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12 April
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2006 6:31    Onderwerp: 12 April Reageer met quote

April 12

1917 Canadians capture Vimy Ridge

After three days of fierce combat and over 10,000 casualties suffered, the Canadian Corps seizes the previously German-held Vimy Ridge in northern France on April 12, 1917.

Many historians have pointed to the victory at Vimy Ridge during World War I as a moment of greatness for Canada, when it emerged from Britain’s shadow to attain its own measure of military achievement. As a result of the victory, earned despite the failure of the larger Allied offensive of which it was a part, Canadian forces earned a reputation for efficiency and strength on the battlefield.

The Allied offensive—masterminded by the French commander in chief, Robert Nivelle—began Easter Monday, April 9, 1917, as British and Canadian forces launched simultaneous attacks on German positions at Arras and Vimy Ridge, a heavily fortified, seven-kilometer-long raised stretch of land with a sweeping view of the Allied lines. The first day was overwhelmingly successful for the Allies, as the British punched through the Hindenburg Line—the defensive positions to which Germany had retreated in February 1917—and overran sections of two German trench lines within two hours, taking 5,600 prisoners.

The Canadians, attacking over a stretch of land littered with the dead of previous French attacks on the same positions, also moved swiftly in the first hours of the offensive, as four Canadian divisions stormed the ridge at 5:30 am on April 9, moving forward under cover of a punishing artillery barrage that forced the Germans to hunker down in their trenches and away from their machine guns. More than 15,000 Canadian infantry troops attacked Vimy Ridge that day, overrunning the German positions and taking 4,000 prisoners.

Three more days of heavy fighting resulted in victory on April 12, when control of Vimy was in Canadian hands. Though the Nivelle Offensive as a whole failed miserably, the Canadian operation had proved a success, albeit a costly one: 3,598 Canadian soldiers were killed and another 7,000 were wounded. Vimy Ridge became a shining example of Canada’s effort in the Great War, and one that served as a symbol of the sacrifice the young British dominion had made for the Allied cause. As Brigadier-General A.E. Ross famously declared after the war, “in those few minutes I witnessed the birth of a nation.” In 1922, the French government ceded Vimy Ridge and the land surrounding it to Canada; the gleaming white marble Vimy Memorial was unveiled in 1936 as a testament to the more than 60,000 Canadians who died in service during World War I.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2006 6:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 12 April



Births
None for 12 April



Deaths
1 1917 Adolf Schulte
2 1918 Albert Dietlen
3 1974 Raymond Brownell



Claims
1 1916 Godwin Brumowski #1 #2
2 1916 Otto Jindra #6 #7
3 1917 Frederick Armstrong #2
4 1917 Arthur Whealy #1
5 1917 Laurence Allen #4
6 1917 Ernest Moore #1
7 1917 Edmond Pierce #1 #2
8 1917 Alan Wilkinson #16
9 1917 Edmund Zink #3
10 1917 Marcel Nogues #2
11 1917 Leopold Anslinger #5
12 1917 Hartmut Baldamus #17
13 1917 Wilhelm Frickart #1
14 1917 Erich Hahn #3
15 1917 Paul von Osterroht #5
16 1917 Kurt Schneider #3
17 1917 Adolf Schulte #9
18 1917 William Winkler #1
19 1918 Alexander Clark #5
20 1918 Roderic Dallas #25
21 1918 Henry Forrest #7
22 1918 Geoffrey Hughes #7 #8
23 1918 George Lingham #4
24 1918 Alfred Atkey #7 #8
25 1918 Arthur Brown #9
26 1918 Lynn Campbell #1
27 1918 Alfred Carter #12
28 1918 Ernest Davis #3
29 1918 Stearne Edwards #12
30 1918 Austin Fleming #7 #8
31 1918 James Forman #5
32 1918 George Foster #1
33 1918 George Johnson #6
34 1918 David McGoun #9
35 1918 Louis Thompson #2 #3
36 1918 Charles Arnison #1
37 1918 Geoffrey Bailey #2 #3
38 1918 Owen Baldwin #2
39 1918 Charles Banks #3
40 1918 Edward Clear #8 #9
41 1918 James Dawe #5
42 1918 Henry Dolan #1
43 1918 Herbert Gould #2 #3
44 1918 Robert Grosvenor #9 #10
45 1918 Reuben Hammersley #6
46 1918 George Hayward #20 #21 #22
47 1918 William Hodgkinson #1
48 1918 W.N. Holmes #4 #5
49 1918 Frank Johnson #15 #16
50 1918 M.B. Kilroy #4 #5
51 1918 Cecil King #11
52 1918 John Leacroft #21
53 1918 Gwilym Lewis #7
54 1918 Ian McDonald #8 #9
55 1918 Francis Mellersh #3
56 1918 Geoffrey Pidcock #3
57 1918 Frank Ransley #3
58 1918 Frank Ransley #3
59 1918 George Riley #4
60 1918 Benjamin Roxburgh-Smith #1
61 1918 Douglas Savage #2 #3
62 1918 Charles Stubbs #4 #5
63 1918 John Wallwork #5
64 1918 Frank Weare #11 #12 #13
65 1918 Henry Woollett #19 #20 #21 #22 #23 #24
66 1918 Wilfred Young #4
67 1918 Bernard Artigau #6
68 1918 Armond Berthelot #2
69 1918 Jean Chaput #15
70 1918 Julien Guertiau #6
71 1918 Xavier Moissinac #3
72 1918 Gabriel Thomas #1
73 1918 Paul Waddington #2
74 1918 Hermann Becker #9
75 1918 Arno Benzler #4
76 1918 Otto Creutzmann #3
77 1918 Albert Dietlen #9
78 1918 Friedrich Ehmann #4
79 1918 Fritz Höhn #3 #4
80 1918 Johannes Klein #6
81 1918 Otto Könnecke #18
82 1918 Johann Kopka #2
83 1918 Walter Kypke #7
84 1918 Paul Lotz #4
85 1918 Erich Löwenhardt #16
86 1918 Hans-Georg von der Marwitz #5 #6
87 1918 Ulrich Neckel #9
88 1918 Viktor von Pressentin von Rautter #3
89 1918 Fritz Pütter #21
90 1918 Wilhelm Reinhard #12
91 1918 Fritz Rumey #14
92 1918 Wilhelm Stör #1
93 1918 Walter Tyrrell #10
94 1918 Albert Waller #4 #5
95 1918 Keith Caldwell #10
96 1918 Douglas Bell #17 #18
97 1918 Hector Daniel #6 #7 #8
98 1918 Ivan Hind #1
99 1918 Percy Howe #1
100 1918 William Jordan #20
101 1918 Harold Redler #9
102 1918 John Gilmour #15
103 1918 Ian Napier #5 #6
104 1918 Paul Baer #4
105 1918 Frank Baylies #5
106 1918 Charles Biddle #2
107 1918 Lloyd Hamilton #2
108 1918 William Lambert #2
109 1918 David Putnam u/c u/c
110 1918 Samuel Parry #4



Losses
1 1917 Adolf Schultekilled in action
2 1918 Albert Dietlenkilled in action



http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

12 april 1915
Midden-Oosten, Mesopotamië
Een Turkse opmars naar de Britse basis in Basra wordt neergeslagen bij Shaiba. Hoewel ze in de minderheid zijn, zorgen de Britten voor zo'n 3200 gesneuvelden.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 April 1918
Westfront, Frankrijk / België
Duitse troepen vallen aan langs de Leie in de richting van de Noord-Franse kust. Ze slaan een bres van zo'n 48 kilometer in de Britse linie en naderen een van hun vroegere doelwitten, het dorp Hazebrouck, ten zuidwesten van Ieper. De Britse opperbevelhebber , veldmaarschalk sir Douglas Haig, vaardigt een bevel uit dat verdere terugtrekking verbiedt:"Met onze rug tegen de muur en gelovend in rechtvaardigheid van onze zaak, moet eenieder vechten tot het einde." De oproep mist zijn uitwerking niet en het Britse verzet wordt koppiger.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 9:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

Failure of French attack south-east of Hartmannsweilerkopf.

French consolidate their positions at Les Eparges.

German airship bombs Nancy.

Eastern Front

Russians checked east of the Uzsok Pass.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Indecisive fighting at Kurna and Ahwaz.

Turks attack Basra from west and south.

Naval and Overseas Operations

French cruiser "St. Louis" bombards Gaza.

Political, etc.

Papal Note to President Wilson declaring the readiness of the Pope to co-operate for the restoration of peace.
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1916
Eastern Front

Germans repulsed near Dvinsk.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turkish right at Sanna-i-Yat forced back 1.5 miles; floods on Tigris increasing.

Naval and Overseas Operations

British occupy Kothersheim (German East Africa).

German Note to U.S.A. on the "Sussex" case.

Political, etc.

Clyde strikers tried for sedition.

Plot in U.S.A. to blow up ships carrying munitions
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1917
Western Front

British advance north of Vimy Ridge, taking the "Pimple" and Bois en Hache, and south of Arras-Cambrai road take Heninel and Wancourt.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Turks retreat towards Deli Abbas (between Tigris and Diala).

Political, etc.

London meetings celebrating entry of U.S.A. into war.

Spanish protest to Germany re: "San Fulgencio".

Costa Rica places territorial waters and ports at disposal of U.S.A.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1918
Western Front

Strong enemy pressure, especially at Bailleul and Wulverghem; Neuve Eglise and Messines penetrated.

In Apremont Forest Franco-Americans repulse continued attacks.

110 German Divisions engaged till now.

Zeppelins raid Eastern and Midland Counties (seven killed, 20 injured).

