel verdriet. Ik was sedert we in Marburg studeerden, met hem en Jüngst zeer bevriend. Nu zijn ze alle twee voor het vaderland gevallen. Dat is toch het grootste. Altijd weer opnieuw bij onze gevechten, als men in de loopgraven ging met de gedachte, daar boven te blijven, als men zijn best deed, zich van alles, wat men hier beneden heeft, los te maken, kwam het mij zoo sterk tot bewustzijn: dat wie zijn leven geeft, het behouden zal ten eeuwigen leven. Niet slechts zijn leven geven in den dood — dat is, ik zou haast zeggen, alleen een technische kwestie — neen, je leven niet meer je eigendom te noemen, maar het geheel over te geven, waaraan je het dankt: aan God en Vaderland. Dan ben je ook heel rustig en kan je anderen helpen. Op de rustdagen ga ik dikwijls naar het naburige Vieville, waar onze ambulance is, om onze kameraden te bezoeken. Ik heb nu al een heele massa vrienden daar. En dat is dan het tweede deel van mijn vrijwillig aalmoezenierschap. Vóór in de loopgraven, waar toch geen geestelijke naar toe komen kan, en achter het front in de ambulance, waar de aanvoerder van den troep weer heel anderen invloed dan de geestelijke kan uitoefenen. Geest en ambt! Het oerchristendom met zijn charismata had toch maar gelijk. Nergens heb ik dat beter doorzien dan te velde. Alles met de kameraden te dragen en daarbij nog de zorg voor hun zielen! Zulk een Godsdienst is de mooiste!

Wolfgang Stammler, candidaat theologie

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/brieven/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2010 11:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 15 mei 1918
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Buitenlandsch nieuws

Reuter verneemt van Armenische zijde, dat de Armeniërs zich overal in den Kaukasus organiseeren om zich tegen den opmarsch de Turkse troepen in Oostelijke richting te verzetten. Telegrafische berichten, zoowel uit Armenische als uit Turksche bron hebben gemeld, dat er gevechten tusschen Armenische en Turksche troepen hebben plaats gehad en het is duidelijk, dat de opmarsch der Turken in Oostelijke richting aanmerkelijk belemmerd is.

Ondanks de propaganda van den vijand en het verraad van de Tartaren, zijn de Armeniërs vast besloten tot den dood toe te strijden voor de nationale zaak en de verdediging van het land. Op een belangrijke, geestdriftige meeting te Tiflis, zei de president der Armenische vergadering: "Als wij moeten omkomen, zullen wij met eere omkomen." Den volgenden dag namen de Armenischen vakvereenigingen een motie aan, dat alle strijdbare mannen in dienst zouden treden, terwijl de studenten en scholieren ook bijeenkwamen en verklaarden, dat het slagveld de plaats was, waar zij hun studiën zouden voortzetten.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-15-5-1918.html
http://www.armeensegenocide.info/pub_geschied/buitenlandsch_nieuws_2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mei 2010 11:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De muiterijen in het Franse leger in 1917

De positie van Nivelle was inmiddels onhoudbaar geworden. Op 29 april belde de minister van Oorlog dan ook met Nivelle en liet hem weten dat hij generaal Pétain tot opperbevelhebber zou benoemen. Op 15 mei trad Henri-Phillipe Pétain in functie. Hij was de juiste man op de juiste plaats. Pétain werd in 1916 de held van Verdun toen hij met een uiterste krachtsinspanning de Duitsers tot staan wist te brengen. Hij stond bekend als een uitstekende organisator en een voorstander van een goed georganiseerde defensie. Hij was een tegenstander van de ‘offensive à outrance’ en hechtte veel waarde aan het tactische gebruik van de artillerie. ‘Laat de artillerie het werk doen’ was een van zijn stelregels. Daarnaast toonde hij een werkelijk oprechte belangstelling voor het leven van de gewone soldaat; mede hieraan dankte hij zijn grote populariteit.

Pétain stond voor de zware taak de discipline te herstellen op een zodanige wijze dat het vertrouwen in de legerleiding weer werd hersteld en de gevechtskracht niet werd aangetast.