Air raid on Paris, one raider shot down at Compiegne.

Southern Front

Sir H. Plumer's despatch from Italy published.

Political, etc.

Manpower Bill: Military service for Ireland agreed to by majority of 165.

Holland: Food riots quelled by troops.

Germany: Food Dictator says that no satisfactory solution of economic situation can be expected
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1919
Aftermath of War

Bolsheviks retire on Ural front.

Rioting at Kasur (India).

Sir William Marshall's final despatch on Mesopotamia published (covers 1 October-31 December 1918).

Bolsheviks occupy Yalta (Crimea).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin - "Unity" (April 12, 1914)

Three issues of the journal Borba, which declares itself to to “non-factional”, have already appeared in St. Petersburg. The journal’s main line is to advocate unity.

Unity with whom? With the liquidators.

The latest issue of Borba contains two articles in defence of unity with the liquidators.

The first article is by the well-known liquidator Y. Larin, the same Larin who recently wrote in one of the liquidationist journals:

“The path of capitalist development will be cleared of absolutist survivals without any revolution.... The immediate task is ... to imbue wide circles with the leading idea that in the coming period the working class must organise, not ‘for revolution’, not ‘in anticipation of revolution’....”

Writing in Borba, this same liquidator now urges unity and proposes that it should take the form of federation.

Federation implies agreement between organisations enjoying equal rights. Thus, in the matter of determining the tactics of the working class, Larin proposes placing the will of the overwhelming majority of the workers, who stand for the “uncurtailed slogans”, on an equal footing with the will of negligible groups of liquidators, whose views coincide more or less with the passage just quoted above. According to the subtle plan of the liquidator Larin, the majority of the workers are to be deprived of the right to take any step until they obtain the consent of the liquidators of Severnaya Rabochaya Gazeta.

The workers have rejected the liquidators, but now, according to the plan of the liquidator Larin, the latter are to regain a leading position by means of federation. Thus, the federation proposed by Larin is simply a new attempt to impose on the workers the will of the liquidators whom the working-class movement has rejected. The liquidators reason as follows: we were not allowed to come in by the door, so we will steal in by the window, and call “unity through federation” that which is actually a violation of the will of the majority of the workers.

The editors of Borba disagree with Larin. Federation, i.e., gradual agreement between the liquidators and the Marxists as equal parties, does not satisfy them.

It is not agreement with the liquidators they want, but a new amalgamation with them “on the basis of common decisions on tactics”, which means that the overwhelming majority of the workers, who have rallied to the tactical line of Put Pravdy, must abandon their own decisions for the sake of common tactics with the liquidators.

In the opinion of Borba’s editors, the tactics developed by the class-conscious workers, which have stood the test of experience of the entire movement during the past few years, must be set aside. Why? So as to make room for the tactical plans of the liquidators, for views that have been condemned both by the workers and by the whole course of events.

Utter defiance of the will, the decisions and the views of the class-conscious workers is at the bottom of the idea of unity with the liquidators which the editors of Borba propose.

The will of the workers has been clearly and definitely expressed. Anyone who has not taken leave of his senses can say exactly which tactics the overwhelming majority of the workers sympathise with. But along comes the liquidator Larin and says: the will of the majority of the workers is nothing to me. Let this majority get out of the way and agree that the will of a group of liquidators is equal to the will of the majority of the class-conscious workers.

After the liquidator comes a conciliator from Borba, who says: the workers have devised definite tactics for themselves and are striving to apply them? That means nothing at all. Let them abandon these tested tactics for the sake of common tactical decisions with the liquidators.

And the conciliators from Borba describe as unity this violation of the clearly expressed will of the majority of the workers, a violation designed to secure equality for the liquidators.

This, however, is not unity, but a flouting of unity, a flouting of the will of the workers.

This is not what the Marxist workers mean by unity.

There can be no unity, federal or other, with liberal-labour politicians, with disruptors of the working-class movement, with those who defy the will of the majority. There can and must be unity among all consistent Marxists, among all those who stand for the entire Marxist body and for the uncurtailed slogans, independently of the liquidators and apart from them.

Unity is a great thing and a great slogan. But what the workers’ cause needs is the unity of Marxists, not unity between Marxists, and opponents and distorters of Marxism.

And we must ask everyone who talks about unity: unity with whom? With the liquidators? If so, we have nothing to do with each other.

But if it is a question of genuine Marxist unity, we shall say: Ever since the Pravdist newspapers appeared we hive been calling for the unity of all the forces of Marxism, for unity from below, for unity in practical activities.

No flirting with the liquidators, no diplomatic negotiations with groups of wreckers of the corporate body; concentrate all efforts on rallying the Marxist workers around the Marxist slogans, around the entire Marxist body. The class-conscious workers will regard as a crime any attempt to impose upon them the will of the liquidators; they will also regard as a crime the fragmentation of the forces of the genuine Marxists.

For the basis of unity is class discipline, recognition of the will of the majority, and concerted activities in the ranks of, and in step with, that majority. We shall never tire of calling all the workers towards this unity, this discipline, and these concerted activities.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1914/apr/12.htm
You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Scottish Mining Website - Lothians Accidents 1915-1920

12 April 1915
Fatal Pit Accident in Midlothian - By the fall of about three tons of coal in the workings of the Moat Pit, near Roslin, a miner named Richard Horsburgh was fatally injured yesterday morning. He was conveyed in an ambulance to his house at Fishers', Tryst, Glencorse, as a first step towards his being taken to the Royal Infirmary, but he died within half an hour of his arrival at his home. He was about 60 years of age, and is survived by his widow and a grown-up family. [Scotsman 13 April 1915]

http://www.scottishmining.co.uk/348.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 12:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Brothers died in 1915

Our listing of known sets of brothers who died on the same date in 1915.

26 September 1915
James, 20, and William Siggee, 28, died whilst serving with 8th (Service) Battalion, the Lincolnshire Regiment. Sons of James & Mercy of Tebbs Lane, North End, Swineshead; William was married to Ada Bell (formerly Siggee) of North End. Neither of the brothers has a known grave. Both are commemorated on the Loos Memorial to the Missing. A third brother, John Richard Siggee, also of the battalion, was killed on 12 April 1917 aged 27. He also has no known grave and is commemorated on the Arras Memorial to the Missing.

http://www.1914-1918.net/brothers1915.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 13:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

12 april 1916 - Burgemeester van Gilse vroeg de oprichting van een spoorstatie in Baarle-Hertog om problemen zoals met de kisten petroleum te voorkomen. “Ik wil in volle vrijheid de noodige goederen ontvangen in transit door Nederland. Dan zijn alleen de landen van herkomst en bestemming erbij betrokken.” (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling) Uit de briefwisseling blijkt dat de relatie tussen de besturen van Baarle-Hertog en Baarle-Nassau helemaal was verzuurd. Haat en machtsmisbruik verhinderden een goede samenwerking.

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:07-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1916&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

12 april 1917 - Om in aanmerking te komen voor de steenkoolrantsoenering stelde de gemeente Baarle-Hertog een lijst op van de haardsteden. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla15/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=190:08-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1917&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 11 Apr 2010 13:16, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 13:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Robert Lansing on Military Operations in Mexico

Following U.S. protests Mexico's President Venustiano Carranza undertook to deal with Villa but insisted that the U.S. not interfere. However with the U.S. rapidly losing patience with Carranza, General Frederick Funston - U.S. commander along the border - was ordered to despatch an armed U.S. column into Mexico in pursuit of Villa (to be taken dead or alive). To that end Funston placed General John Pershing in command of the expedition.

Pershing led 4,000 U.S. troops into Mexico on 15 March 1916, remaining there until early 1917. On 29 March 1916 a U.S. force of 400 men defeated a larger number of Villa's followers. Nevertheless U.S. troops remained to mop up the remnants of Villa's supporters; these troops increasingly came into contact - and armed conflict - with official Mexican troops sent by President Carranza to deal with Villa, the first of which took place on 12 April 1916.

Increasing clashes led to a very real threat of war between the U.S. and Mexico.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/mexico_lansing.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 13:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Defence and Capture of Roeux, April - May 1917

The attacks on the village of Roeux were part of the Battle of Arras (9 April - 17 May) carried out by Third Army under the command of General Allenby. Arras was to be the British contribution to the Allied Spring Offensive. (...)

On 11 April, the 2nd Seaforth Highlanders and 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers (10 Brigade, 4th Division) took part in an attack on Roeux from the sunken lane north of Fampoux. A new German trench line to the west of the Chemical Works was heavily armed with machine guns and the Highlanders were seen entering the lane. They had about a mile to cover over open ground to the German front line and suffered heavy casualties. Indeed, only about fifty survivors from various units reached the railway embankment where they took shelter. Lt Donald Mackintosh [link to University of Glasgow Biography] of the Seaforths won his VC at this time for organising the defence of a newly one position, and then leading the survivors forward before being killed.