Om het hoofd te bieden aan de muiterijen vaardigde Pétain allereerst Richtlijn nr. l van 19 mei 1917 uit waarbij een eind werd gemaakt aan onnodige offensieven. Deze gedurfde beslissing, die hij nam tegen de mening van zijn belangrijkste adviseurs in, is typerend voor de analyse die de Franse opperbevelhebber van de crisis maakte: hij was van mening dat het ontstaan van de muiterijen uitsluitend was gelegen in oorzaken van militaire aard. Er is inderdaad vastgesteld dat de muiterijen stopten zodra de gevolgen van de door Pétain genomen beslissing merkbaar werden voor de soldaten. Deze reactie was ook te bespeuren in andere legerkorpsen.

http://www.ssew.nl/muiterijen-franse-leger-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 15:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Man maakt vrouwen actief



Op 15 mei 1919 dient het kamerlid Hendrik Pieter Marchant van de Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond een initiatiefwet in tot instelling van actief vrouwenkiesrecht, waar in 1922 voor het eerst gebruik van kan worden gemaakt. De partijen die zich zo lang tegen het vrouwenkiesrecht hadden verzet, de protestantse en katholieke partijen, bleken er groot profijt van te hebben. Het vrouwenkiesrecht werd in Nederland bevorderd door de Vereniging voor Vrouwenkiesrecht (opgericht in 1894) door Wilhelmina Drucker en Aletta Jacobs. Vanaf 1917 hadden vrouwen al wel het passieve kiesrecht (ze konden wel gekozen worden, maar niet zelf kiezen). Tegenwoordig is alleen de SGP nog tegen het algemeen vrouwenkiesrecht (vrouwen kunnen geen lid van de partij worden en zich dus ook niet namens de SGP kandidaat stellen).

http://www.beleven.org/vandaag/15_mei
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verkeersongeluk 15 mei 1915 - Amigoe di Curacao – 1915



http://www.myheritage.nl/photo-400_21269632_21269632/verkeersongeluk-15-mei-1915-amigoe-di-curacao
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oliver Leese

Sir Oliver William Hargreaves Leese, 3rd Baronet (Londen, 27 oktober 1894 – Llanrhaeadr, 22 januari 1978) was een Britse luitenant-generaal tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog.

Leese was de zoon van Sir William Hargreaves Leese, 2nd Baronet, een advocaat en studeerde aan de Ludgrove School en Eton College. Toen de Eerste Wereldoorlog begon ging hij bij het leger en werd op 15 mei 1915 ingedeeld bij de Coldstream Guards. Leese raakte drie keer gewond tijdens de Slag aan de Somme in 1916 en werd onderscheiden met de Distinguished Service Order.

Na de oorlog bleef Leese in het leger.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Leese
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

P. van der Hem: De Lusitania, 15 mei 1915



http://boekenprent.com/BESTANDEN/AANWINSTEN/politieke%20spotprenten,%20uitgegeven%20als%20bijlagen%20bij%20De%20Nieuwe%20Amsterdammer/target8.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 18:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 mei 1915 was dan de grote dag aangebroken voor Wim en Annie.



Lees verder op http://spechtiania.web-log.nl/spechtiania/persoonlijk/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gracieuse. Geïllustreerde Aglaja, aflevering 10, verschijningsdatum 15 mei 1916



http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/?/nl/items/GMDH01:200019158
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gedenkplaat Belgian Field Hospital Clep (Hoogstade - WOI)