The following day (12 April), two brigades from the 9th (Scottish) Division attacked Roeux over the same ground with similar difficulties. Although some of the attackers got within 20 yards of the German line, they suffered heavy casualties and they were forced to pull back. The Official History later concluded that the attack failed because of hurried preparation, inadequate reconnaissance, and ineffective artillery bombardment, which was not sufficient to suppress the German defences.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-on-land/61-battlefields/1011-roeux-apr-may-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 13:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WORLD WAR 1 at SEA - FISHING VESSELS LOST AT SEA DUE TO ENEMY ACTION

EQUERRY, 168grt, 12 April 1917, 35 miles NE from Kinnaird Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
CHINKIANG, 125grt, 12 April 1917, 30 miles NE from Buchan Ness, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
CALIBAN, 215grt, 12 April 1917, 45 miles NE by N from Rattray Head, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
CROWN PRINCE, 103grt, 12 April 1917, 45 miles NE by E from Girdleness, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
LILLIAN, 120grt, 12 April 1917, 45 miles NE by E from Girdleness, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
FIFE NESS, 123grt, 12 April 1917, 23 miles ENE from Fraserburgh, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
LARGO BAY, 125grt, 12 April 1917, 30 miles NE by E from Buchan Ness, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire
OSPREY, 106grt, 12 April 1917, 45 miles NE by E from Girdleness, captured by submarine, sunk by gunfire

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1LossesBrFV1917-18.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2010 13:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War Diary 1st King Edward's Horse - April 1918

12/04/1918
5.00AM Regiment “stood to” at dawn
6.30AM Verbal message brought by Lt LADE, on daylight patrol, that enemy had broken through and were advancing towards canal bridges. Orders issued to Major R D FURSE to proceed to at once with all available mounted men from his squadron (A) and 25 mounted men of C under Capt CRESSWICK to seize and hold canal crossings on P36 a Q 31 a and Q32 d.
A Sqdn spare horses left in BELLERIVE. Remainder of spare horses and R H transport sent to LECLEME under Cpl A G CAMERON
Bridge to Q 32 d seized by 2nd Lt G G RICH with troop of A just in time to deny it to enemy. 2nd Lt RICH subsequently relieved by C Sqdn withdrawn to MT BERNENCHON
9.00AM Regtl HQ moved from BELLERIVE to MT BERNENCHON
9.45 Bridges in P36a and Q31a taken over by infantry of 3rd Div and MG Corps
10.50AM Touch gained with 154 Bde 51st Div at HINGES
11.00AM C Sqdn at G32d relieved by infantry of 154 Bde and withdrawn to MT BERNENCHON
11.00AM to 6.00PM Remained in support at MT BERNENCHON. Small parties of enemy observed at intervals in nrighbourhood RIEZ DU VINAGE, BAQUEROLLES FME but no attack developed. Mounted patrols sent out. Heavily fired on by MGs from direction of RIEZ DU VINAGE

http://yourarchives.nationalarchives.gov.uk/index.php?title=War_Diary_1st_King_Edward's_Horse_-_April_1918
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12 april 1919 - In Engeland wordt de 48-urige werkweek ingevoerd.
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12 April 1920, Commons Sitting

EX-KAISER (TRIAL).


HC Deb 12 April 1920 vol 127 cc1380-1 1380

Viscount CURZON asked the Prime Minister what are the present intentions of the Allies with regard to the trial of the ex-Kaiser and the War criminals?

Mr. BONAR LAW There is nothing at present to add to what has already-been stated upon this matter.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/apr/12/ex-kaiser-trial
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An Officer's Letters From 1914

Lord James Thomas Stewart Murray (1) was the youngest child of the 7th Duke of Atholl and was born on 18th August 1879. He served a total of twenty-three years in the Cameron Highlanders and attained the rank of Major. As a Lieutenant in the 3/ Cameron Highlanders he took part as an ensign in the presentation of new colours to the battalion in 1909. During the Boer War (1899-1902) he was seconded to the Scottish Horse, a Yeomanry unit raised by his brother, Major John George Stewart-Murray, DSO.
On 12th August 1914 he left Edinburgh Castle as a Captain and adjutant in "D" Company, 1st Battalion, Cameron Highlanders. On 27th August, during the retreat from Mons, he was ordered to secure the bridge at Guise and prevent the French from blowing it up and cutting off the I Corps of the British Expeditionary Force. This was successfully done.

Captain Stewart-Murray's first letter was written aboard a ship returning to Britain with many of the BEF's first casualties and describes what happened to him and his battalion:

Asturias
Sept. 24th 1914.

My dear Father,
Perhaps you will wonder why you have not heard from me. The fact is that the censorship is so strict that I hardly thought it worthwhile, as I was not allowed to mention the names of any of the places or what we were doing. It seems a year since the regiment left Edinburgh, though it was only on August 12th, not much more than six weeks ago. So much has happened since then. I am now on my way back again, having been invalided with a slight wound in the right fore-arm, received on the 14th [September] at the battle of Aisne. A short time previously the regiment had been ordered to concentrate in order that they might take the place of the Munster Fusiliers in the 1st Brigade, that regiment having been cut up during a rear guard a short time previously. My company ["D"] actually joined the Brigade on the 8th [September], the day two companies of my regiment had a bit of a skirmish with a party of Jaeger Guards who formed part of the German rear guard who were opposing our passage over the Marne. Poor Johnstone (2) was killed. He had married Lord Ruthven's grand daughter only two months previously. [Captain Charles Antoine de G.] Dalglish and [Lieutenant Ewen Holmes H.J.] Wilson in the Black Watch were killed and Maurice Drummond severely wounded.

On the 13th we crossed the Aisne at Bourg and found the enemy occupying a strong position on the other side. On the 14th the Brigade took part in the attack on this position near a village called Van-dresse. I care to say little about the battle, as my poor regiment suffered so severely. They lost 17 officers and about 450 men. We fear 9 of these officers have been killed, 21 officers and about 900 men having been actually engaged. We were ordered to attack across an open plateau, exposed to the most awful shell fire. My company was the leading one, and suffered most severely. We went into action with 5 officers and 221 men, the roll call after the battle showed no officers and 86 men, I fear Mackintosh (3), Alastair Murray (Polmaise) (4) and Hector Cameron (5) are all gone, Iain Maxwell (6) (Lovat's nephew) was severely wounded, and I myself slightly. My Company Sergeant Major (7) was killed. I felt his loss very much, as we had done 10 years' service together continuously in the same company. Part of the Black Watch (who were on the right) and most of my company got almost as far as a sugar factory held by the enemy, only to be beaten back with tremendous losses.

It was reported to me that Geordie [Major Lord George Stewart-Murray, Black Watch] had been wounded in the head with a shell close to this place, but I never could find any trace of him. I did not report sick myself for four days, in order that I might make enquiries, and search the hospitals. I see he is reported in the casualty list as wounded, so he must have been picked up by the stretcher bearers of some other brigade. I was forced in the end to go sick myself so I trust as is well with him.

The casualties in the first brigade were about 50 officers and 1,100 men. On the 15th, 16th and 17th the battle still continued though it was little more than an artillery [duel] and the enemy had a heavy gun a long way off which sent an enormous amount of lydite percussion shells in our direction. She was nicknamed by the troops "Black Maria" from the black clouds of smoke made by the shell, or "Sighing Susan" from the whistling of the shell overhead. She was little harm, however, I was in a hospital at Vendrea which got shelled with shrapnel one piece entering through my window. The patients were moved to Villies, on the south side of the Aisne. On Saturday the 19th the 1st Brigade was withdrawn to Bourg, being relieved by another one, and I was removed with the other wounded in a very uncomfortable motor lorry to Brain, where we were put into an ambulance train, which proceeded at a snail's pace via Versailles, Angers and Mantes to St. Nazaire in the Bay of Biscay, arriving there Tuesday morning (21st September) over two days and two nights in the train. We reach Southampton tomorrow morning and proceed straight to London, where we shall be transferred to one of the military hospitals.

I expect to be discharged with short leave almost at once and hope to arrive at Blair Sunday or Monday. In any case I will send a wire. I enclose a rough sketch of the battle of the Aisne showing the disposition of my regiment [not reproduced] and some of the Black Watch only. It may be all wrong, but there was some confusion which can only be straightened out later. I believe the Coldstreams were originally on our right and the Scots Guards on the left. The third brigade seemed to have come up too late on the left. I got detached with a mixed lot of our men. No. 15 platoon of my own company on the extreme left, and realised that I was quite unprotected. We were fired at by the enemy from the front and left, and by our own troops on the right after which we had to retire which I did down the valley, the shell fire being too heavy on the crest line. I came up again in the new alignment, and had to take up rather an exposed position on the left of a quarry. It was here I got shot.

I dare say you would like to know something about our movements at the beginning of the war. The battalion as you know, were detailed as army troops, and my company ("D") were selected as escort to GOC 1st Army [Corps], i.e.. Sir Douglas Haig (not General Grierson as originally intended) [sic]. Captain Mackintosh commanded and I was second in command. We had three subalterns, Hector Cameron, Iain Maxwell and Alastair Murray, who commanded 14, 15 and 16 platoons respectively. We left Havre on August 15th and proceeded by train via Amiens and Rouen to Wassigny near Le Cateau. Here we halted for four days, while the concentration of the army took place.

On the 21st we accompanied General Haig north to the Belgium frontier, half the company being in picquette six miles south of Mons on the 23rd, the day of that disaster to our troops. We took part in the subsequent retreat, covering nearly 200 miles in 12 days, an average of nearly 17 miles.

The marching was terrible, but it had to be done. Our men stuck it splendidly. We were in Landrecies with the 4th Brigade at the time it was attacked [25/26th August] by a raiding party of German cavalry and infantry in motor lorries with two or three guns. It was a night attack and an anxious time. The Germans attacked with extraordinary determination, but were mown down by the Coldstream machine guns. About 800 of their dead and wounded were picked up by our own doctors. The losses of the 4th Brigade (second battalion Cold-stream, Grenadiers and Irish Guards) being about 130. Though the marches were long and trying, we were always well off for food, the country abounding in eggs, fruit, milk and butter. The people were very hospitable and we usually billeted in villages. As the army retired, all the inhabitants fled from their houses and followed us. It was a pitiful sight, women and children tramping alongside the troops or riding in farm carts when they could get them.

Our line of retirement was through Guise, Soissons and Leaux.

On the 5th September, two days previously I saw Geordie with his regiment in Coulommiers; he was very pleased because he had captured a party of Uhlans who had ridden into a wire entanglement round his picquettes. I believe he collected their lances for you. The last time I saw him was on the 13th during the midday halt after we crossed the Aisne at Bourg.

I expect to be home only a very short time as my wound is trifling and my regiment is badly in need of officers.

Hoping to see you soon.
Hamish


The second letter was written by Captain Stewart-Murray while he was recovering from his wound at his father's home, Blair Castle. It was sent to the father of Lieutenant Nicholson (8), who was killed in action during the battle of Aisne on 14th September 1914. Lieutenant Nicholson had distinguished himself during the battle of Le Cateau, when in command of two platoons of "C" Company he had assisted the Scottish Rifles in an ambush of a German cavalry column. During the fighting on the 14th, Lieutenant Nicholson was killed north of the Chivy-Cemy road.

Blair Castle
Blair Atholl 7 Oct. 1914

Dear Mr. Nicholson,

I will indeed let you know anything I find out about Stuart. As you know he was originally my subaltern and there was no officer in the regiment I was more attached to. On rejoining he was posted to Capt. Miers company ("C") much to my disappointment.

At the beginning of the war "C" Company was detailed as escort to G.O.C 2nd Army [Corps], Sir H. Smith-Dorien, and as such took part in the advance to the Belgium frontier and in the subsequent retirement. They rejoined the regiment on Sept. 11th only.

Three days later they took part in that fatal battle north of the Aisne. My company ("D") was leading on that day and consequently suffered the most severely.
With the arrival of reinforcements, units became mixed. I last saw your son somewhere about the centre of the line not far from Major Maitland. He was then un-wounded. I was on the extreme left on the line.

I have had to write this or a similar story so often lately that it has become almost mechanical and I hardly realise it has all really happened. The casualties on the 26th [September] were caused by a shell falling in the trench where the officers were.

I received from my brother [Colonel John George Stewart-Murray, Scottish Horse] a copy of Capt Allison's letter, the account is incorrect in every particular and shows how much reliance can be placed in the stories of private soldiers in hospital.

My brother has now been officially reported wounded and missing, which I knew must be the case all the while.

I am
Yours Sincerely,
James Stewart-Murray


Major Maitland (9) was the commanding officer of "A" Company and was killed in action during the battle of the Aisne. Colonel J.G. Stewart-Murray was the oldest living son of the Duke of Atholl. He became the 8th Duke when his father died in 1917. The second brother mentioned was Major George Stewart-Murray of the Black Watch. Instead of being missing, he was later listed as killed in action on 14th September. In the early days of the war it was quite often difficult to confirm the deaths of soldiers on either side as large amounts of land changed hands before the long lines of trenches were constructed.

The brief reference to casualties on the 26th September, concerns when the headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Cameron Highlanders, was wiped out on the 25th when German artillery shells caused the collapse of the cave in which the HQ was located. Five officers were killed, including the commanding officers of the battalion, "A" Company and "B" Company. An additional twenty-four enlisted men died and four were severely wounded.

After recovering from his wound Captain Stewart-Murray rejoined the Cameron Highlanders and on 8th November 1914 he led a draft of 160 enlisted men as reinforcements for the 1st Battalion. They joined the Camerons in France on 22nd November, and Captain Stewart-Murray was given command of "B" Company. Due to a lack of officers he was then given command of the "right half-battalion" ("A" and "B" Companies) on 7th December 1914. On the evening of 22nd December 1914, during the battle of Givenchy, Captain Stewart-Murray was attempting to locate the leading elements of his unit when he ran into a German patrol and was made a prisoner of war.

After the war Lord James Thomas Stewart-Murray was promoted to Major and retired in 1921. In 1942, upon the death of his older brother he became the 9th Duke of Atholl and held the title until his own death on 8th May 1957. At the time of his death, James Thomas Stewart-Murray held twenty-four peerage dignities, more than any other British subject

Notes
1. Lord James Thomas Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl. Born: 18th August 1879. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant: 3rd January 1900. Lieutenant: 29th May 1901. Captain: 14th May 1910. Major; 1st September 1915. Retired: 17th February 1921.

Awards: 'Queen's South Africa Medal' (Cape Colony, Johannesburg. Diamond Hill and Wittebergen clasps), 'King's South Africa Medal' (South Africa 1901 and South Africa 1902 clasps), '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal', and 'Victory Medal'.

2. Reginald Fitzroy Lewis Johnstone. Born: 6th June 1884. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant: 14th May 1904. Lieutenant: 2nd December 1909. Killed in action: 8th September 1914. Lieutenant Johnstone of "A" Company, was the first officer of the Cameron Highlanders to die in the Great War.

Awards: '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal', and 'Victory Medal'.

3. Alastair Hugh Macintosh. Born: 19th July 1880. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant: 27th September 1899. Lieutenant: 21st April 1901. Captain: 14th May 1910. Killed in action: 14th September 1914.

Awards: 'Queen's South Africa Medal' (Cape Colony, Johannesburg, Diamond Hill, Wittebergen and South Africa 1901 clasps), '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Victory Medal'.

4. Alastair John Greville Murray (Polmaise). Born: 22nd July 1894. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant 25th February 1914. Killed in action: 14th September 1914.

Awards: '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Victory Medal'.

5. Hector William Lcvett Cameron. Bom: 2nd September 1892. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant: 20th September 1911. Lieutenant (Posthumous): 27th September 1914. Killed in action: 14th September 1914.

Awards: '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Victory Medal'.

6. Ian Simon Joseph Constable Maxwell (Herries). Born: 15th April 1891. 2nd Lieutenant (transfer from Lovat Scouts): 21st January 1914. Lieutenant 12th October 1914. Captain: 1st October 1915. Severely wounded: 14th September 1914. Later posted to 3rd Battalion and transferred to Staff: 15th July 1917 and posted to 2nd Battalion: 1919.

Awards: '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Victory Medal'.

7. James Wood. Attested as Private (No. 5260): 7th April 1900. Promoted to Company Sergeant-Major: 1st October 1913. Killed in action: 14th September 1914.

Awards: 'Queen's South Africa Medal' (Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Transvaal and South Africa 1902 clasps), '1914-1920 War Medal', 'Victory Medal' and French 'Medaille Militaire'.

8. Arthur Stuart Nicholson {Arisaig). Born: 18th September 1889. Commissioned 2nd Lieutenant (Special Reserve): 30th November 1907. 2nd Lieutenant (regular commission): 12th February 1910. Lieutenant: 3rd September 1913. Killed in action: 14th September 1914. Lieutenant Nicholson's father was Admiral Sir A.W. Nicholson, KCB., of Arisaig.

Awards: '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Victory Medal'.

9. The Honourable Alfred Henry Maitland (Lauderdale). Bom: 9th December 1872. 2nd Lieutenant (transfer from Manchester Regiment): 27th ]une 1894. Lieutenant 6th April 1898. Captain: 27fh November 1899. Major: 12th April 1914. Killed in action: 14th September 1914.

Awards: 'Queen's Sudan Medal', 'Queen's South Africa Medal' (Cape Colony, Johannesburg, Diamond Hill, Witlebergen and South Africa 1901 clasps), '1914 Star' (August to November clasp), '1914-1920 War Medal' and 'Khedives Sudan Medal' (Atbara and Khartoum clasps).


http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/48-brothers-arms/300-off-letter-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 12 Apr 2010 9:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Arthur Bagot

Arthur Gerald Bagot GC, DSC (26 April 1888 – 12 November 1979) was an Australian recipient of the Albert Medal, formerly the highest decoration for gallantry awarded to civilians or to military personnel for actions "not in the face of the enemy" in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Bagot was awarded the Albert Medal in 1918 for his actions in removing depth charges from HM Motor Launch 356 after its engine room exploded, despite the flames, thus preventing a further explosion. With the establishment of the George Cross, the Albert Medal was discontinued and, in 1971, living recipients of the decoration were invited to exchange their medal for the George Cross; Bagot took up the offer and formally became a recipient of the George Cross.

On 12 April 1918, the engine room of HM Motor Launch 356 exploded at Dunkirk quay, and the forward petrol tanks burst into flames. Several of the launch's crew were blown overboard by the explosion, while the remainder were driven off by the fire. Flames soon began to issue forth from the cabin, and burning petrol spread on the surface of the water. As others proceeded to flee the scene,[4] Bagot, along with Lieutenant Robin Hoare, realised the fire was threatening the aft petrol tanks and the depth charges located on board the launch. Jumping in a dinghy, the pair rowed out towards the blaze. On reaching the wreck, Bagot and Hoare removed the depth charges despite the flames; thus preventing any further explosion.

For their actions during the engagement, both Bagot and Hoare were awarded the Albert Medal. The announcement and accompanying citation for the award was published in the London Gazette on 20 August 1918, reading:

Admiralty, 20th August, 1918.
The KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Albert Medal for Gallantry in Saving Life at Sea to
Lieutenant-Commander Keith Robin Hoare, D.S.O., D.S.C., R.N.V.R., and Lieutenant Arthur Gerald Bagot, D.S.C., R.N.V.R.
The account of the services in respect of which the Decoration has been conferred is as follows: —
On the 12th April, 1918, an explosion took place in the engine-room of H.M. Motor Launch 356, and the forward tanks burst into flame. The Officer and some of the crew were blown overboard by the explosion, and the remainder were quickly driven aft by the flames, and were taken off in a skiff. By this time the flames were issuing from the cabin hatch aft, and there was much petrol burning on the surface of the water. It was then realised by the crews of adjacent vessels that the aft petrol tanks and the depth charge were being attacked by the fire, and might explode at any moment. At the moment when others were running away, Lieutenant Hoare and Sub-Lieutenant Bagot jumped into their dinghy, rowed to the wreck, got on board, and removed the depth charge, thereby preventing an explosion which might have caused serious loss of life amongst the crowd of English and French sailors on the quay.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Bagot
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April 12, 1914: First movie “palace” opens

On this day in 1914, the Mark Strand Theatre opens to the public in New York City.