Deze gedenkplaat herinnert aan het 'Belgian Field Hospital Clep'. Joseph Clep (° Herzeele, 1785 - + Brussel, 1871) was een Franse notaris en volksvertegenwoordiger die een zomerverblijf had in Alveringem. Hij huwde met Isabelle Cousijn uit Beveren-aan-de-Ijzer, maar het huwelijk bleef kinderloos. Bij legaat liet hij een godshuis voor ouderlingen oprichten. De werken duurden van 1873 tot 1876, architect was François Heyninx uit Ieper. De bediening van het rustoord Clep werd toevertrouwd aan de Zusters van Liefde uit Kortemark. Op 29 januari 1915 werd het rustoord uitgekozen om het 'Belgian Field Hospital' te herbergen, dat uit het Bisschoppelijk College van Veurne moest verdwijnen uit veiligheidsoverwegingen. Clep lag enerzijds voldoende dicht bij het front om gekwetsten aan te voeren (ca. 7km van Fort Knokke verwijderd). Bovendien was het gelegen langs een grote baan om levensmiddelen en medicamenten aan te voeren. Tenslotte lag het rustoord voldoende ver van het front om nog veilig te zijn voor het grote geschut. Het 'Belgian Field Hospital' te Hoogstade bewees grote diensten tijdens de Tweede Slag bij Ieper, met de eerste Duitse gasaanval op 22 april 1915. Op 15 mei 1916 werd het 'Belgian Field Hospital' een Belgisch militair veldhospitaal, met Belgisch personeel, op enkele 'nurses' na. De gewonden en zieken kregen meermaals het bezoek van Koning Albert en Koningin Elisabeth. Oorlogsvrijwilliger en chirurg Ch. Willems was na zijn werk in Duinkerke door de Inspecteur Général van de 'Service du Santé' van het Belgische Leger Mélis, naar Hoogstade gezonden. Daar was hij medisch directeur van het 'Belgian Field Hospital'. Hij behield de leiding toen het een Belgisch veldhospitaal werd. Deze kolonel-geneesheer was in het burgerlijk leven hoofdchirurg van het Gentse Bijloke-hospitaal en professor aan de Universiteit Gent. Hij had reeds vóór WOI de aandacht van de medische wereld op zich gevestigd door zijn kennis en talent. Hij verbeterde talrijke operationele methodes en had ervaring opgedaan in de Balkanoorlog. In het gebouw van het rustoord zelf werden 8 operatietafels geïnstalleerd die doorlopend bediend konden worden. In dat gebouw werden ook alle dokters en personeel gelogeerd. Voor de gewonden zelf werden 6 grote barakken opgetrokken. De capaciteit bedroeg 200 bedden. Het waren vooral zwaargewonden die hier geopereerd werden. Van mei tot en met oktober 1916 overleden 32% van de patiënten; van november 1916 tot en met oktober 1917, 19%. In de totaal zouden zowat 1320 militairen overlijden in het militair veldhospitaal Clep. In juli 1917 werden aan het front 3 chirurgische voorposten opgericht, om te vermijden dat gekwetsten met buikwonden op weg naar een veldhospitaal zouden overlijden aan infecties of bloeduitstortingen. De chirurgische voorpost die afhankelijk was van het veldhospitaal in Hoogstade werd in de hoeve 't Abelenhof in Reninge geïnstalleerd (waaraan een provinciale naamsteen herinnert). De voorposten bleven ongeveer 1 jaar operationeel, in de zomer van 1917 werden ze met het oog op de geplande offensieven weer afgeschaft. Met het Bevrijdingsoffensief eind september 1918 draaide het veldhospitaal te Hoogstade opnieuw op volle toeren.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/woi/relict/970
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hugo Ball: "Cabaret Voltaire" (Zürich, 15 mei 1916)

Toen ik het Cabaret Voltaire oprichtte, had ik de indruk dat er in Zwitserland een handvol jongelieden rondliep dat net als ik niet alleen van zijn onafhankelijkheid wilde genieten, maar die ook wilde laten blijken.

Ik ging naar de heer jan Ephraim, eigenaar van de Meierei, en zei: 'Alstublieft, meneer Ephraim, geef mij uw zaal. Ik wil een artistiek cabaret beginnen.' De heer Ephraim was akkoord en gaf me zijn zaal. En ik ging naar een paar kennissen en zei: 'Alstublieft geef me een schilderij, een tekening, een gravure. Ik wil een kleine tentoonstelling aan mijn cabaret koppelen.' En ik ging naar de gastvrije Zürichse kranten en zei: 'Neem een paar mededelingen op. Het moet een internationaal cabaret worden. We willen mooie dingen doen.' En men gaf me schilderijen en publiceerde mijn mededelingen. Toen opende op 5 februari ons cabaret. Mevrouw Hennings en mevrouw Leconte zongen Franse en Deense chansons. De heer Tristan Tzara droeg Roemeense verzen voor. Een balalaika-orkest speelde verrukkelijke Russische volksliederen en dansen.

Ik vond veel steun en sympathie bij de heer Marcel Slodki, die de affiche voor het cabaret ontwierp, en bij de heer Hans Arp, die me niet alleen eigen werk ter beschikking stelde, maar ook een paar etsen van Picasso en schilderijen van zijn vrienden Otto van Rees en Arthur Segal. Daarnaast vond ik veel steun bij de heren Tristan Tzara, Marcel janco en Max Oppenheimer, die zich graag bereid verklaarden eveneens in het cabaret op te treden. We organiseerden een Russische soirée, en spoedig daarop een Franse soirée (met gedichten van Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, André Salmon, Alfred Jarry, Jules Laforgue en Arthur Rimbaud). Op 26 februari kwam Richard Huelsenbeek uit Berlijn aan, en op 30 maart voerden we twee wonderlijke negerliederen uit (altijd met de grote trom: bom bom bom bom - drabatja mo gere drabatja mo bonoooooooooooo). De heer Rudolf von Laban, die de voorstelling bijwoonde, was in de wolken. En op initiatief van de heer Tristan Tzara voerden de heren Tzara, Huelsenbeck en Janco (voor het eerst in Zürich en de hele wereld) simultaneïstische verzen van de heren Henri Barzun en Fernand Divoire uit, evenals een simultaangedicht van eigen hand, dat hier op de bladzijden 44-45 is afgedrukt. De activiteiten en doelstellingen van het cabaret willen aantonen dat er nog een paar onafhankelijke mensen zijn die voor andere idealen staan dan 'oorlog' en 'vaderland'.