Located at Broadway and 47th Street, in the heart of Manhattan’s Theater District, the theater was the creation of Mitchell L. Mark, who began his motion-picture career as a producer but later became an exhibitor.

Before 1914, motion-picture exhibitors had generally showcased their offerings behind modest storefronts, dubbed “nickelodeons” after the original Nickelodeon that opened in Pittsburgh in 1905. By contrast, the Mark Strand Theatre--later known simply as the Strand--was the first of the so-called “dream palaces,” called as such for their impressive size and luxuriously appointed interiors. The Strand seated around 3,000 people and boasted a second-floor viewing balcony and (in an architectural innovation at the time) a two-story rotunda where moviegoers could socialize before and after the presentation and during intermission.

On the night before it debuted to the public, the Mark Strand Theatre held its opening-night gala, which the next day’s newspapers called “a sensation” (according to a 1938 retrospective on the Strand published in the New York Times) In addition to the feature presentation that night--The Spoilers, a drama starring William Farnum--the audience was treated to a performance by the Strand’s concert orchestra; The Neapolitan Incident, which the program called “a collaboration of the motion picture and song”; songs by the Strand Quartet; and a Keystone comedy short.

By 1916, the number of movie palaces in the United States had topped 21,000. Instead of a program of short films, these theaters would show a full-length feature presentation in order to charge patrons premium prices. The movie-palace boom (and the corresponding demise of the nickelodeons) marked the beginning of the rise of the studio system, which would dominate Hollywood from the 1920s into the 1950s.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-movie-palace-opens
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"DEW DROPS", VOL. 37. No. 15. WEEKLY, APRIL 12, 1914.



Te lezen op http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14111/14111-h/14111-h.htm
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National Clarion Van



Robert Blatchford founded 'The Clarion' as a weekly Socialist newspaper. Clarion readers organised various activities e.g. cycling clubs, choral societies, rambling clubs, often meeting in Clarion club-houses. The Clarion Vans were mobile propaganda vehicles, carrying Socialist leaflets, newspapers and speakers to rural areas, often accompanied at weekends by "Clarionettes" on bicycles. This photo shows the dedication of a new National Clarion Van designed by Walter Crane, at Shrewsbury on 12 April, 1914. Fred Bramley (TUC General Secretary 1923-1925) is seated, holding hat, at centre of the photograph. Clarion Vans continued touring until 1929.

http://www.unionhistory.info/timeline/Tl_Display.php?Where=Dc1Title+contains+'+Clarion+Van%2C+1914'+
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Zeepfabriek De Klok Heerde (12 april 1915).



http://www.heerderhistorischevereniging.nl/pages/Zeepfabriek%20De%20Klok%20Heerde%20%20(12%20april%201915).htm
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Private Frank Henry May Robertson, 5th Battalion, The Canadian Infantry



Died of illness, 12th April 1915

Buried Longuenesse Souvenir Cemetery, France

Private Frank Robertson was the son of James and Lillian Robertson of 83, Prince of Wales Mansions, Battersea and was a pupil at the school between 1904-1905.

He enlisted in the 5th Canadian Infantry and arrived in France in December 1915. He was wounded during fighting near Loos in northern France and was evacuated to hospital near the coast with a gun shot wound to the shoulder and arm. Whilst in hospital he contracted Cerebro-spinal Meningitis and died at the age of 21 on the 12th April 1915.

http://www.bloxhamschoolwardead.co.uk/id3.html
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Attestation paper - 12 April 1915



http://vrroom.naa.gov.au/records/?ID=19010
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Chicago Daily News (12th April, 1915)

These women (members of the Woman's Peace Party) had embarked because the cry from the women of Europe was too pitiful to be ignored, and because it is feminine nature to respond impulsively and completely. It was a serious-minded group, where the women flocked around Miss Addams, there generally was laughter. But there could scarcely be hilarity, for the women bore in their memories the awful tidings they had received from their sisters abroad, tidings of sexual horrors, of naked children, of ruined generations, of racial peril.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApeaceW.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 20:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadian shells falling on the barbed wire protecting the German lines prior to the Canadian advance there of 9–12 April 1917 during the Battle of Vimy Ridge.



Meer foto's op http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/vimy-ridge/index.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air Defense in Istanbul

Istanbul was an attractive target for the aircrafts of Allied forces, not only because it hosted the Ottoman High Command, but also because it had several important military, industrial, commercial and social targets. Being aware of the threat posed by enemy aircrafts, the High Command issued a series of measures in March 1916, including the protection of the city with anti-aircraft guns, establishment of an early warning system and civil defense measures. The first air raid on Istanbul came on 12 April 1916, when two British aircrafts departing from Imbros dropped a total of 11 firebombs on the munitions plant in Zeytinburnu and on the aircraft hangars in Yeşilköy, as well as propaganda leaflets on the city itself. It was a small squadron, with limited armament capacity and apparently its aim was not inflict damage on the city, but to give the message that Istanbul was not untouchable.

http://www.turkeyswar.com/aviation/airdefence.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 20:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Vera Brittain, from Roland Leighton, 12th April 1916



Describes sitting in a dug-out / a German sniper / recent activities of British artillery / the experience of shelling / the set-up of his dugout / the shelling later on / the danger of stray bullets / the dangers of getting in and out of the trenches / having a bullet come past close to his head / officers' duties / the mud / amusing names for the various trenches / much love to Vera.

Tien kantjes leesvoer! http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/document/5630?REC=7
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 20:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

CHAPTER VIII: THE BATTLE OF VIMY RIDGE, 9-14 APRIL 1917

Leesvoer op http://www.cefresearch.com/matrix/Nicholson/Transcription/Chapter8.pdf via http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showthreaded&Number=702738&site_id=1#import
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Th. Rothstein 1917: "The Defence of the Russian Republic"
Source: The Call, 12 April 1917

A Russian friend of the present writer, who had hitherto regarded himself as an Internationalist, made to him, in the course of an interesting conversation on the Russian Revolution, the following remark: “The Russian Revolution, though effected mainly by the efforts of the Socialist proletariat, is not a Socialist revolution. It is a middle-class revolution which will establish in the country the rule of democracy. Of course, middle-class democracy is not everything, but it is a sufficiently precious acquisition to be defended against Germany. I am, therefore, for national defence.” As several speakers, both Russian and English, expressed themselves in the same sense at the recent meetings in Queen’s and Kingsway Halls, one is justified in assuming that the point of view put forward by the writer’s friend is rather widely shared. It amounts to this, that Russia being on a fair way of becoming a democratic republic, she is now worth fighting for with a view to her protection against the German Kaiserdom and Junkerdom.

It is a plausible and very captivating argument, but, of course, it is not new. It has all along been the argument of the French Socialists, both of the “majority” and the “minority,” who have insisted that it is both their right and their duty to defend the work of the great French Revolution and the existence of the Republic against the Absolutist Monarchy of Prusso-Germany. The Russian Internationalists, therefore, who now argue in favour of national defence by Russian Socialists, are only repeating the words of the French patriotic Socialists, which they themselves opposed in the past. Either the French patriotic Socialists have been right all along, and in that case the Internationalists were wrong; or the French patriotic Socialists have been wrong, and then the Russian internationalists, now turned patriotic, are now also wrong. There is, and can be no third view.

In our opinion, the French patriotic Socialists have all along been wrong, and so are now also their Russian imitators. Their attitude betrays, in the first place, a signal misconception of the character of the present war. The French socialists have all through their career lived much too exclusively in the traditions of the first French Revolution. That was always their misfortune, but it became a positive disaster during this war. They still picture to themselves the condition of things which prevailed in 1793, when Continental Absolutism mobilised its forces with view to crushing the French Revolution and effecting a restoration of the ancien regime. The impression left on the French mind by the struggle of that period was afterwards deepened by the part played by Russia under Nicholas I., who, as is well known, was only prevented from sending his troops to suppress the Belgian Revolution of 1830 by a rebellion in his own Empire (the Polish insurrection of that year), and who actually crushed the Hungarian Revolution eighteen years afterwards. But the present war originated and is being fought out, so to speak, on a totally different place. It is an imperialist war, which has for its source the rivalry of the various capitalist Powers in the financial and colonial markets of the world, and has to settle how the world is to be divided among these rivals. What has the political form of the State to do with it? Russia started it when she was still an Autocracy. France supported though she is a Republic, Rumania was drawn into it, though she was an abominable oligarchy, and America now joins in it wider a Democratic Administration. And, on the other side, we see semi-Absolutist Germany fighting shoulder to shoulder with democratic Bulgaria and a nondescript, bureaucratic, non-national Monarchy standing side by side with a pronouncedly nationalist State. The political forms of these States are as varied as the colours of the rainbow, and the only thing they have in common is a capitalist class in power or emerging to power. It is between these capitalist classes that the fight is proceeding, and not between the political forms of the State which the State, which they respectively use as their instrument. Hence the analogy with the period of the French Revolution is false, and the “defence” of the Russian Republic against the Prusso-German Kaiserdom is but an excuse for vulgar patriotism. The Russian Republic is not threatened by Germany, and if it is in danger at all, it is so at the hands of Russia’s own Imperialists and own Allies. (Observe the agitation of the powerful Northcliffe Press against the “extremists” and its tears over the fate of the “poor” Tsar.)

But; in the second place, have our friends thought out the meaning of the word “defence,” in its military application, at all? Defence, in that application, does not mean the saint, as “defence” in a political sense. It means not only repelling the attacks of the enemy, but also their anticipation, their frustration in advance by means of a preventive offensive, the pursuance of the enemy beyond his own lines, the invasion, if needs be, of his own territory, and ultimately the breaking of his will. But when it comes to this reciprocal game of attack and counter-attack, of offensive and counter-offensive, does not the word “defence” become applicable also to the position of the enemy? Or has the enemy, if he has not a republic, nothing to “defend”: The patriotic Socialists of Germany also declare that they have something important to defend against all comers: their social legislation, their trade union and Socialist movement, their splendid municipal organisation, their schools, their industry, in all of which Germany is far in advance of all other countries, and all of which Germany would lose in case of defeat, dismemberment and liability to a large indemnity. Are those acquisitions worth nothing, and are democratic institutions the only thing worth fighting for? What reply could one give to these arguments from the point of view of national defence? It is obvious that from that point of view war becomes an eternal process, working dialectically, now in favour of one and then in favour of another country.

It is, indeed, perfectly futile to talk of “national defence” in an era of capitalist Imperialist rivalries, when one’s country, whether it be a republic or an autocracy, is threatened and threatens other countries in turn, or even at the same time, just on account of those rivalries. A Russian or French or American Republic is still a Republic of the bourgeois classes, and its conflicts with other States are conflicts of the ruling capitalist interests. In the present instance it is the less justifiable to speak of the “defence” of the Russian or French Republic, as peace can be had at any moment if only the Allies were to accept Germany’s offer to enter into negotiations. It is the Allies who are now protracting the war, and it is Germany who is entitled to plead “national defence.”

Let the people of Russia and the Allied countries compel their respective Governments to proclaim that they are prepared to make peace on the basis of no annexations and no indemnities; then, if Germany should refuse such terms, there will be time enough to talk of “national defence”.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/rothstein/1917/04/12.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

And Suddenly a Canadian - Vimy Ridge: April 9-12, 1917



Today I felt it would be appropriate to introduce my followers to Vimy Ridge. Those of you who don’t know, refer to the picture enclosed. That is the Vimy Ridge Memorial, several tons of stone transported from the Dalmatian coast to Vimy, in northern France.

Vimy Ridge is a series of hills that the Germans took early on in the First World War, and held onto the damn thing for most of the duration. France and Britain both threw themselves at the ridge, but to no avail. Some two hundred thousand soldiers were killed in 1915 and 1916, trying to take this ridge, and in November 1916 the Ridge was finally given to the Canadians.

Now, in 1917 Canada was still just a dominion of the British Empire, barely worth a mention. When England declared war on Germany, Canada was automatically at war too (insert a hilarious anecdote about how the Prime Minister at the time had gone to his cottage for a vacation and then come back and we were at war.) Even putting the Ridge under Canadian command was a big deal, never mind the fact that, for the first time, all four divisions of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (basically the army) were going to be fighting together. We promptly went about planning the shit out of the assault on the Ridge.

When Canada plans, we don’t half-ass it. The CEF spent literally months training for this battle, working with miniature mockups of the German trenches, perfecting timing and the slow, relaxed gait that became known as the Vimy glide (apparently, I’ve only read about that particular name once, thank you Mr. Barris.) The French commanders all laughed at our plans, but we generally just told them to fuck off and went along with our plans anyway.

Let me tell you what happened next. We took the shit out of that ridge. On Easter weekend of 1917 (April 9-12) we took Vimy, losing some three thousand men and capturing about four thousand German POWs, who were promptly patched up by our medics and put to work carrying the injured to the medical areas. Then we stole their stuff. German soldiers seriously had a saying that went like this: “The British fight for glory. The Canadians fight for souvenirs.”

This was Canada’s birth as a nation. Sure, we had Confederation in 1867, and between 1867 and 1905 we collected all of the provinces (with the exception of Newfoundland and Labrador, which remained British until 1949), but this battle was the first time Canada had really come to play with the big boys. We had organized and executed our own battle plan, and holy shit it worked like a fucking charm. What’s more, we’d conquered what England and France could not.

Basically we were fucking heroes. We were, in fact, such heroes that France gave us over a hundred acres of Vimy Ridge on which to stick a monument. And she is a beauty. Presented in 1936 by King Edward VIII, after a decade of construction, the memorial commemerated the soldiers who had died during the First World War, and those who were never found, but presumed dead (probably blown to pieces.) It featured Canada mourning her lost children and you know what? Even Hitler admired the shit out of this thing. During World War II everyone was terrified that the memorial had been destroyed. To prove it still stood, Hitler went to visit the memorial and had pictures taken.

To this day, the assault on Vimy Ridge is considered one of the most important moments in Canada’s history as a country, as well as the history of her military. We had sent men little more than boys across the ocean in 1914, and they became shock troops, the most elite of warriors fighting in France.

http://hierophanthistorian.tumblr.com/post/4466201946/vimy-ridge-april-9-12-1917
Zie ook hier: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6972/is_1_14/ai_n28430233/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 11 Apr 2011 21:11, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Map of Vimy Ridge showing Canadian operations from 9-12 April 1917



http://www.civilization.ca/cwm/exhibitions/vimy/big_map_e.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Lloyd George on America's Entry into the War, 12 April 1917

Reproduced below is the text of an address given by the British Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, to the American Club in London on 12 April 1917 on the subject of America's decision to declare war against Germany six days earlier.

In his address Lloyd George made it plain that President Woodrow Wilson's decision to go to war would bring instant succour to the Allies already engaged in the war against Germany and its allies. He also emphasised that Germany had made a blunder in publicly stating that America's role in the war would be of minimal impact. It would, he said, strengthen the Allies to the point where Germany defeat was inevitable.

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George's Address to the American Club, London, on America's Entry into the War, 12 April 1917

I am in the happy position of being, I think, the first British Minister of the Crown who, speaking on behalf of the people of this country, can salute the American Nation as comrades in arms.

I am glad; I am proud. I am glad not merely because of the stupendous resources which this great nation will bring to the succour of the alliance, but I rejoice as a democrat that the advent of the United States into this war gives the final stamp and seal to the character of the conflict as a struggle against military autocracy throughout the world.

That was the note that ran through the great deliverance of President Wilson. It was echoed, Sir, in your resounding words today. The United States of America have the noble tradition, never broken, of having never engaged in war except for liberty. And this is the greatest struggle for liberty that they have ever embarked upon.

I am not at all surprised, when one recalls the wars of the past, that America took its time to make up its mind about the character of this struggle. In Europe most of the great wars of the past were waged for dynastic aggrandizement and conquest.

No wonder when this great war started that there were some elements of suspicion still lurking in the minds of the people of the United States of America. There were those who thought perhaps that Kings were at their old tricks - and although they saw the gallant Republic of France fighting, they some of them perhaps regarded it as the poor victim of a conspiracy of monarchical swashbucklers.

The fact that the United States of America has made up its mind finally makes it abundantly clear to the world that this is no struggle of that character, but a great fight for human liberty.

They naturally did not know at first what we had endured in Europe for years from this military caste in Prussia. It never has reached the United States of America. Prussia was not a democracy. The Kaiser promises that it will be a democracy after the war. I think he is right. But Prussia not merely was not a democracy. Prussia was not a State - Prussia was an army. It had great industries that had been highly developed; a great educational system; it had its universities, it had developed its science.

All these were subordinate to the one great predominant purpose, the purpose of all - a conquering army which was to intimidate the world. The army was the spear-point of Prussia; the rest was merely the shaft.

That was what we had to deal with in these old countries. It got on the nerves of Europe. They knew what it all meant. It was an army that in recent times had waged three wars, all of conquest, and the unceasing tramp of its legions through the streets of Prussia, on the parade grounds of Prussia, had got into the Prussian head.

The Kaiser, when he witnessed on a grand scale his reviews, got drunk with the sound of it. He delivered the law to the world as if Potsdam was another Sinai, and he was uttering the law from the thunder clouds.

But make no mistake. Europe was uneasy. Europe was half intimidated. Europe was anxious. Europe was apprehensive. We knew the whole time what it meant. What we did not know was the moment it would come.

This is the menace, this is the apprehension from which Europe has suffered for over fifty years. It paralyzed the beneficent activity of all States, which ought to be devoted to concentrating on the well-being of their peoples. They had to think about this menace, which was there constantly as a cloud ready to burst over the land.

No one can tell except Frenchmen what they endured from this tyranny, patiently, gallantly, with dignity, till the hour of deliverance came. The best energies of domestic science had been devoted to defending itself against the impending blow.

France was like a nation which put up its right arm to ward off a blow, and could not give the whole of her strength to the great things which she was capable of. That great, bold, imaginative, fertile mind, which would otherwise have been clearing new paths for progress, was paralyzed.

That is the state of things we had to encounter.

The most characteristic of Prussian institutions is the Hindenburg line. What is the Hindenburg line? The Hindenburg line is a line drawn in the territories of other people, with a warning that the inhabitants of those territories shall not cross it at the peril of their lives. That line has been drawn in Europe for fifty years.

You recollect what happened some years ago in France, when the French Foreign Minister was practically driven out of office by Prussian interference. Why? What had he done?