De hier verenigde kunstenaars zijn van plan om een internationaal tijdschrift uit te geven. Het tijdschrift zal verschijnen te Zürich en zal DADA heten. (Dada.) Dada Dada Dada Dada.

Zürich, 15 mei 1916

bron: Hugo Ball in: Jan H. Mysjkin c.s. : Een Avond in Cabaret Voltaire, Uitg. Vantilt, Nijmegen, 2003, blz. 7-8, http://members.home.nl/jcbvink/literatuurprojecten/dada_cabaret_voltaire.htm
Voor een uitgebreide website over dada verwijs ik graag naar de Engelstalige website http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/index.html (via http://www.kubisme.info/kt304.html )
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

15 mei 1916 - Het gemeentebestuur van Baarle-Hertog weigerde de gemeente Baarle-Nassau te betalen voor het onderhoud van de aardewegen omdat geen specificatie kon worden voorgelegd (of omdat men weigerde dit te doen). “Wij weten echt niet welke werken het betreft. Dus zijn er volgens ons geen werken gebeurd, dus geen betaling van 75 gulden,” aldus het gemeentebestuur van Baarle-Hertog. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vier gebroeders uit Laarne in de Eerste Wereldoorlog.



Op 15 mei 1916 sneuvelde Jan Baptist te Ramskapelle.Hij bezweek aan verwondingen aan het hoofd (schedelbreuk) en in de buik (doorboorde ingewanden) veroorzaakt door granaatscherven.Tijdens zijn overbrenging naar het veldhospitaal "Cabour" te Adinkerke,overleed hij.Hij werd begraven op de militaire begraafplaats te Adinkerke in graf nr. 1368.Op 20 maart 1925 werd het stoffelijk overschot herbegraven op hetzelfde militaire kerkhof,in graf nr.1353.

http://www.militair.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=3448
Of hier: http://www.wereldinoorlog.be/forum/viewtopic.php?f=45&t=1909
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Aleksej Nikolajevitsj Romanov



Aleksej Nikolajevitsj Romanov (Peterhof, 12 augustus 1904 - Jekaterinenburg, 17 juli 1918) is de zoon van tsaar Nicolaas II en tsarina Alexandra Fjodorovna. Hij is na zijn zussen Olga, Tatjana, Maria en Anastasia het vijfde kind van de tsaar en tsarina. Als enige zoon is hij troonopvolger.

Aleksej lijdy aan hemofilie wat in die tijd niet te behandelen is. De tsaar heeft besloten om deze ziekte geheim te houden voor het Russische volk, zodat de Russen zich geen zorgen hoeven te maken over de troonopvolging. Aleksej heeft gedurende zijn jeugd vaak interne bloedingen, waardoor hij perioden niet kan lopen. Hij wordt dan gedragen door een lijfwacht. Voor de bloedingen, die bijzonder pijnlijk zijn, krijgt hij geen pijnstillers. Dit om te voorkomen dat hij hieraan verslaafd zal worden. Het lijkt erop dat de bloedingen worden gestopt door de monnik en sinistere wonderdoener Raspoetin.

Op 15 mei 1917 eindigt Aleksejs troonopvolgerschap, omdat zijn vader namens zichzelf en zijn zoon afstand neemt van de troon.

http://82.168.69.203/nazatendevries/Genealogie/Nicholas%20(Nikolia)%20Romanov%20van%20Rusland/Aleksej%20Nikolajevitsj%20Romanov.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ferme-Olivier Cemetery



De begraafplaats is ontworpen door R. Blomfield (hoofdarchitect) en N.A. Rew (uitvoerend architect). Volgens het huidige register liggen er 408 doden uit het Verenigd Koninkrijk begraven, (waarvan 6 onbekenden) evenals 3 Duitse doden.

Twee militairen, die hier begraven liggen, werden terechtgesteld wegens desertie, nl. Pte. R. Hope, alias "Hepple", behorende tot het ‘1st Royal Inniskillings Fusiliers’, terechtgesteld op 5 juli 1917 en Pte. G. Watkins, behorende tot het ‘Welsh Regiment’ en terechtgesteld op 15 mei 1917.

http://inventaris.vioe.be/dibe/relict/201118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mei 2011 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First day of Airmail Service, May 15, 1918



Description: Army airmail pilot Lt. Torrey Webb receives a celebratory watch from a representative of the Hamilton Watch Company. Each of the pilots flying the first day's mail between Washington, DC, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New York City received a Hamilton Watch. Webb flew the Curtiss Jenny JN-4H between New York City and Bustleton airfield near Philadelphia on May 15, 1918.

http://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2649566767/
Zie ook http://www.dutchfs.com/files/navigeren/hoehetbegon.pdf
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