He had done nothing which a Minister of an independent State had not the most absolute right to do. He had crossed the imaginary line drawn in French territory by Prussian despotism, and he had to leave.

Europe, after enduring this for generations, made up its mind at last that the Hindenburg line must be drawn along the legitimate frontiers of Germany herself. There could be no other attitude than that for the emancipation of Europe and the world.

It was hard at first for the people of America quite to appreciate that Germany had not interfered to the same extent with their freedom, if at all. But at last they endured the same experience as Europe had been subjected to. Americans were told that they were not to be allowed to cross and re-cross the Atlantic except at their peril. American ships were sunk without warning. American citizens were drowned, hardly with an apology - in fact, as a matter of German right.

At first America could hardly believe it. They could not think it possible that any sane people should behave in that manner. And they tolerated it once, and they tolerated it twice, until it became clear that the Germans really meant it. Then America acted, and acted promptly.

The Hindenburg line was drawn along the shores of America, and the Americans were told they must not cross it. America said, "What is this?" Germany said, "This is our line, beyond which you must not go," and America said, "The place for that line is not the Atlantic, but on the Rhine and we mean to help you to roll it up."

There are two great facts which clinch the argument that this is a great struggle for freedom. The first is the fact that America has come in. She would not have come in otherwise. The second is the Russian revolution.

When France in the eighteenth century sent her soldiers to America to fight for the freedom and independence of that land, France also was an autocracy in those days. But Frenchmen in America, once they were there - their aim was freedom, their atmosphere was freedom, their inspiration was freedom. They acquired a taste for freedom, and they took it home, and France became free.

That is the story of Russia. Russia engaged in this great war for the freedom of Serbia, of Montenegro, of Bulgaria, and has fought for the freedom of Europe. They wanted to make their own country free, and they have done it.

The Russian revolution is not merely the outcome of the struggle for freedom. It is a proof of the character of the struggle for liberty, and if the Russian people realize, as there is every evidence they are doing, that national discipline is not incompatible with national freedom - nay, that national discipline is essential to the security of national freedom - they will, indeed, become a free people.

I have been asking myself the question, Why did Germany, deliberately, in the third year of the war, provoke America to this declaration and to this action - deliberately, resolutely?

It has been suggested that the reason was that there were certain elements in American life, and they were under the impression that they would make it impossible for the United States to declare war. That I can hardly believe. But the answer has been afforded by Marshal von Hindenburg himself, in the very remarkable interview which appeared in the press.

He depended clearly on one of two things. First, that the submarine campaign would have destroyed international shipping to such an extent that England would have been put out of business before America was ready.

According to his computation, America cannot be ready for twelve months. He does not know America. In the alternative, that when America is ready, at the end of twelve months, with her army, she will have no ships to transport that army to the field of battle. In von Hindenburg's words, "America carries no weight." I suppose he means she has no ships to carry weight. On that, undoubtedly they are reckoning.

Well, it is not wise always to assume that even when the German General Staff, which has miscalculated so often, makes a calculation it has no ground for it. It therefore behoves the whole of the Allies, Great Britain and America in particular, to see that that reckoning of von Hindenburg is as false as the one he made about his famous line, which we have broken already.

The road to victory, the guarantee of victory, the absolute assurance of victory is to be found in one word - ships; and a second word - ships; and a third word - ships. And with that quickness of apprehension which characterizes your nation, Mr. Chairman, I see that they fully realize that, and today I observe that they have already made arrangements to build one thousand 3,000-tonners for the Atlantic.

I think that the German military advisers must already begin to realize that this is another of the tragic miscalculations which are going to lead them to disaster and to ruin. But you will pardon me for emphasizing that. We are a slow people in these islands - slow and blundering - but we get there. You get there sooner, and that is why I am glad to see you in.

But may I say that we have been in this business for three years? We have, as we generally do, tried every blunder. In golfing phraseology, we have got into every bunker. But we have got a good niblick. We are right out on the course.

But may I respectfully suggest that it is worth America's while to study our blunders, so as to begin just where we are now and not where we were three years ago? That is an advantage. In war, time has as tragic a significance as it has in sickness. A step which, taken today, may lead to assured victory, taken tomorrow may barely avert disaster. All the Allies have discovered that.

It was a new country for us all. It was trackless, mapless. We had to go by instinct. But we found the way, and I am so glad that you are sending your great naval and military experts here, just to exchange experiences with men who have been through all the dreary, anxious crises of the last three years.

America has helped us even to win the battle of Arras. Do you know that these guns which destroyed the German trenches, shattered the barbed wire - I remember, with some friends of mine whom I see here, arranging to order the machines to make those guns from America. Not all of them - you got your share, but only a share, a glorious share.

So that America has also had her training. She has been making guns, making ammunition, giving us machinery to prepare both; she has supplied us with steel, and she has got all that organization and she has got that wonderful facility, adaptability, and resourcefulness of the great people which inhabits that great continent.

It was a bad day for military autocracy in Prussia when it challenged the great Republic of the West. We know what America can do, and we also know that now she is in it she will do it. She will wage an effective and successful war.

There is something more important. She will insure a beneficent peace. I attach great importance - and I am the last man in the world, knowing for three years what our difficulties have been, what our anxieties have been, and what our fears have been - I am the last man to say that the succour which is given to us from America is not something in itself to rejoice in, and to rejoice in greatly.

But I don't mind saying that I rejoice even more in the knowledge that America is going to win the right to be at the conference table when the terms of peace are being discussed. That conference will settle the destiny of nations - the course of human life - for God knows how many ages.

It would have been tragic for mankind if America had not been there, and there with all the influence, all the power, and the right which she has now won by flinging herself into this great struggle.

I can see peace coming now - not a peace which will be the beginning of war; not a peace which will be an endless preparation for strife and bloodshed; but a real peace. The world is an old world. It has never had peace. It has been rocking and swaying like an ocean, and Europe - poor Europe! - has always lived under the menace of the sword.

When this war began two-thirds of Europe were under autocratic rule. It is the other way about now, and democracy means peace. The democracy of France did not want war; the democracy of Italy hesitated long before they entered the war; the democracy of this country shrank from it - shrank and shuddered - and never would have entered the cauldron had it not been for the invasion of Belgium.

The democracies sought peace; strove for peace. If Prussia had been a democracy there would have been no war. Strange things have happened in this war. There are stranger things to come, and they are coming rapidly.

There are times in history when this world spins so leisurely along its destined course that it seems for centuries to be at a standstill; but there are also times when it rushes along at a giddy pace, covering the track of centuries in a year.

Those are the times we are living in now. Today we wage the most devastating war earth has ever seen; tomorrow - perhaps not a distant tomorrow - war may be abolished forever from the category of human crimes.

This may be something like the fierce outburst of winter which we are now witnessing before the complete triumph of the sun. It is written of those gallant men who won that victory on Monday - men from Canada, from Australia, and from this old country, which has proved that in spite of its age it is not decrepit - it is written of those gallant men that they attacked with the dawn - fit work for the dawn! - to drive out of forty miles of French soil those miscreants who had defiled it for three years. "They attacked with the dawn." Significant phrase!

The breaking up of the dark rule of the Turk, which for centuries has clouded the sunniest land in the world, the freeing of Russia from an oppression which has covered it like a shroud for so long, the great declaration of President Wilson coming with the might of the great nation which he represents into the struggle for liberty are heralds of the dawn.

"They attacked with the dawn," and these men are marching forward in the full radiance of that dawn, and soon Frenchmen and Americans, British, Italians, Russians, yea, and Serbians, Belgians, Montenegrins, will march into the full light of a perfect day.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_lloydgeorge.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Engagement at Apremont, 4/12/1918



On April 12, men of the 103rd Infantry were sent into the left side of the line at Bois Brule near Apremont and St. Agnant to reinforce the 104th Infantry. Throughout the afternoon and evening the 103rd was engaged in small unit close combat with German infantry in a tangle of earthworks, wire and underbrush. The enemy was finally driven back from the American positions…

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/04/12/battle-of-apremont-4121918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pte. James Wolfenden



Killed in action with the 11th East Lancashires on 12th April 1918; James has no known grave and is commemorated on the Ploegsteert Memorial.

http://www.pals.org.uk/lys2.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Divisions Involved in the Battle of Hazebrouck, 12th – 15th April, 1918

The Battle of Hazebrouck, 12 – 15 April 1918

First Army (Horne)
I Corps (Holland)
3rd Division, fought in the defence of Hinges Ridge
4th Division, fought in the defence of Hinges Ridge
55th (West Lancashire) Division
3rd Brigade of 1st Division.
XI Corps (Haking)
5th Division, fought in the defence of Nieppe Forest
50th (Northumbrian) Division
61st (2nd South Midland) Division.
XV Corps (Du Cane) transferred to Second Army at noon on 12 April 1918
29th Division, less 88th Brigade, fought in the defence of Nieppe Forest
31st Division, fought in the defence of Nieppe Forest
33rd Division
40th Division
1st Australian Division, fought in the defence of Nieppe Forest
Composite Force, comprising personnel from Ii and XXII Corps Schools, 2nd New Zealand Entrenching Battalion, two companies of the 18th Middlesex Regiment and the XXIII Corps Reinforcement Battalion.

Lees verder op http://oxfordshireandbuckinghamshirelightinfantry.wordpress.com/2010/01/24/the-divisions-involved-in-the-battle-of-hazebrouck-12th-15th-april-1918/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter Home: April 12, 1918

[The top portion of this letter is missing]

I am getting quite used to the sound of the guns which some times is a continuous roar for hours. There are no women or children this near the front. There is not much to spend money for. I have deposited 30 dollars with the pay master since I came over here, this I will get when discharged

I will inquire about my insurance, for I think they would certainly send you a policy or some thing to show for it. The A.E.F publishes a weekly paper over here I am haveing it sent to you. I guess this will be all for this time. Answer soon with love to all the folks. Your son

Robert E. Schalles
Amb Co. No. 1
A.E.F via New York

http://www.robertschallesmemorial.com/LettersSub/b04121918.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hongerrellen in de Hemsterhuisstraat

Door het voedselgebrek dat ontstond gedurende de Eerste Wereldoorlog, vonden in de Hemsterhuisstraat in april 1918 zogenaamde Hongerrellen plaats.

Eerste Wereldoorlog - Het was het laatste jaar van de Eerste Wereldoorlog, 1918. Nederland was neutraal in deze oorlog maar ondervond er wel de negatieve economische gevolgen van. Zo waren handel en scheepvaart geblokkeerd door de oorlogshandelingen van de strijdende naties, waardoor in ons land tekorten ontstonden.

Rellen - De tekorten liepen zo op, dat het hongerige volk opstandig werd. Er werd tegen de situatie gedemonstreerd, en in april 1918 liep het uit de hand. Gedurende meerdere dagen heerste er grote onrust en ontstonden er relletjes, de zogenaamde Hongerrellen. Er werd geplunderd, bakkerswagens moesten het ontgelden en bij levensmiddelenzaken werden ruiten ingegooid.

Hemsterhuisstraat - Op 12 april 1918 verzamelde zich ook bij de Hemsterhuisstraat een groep opstandigen. Hun eerste doelwit was de daar gevestigde banketbakkerij van Daalhoff. De ruiten werden ingegooid, met stokken sloeg men de boel aan gruzelementen en de winkel werd geplunderd. Ook verder vonden geweld en plunderingen in de buurt plaats.

Gevolgen - De rellen leidden tot gevechten tussen demonstranten en winkeliers, straten werden opgebroken en versperd en vanuit de huizen klonken schoten. Uiteindelijk greep de politie samen met de marechaussee hard in. Na afloop van de rellen vielen 2 doden en 14 gewonden te betreuren.

http://www.geschiedenisenteksten.nl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=76
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Convalescents - Chailey Heritage 1918



I've been sent the link to the picture above which I presume, although I don't know for certain, was taken at Chailey Heritage. Does anybody recognise the buildings or, for that matter, any of the people pictured?

The only identified person so far is Horace Wilfred Dexter, wounded on 12th April 1918, who sits third from left on the front row.

http://chailey1418.blogspot.com/2009/07/convalescents-chailey-heritage-1918.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Lys: British infantry holding the line of a canal near the village of Merviller, 12 April 1918



http://www.1914-1918.net/iwd.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Field Marshall Earl Haig, Order of the Day, 12 April 1918.

"Every position must be held to the last man: there must be no retirement. With our backs to the wall, and believing in the justice of our cause, each one of us must fight to the end."

http://www.rampantscotland.com/quotations/blquotesc.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paris, bombardment by aeroplanes, night of 12 April 1918.



In front of 14 rue de Rivoli, the hole made by a bomb and firemen at work. Date: 13/04/1918; photography: Albert Moreau. Source: ECPAD

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichepage.php?idLang=en&idPage=13206
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Joseph Lumley of Sydney, died of Spanish Flu 1919

Joseph Lumley, age 17 years, died 12th April 1919 at 88 Union St. Erskineville of pneumonic influenza. Occupation Labourer. Father Joseph Arthur Lumley Coal Minter, Mother Olive Mary Painter. Buried C. of E. Rookwood.

http://genforum.genealogy.com/lumley/messages/357.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 21:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Of Russian origin: Subbotnik

"Slavery is freedom" - Subbotnik (from the Russian word subbota meaning Saturday) is a day of unpaid labor, usually on a Saturday. Originally it was voluntary and it had the idea of uniting the revolutionary minded masses and promoting the ideas of socialism through labor.

However, as the enthusiasm among the people dwindled, subbotniks simply became the means for the ruling class to get free work from their employees under the cover of comminist ideology. Eventually, subbotniks were reduced to a day or two a year, when people came together for major spring cleaning at their work places or home neighbourhoods.

Legend - People in the Soviet Union believed that a bright future awaited them, but to reach it – they had to work hard. They toiled and moiled day and night but never seemed to get any closer to the long-awaited future.

So they started thinking it was because they didn’t work enough and decided they needed to work during their free time as well. That was how the Soviet subbotnik was born.

Together with Sunday, Saturday was an official day off in the USSR. Why would anyone need both days off, however? How much better it would be to use one of the days for some deliberate, volunteer social work for the benefit of the community! And of course the work went unpaid as it was everyone’s personal contribution towards a prosperous future and not at all a way to earn some money.

Official legend - The first subbotniks took place in 1919. It was a difficult time for the Soviet Union. The country had just come through the First World War and the Bolshevik Revolution and had been shaken by Civil War and military intervention. Many believe it was Vladimir Lenin ’s idea to organize subbotniks – to stiffen the people’s spirit. But that is simply not true.

The very first - On the night of Saturday 12 April 1919, fifteen workers from one of Moscow’s railway depots finished their shift but didn’t go home. They stayed at the shop and continued to work.

The protocol notes of the man behind the initiative reads as follows: “We’ve been working for 10 hours, till 6 am, and have repaired three locomotives… At 6 am we gathered at a cabin car to discuss our job. We took some tea, rested a bit and decided to repeat our Saturday night work every week… We sang ‘International’ and went home.”

http://russiapedia.rt.com/of-russian-origin/subbotnik/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 22:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters between Sylvester and Eva, April 1919

Apr. 12

The Day

Dearest,

This is bright and early on our day of days. Not very bright overhead, but it wasn't on Our Day either, and it would be anyway whether or no if "we two were Together", Dearest One, I love you.

Sylvester.

Nevers, France, 12 April, 1919

My Sunshine Lady,

Would that I could do it all over again tonight! And see again that indescribably wonderful light in your eye at the beautiful burst of the new dawn of our Love, just a year ago. Oh, Eva, you can't imagine how beautiful you were at that moment! How many times I have lived it over in memory, and lived over the sight of you, to charm away a lonely spell.

I was sure we would be together to live over again our first anniversary, but though Fortune wasn't that kind, I ought surely to be altogether thankful, for it won't deprive me of the 2nd; and when I last left you, I didn't know but what it was for years, but I wouldn't give that thought any mind room at all, for it would have made me too unbearably unhappy.

I wonder what you are doing tonight, or what you will be doing, rather, when it gets night with you, for it is only about five o'clock by the dusty fireplace now. Or isn't it a dusty fireplace tonight? I wonder. You have asked me in a letter today if I would rock you - only rock you. Yes, dear, to be near you; but you know that I should like be even nearer and rock with you. My left shoulder likes to be your pillow, and I have some bars sewed on there now, which don't scratch and pull the hair. So there! Your last argument is gone. It is all settled. I should be rocking with you if I were there tonight. Besides, if I didn't it wouldn't be truly living over the first night.

Sweetheart, your "Spring the first" letter came today, and it is one of the sweetest letters I ever had. Now weren't you dear and lovely and everything that is beautiful and good and sunshiny to send me that letter so that it would get me just today, of all days? Thank you. You are a good sweetheart. With your letter, too, but going with that of another day - the "conservatory letter" (you dear happy thoughted girl!) was a little crocus, and one of our carnations which goes with us and our gold pin, and the first maypink of the season. Wasn't that all nice and happy, too? I have another first maypink of a year ago in the box with the Together Poem right here with me. Again, thank you. Again, you are a good sweetheart and I love you.

What happiness just to know I have you, just to know you love me! Sometimes I sit and wonder how all that is true. Yet nothing could ever be right with me if it weren't. What greater happiness will be the wonderful reality of you presence by me again, when we start to live and love and work and play together forever.

Together! Everything together, You and I, who were made for each other!

I love you. With my whole heart and soul, I love You, Eva.

Sylvester.

Dearest, Now it is the morning again, the first morning I greeted you with a kiss as the natural first greeting for the first thing in the morning. Here is another, and another, and another, and a million.

Your Sweetheart.

http://www.cromwellbutlers.com/sbel0419.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 22:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Henry Woollett

Henry Woollett began the war serving in the Lincolnshire Regiment and fought at Gallipoli in 1915. In 1916 he transferred to the RFC and quickly gained a reputation as a fearless balloon busting pilot. He returned to England in 1917 to work as a flight instructor but returned to the front in March 1918 and served with No. 43 Sqn RFC.

On 12th April 1918, flying Sopwith Camel D6402, he achieved no fewer than six kills in one day and set an unbeaten record for a fighter ace of the First World War.

http://www.corgi.co.uk/shop/90/sopwith-camel--no-43-sqn-capt-henry-winslow-woollett-spring-1918-aa38104/?from_categories=aircraft
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 11 Apr 2011 22:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bombing of Wigan

IT WAS just before midnight
on Friday 12 April 1918, and
the streets of Wigan were
fully lit and the tramcars still
running. Suddenly, the drone
of a Zeppelin was followed
by a loud explosion. More
bombs fell and the flashes lit
up the darkness as people
ran into the streets. After
dropping a total of 27 bombs,
the raider fled as quickly as
he had come, leaving a trail
of devastation in Lower Ince,
Hardybutts, Scholes, Platt
Lane, Whelley and New
Springs.

Artikel op http://www.wlct.org/Culture/Heritage/pf25.pdf (vanaf pagina 6)
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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