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6 April

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2006 8:17    Onderwerp: 6 April Reageer met quote

Quote:
April 6

1917 U.S. enters World War I


On April 6, 1917, two days after the U.S. Senate votes 82 to 6 to declare war against Germany, the U.S. House of Representatives endorses the decision by a vote of 373 to 50, and the United States formally enters the First World War.

When World War I erupted in 1914, President Woodrow Wilson pledged neutrality for the United States, a position favored by the vast majority of Americans. Britain, however, was one of America's closest trading partners, and tension soon arose between the United States and Germany over the latter's attempted quarantine of the British Isles. Several U.S. ships traveling to Britain were damaged or sunk by German mines, and, in February 1915, Germany announced unrestricted warfare against all ships, neutral or otherwise, that entered the war zone around Britain. One month later, Germany announced that a German cruiser had sunk the William P. Frye, a private American vessel. President Wilson was outraged, but the German government apologized, calling the attack an unfortunate mistake.

On May 7, the British-owned ocean liner Lusitania was torpedoed without warning just off the coast of Ireland. Of the nearly 2,000 passengers aboard, 1,201 were killed, including 128 Americans. The German government maintained, correctly, that the Lusitania was carrying munitions, but the U.S. demanded reparations and an end to German attacks on unarmed passenger and merchant ships. In August, Germany pledged to see to the safety of passengers before sinking unarmed vessels, but in November a U-boat sank an Italian liner without warning, killing 272 people, including 27 Americans. With these attacks, public opinion in the United States began to turn irrevocably against Germany.

In February 1917, Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, resumed its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in war-zone waters. Three days later, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Germany; the same day, the American liner Housatonic was sunk by a German U-boat. On February 22, Congress passed a $250 million arms-appropriations bill intended to ready the United States for war. In late March, Germany sank four more U.S. merchant ships, and on April 2, President Wilson went before Congress to deliver his famous “war message.” Within four days, both houses of Congress had voted in favor of a declaration of war.

Despite measures taken to improve U.S. military preparedness in the previous year, Wilson was unable to offer the Allies much immediate help in the form of troops; indeed, the army was only able to muster about 100,000 men at the time of American entrance into the war. To remedy this, Wilson immediately adopted a policy of conscription. By the time the war ended on November 11, 1918, more than 2 million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe, and some 50,000 of them had lost their lives. Still, the most important effect of the U.S. entrance into the war was economic—by the beginning of April 1917, Britain alone was spending $75 million per week on U.S. arms and supplies, both for itself and for its allies, and had an overdraft of $358 million. The American entry into the war saved Great Britain, and by extension the rest of the Entente, from bankruptcy.

The United States also crucially reinforced the strength of the Allied naval blockade of Germany, in effect from the end of 1914 and aimed at crushing Germany economically. American naval forces reached Britain on April 9, 1917, just three days after the declaration of war. By contrast, General John J. Pershing, the man appointed to command the U.S. Army in Europe, did not arrive until June 14; roughly a week later, the first 14,000 U.S. infantry troops landed in France to begin training for combat. Though the U.S. Army’s contributions began slowly, they would eventually mark a major turning point in the war effort and help the Allies to victory.


http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2006 8:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1916 Battle of St. Eloi Craters begins
2 1917 United States declares war on Germany



Births
1 1890 Otto Jäger
2 1892 Noel Keeble
3 1899 Robert Owen



Deaths
1 1917 Hans Berr
2 1918 Sydney Smith
3 1918 Wilfred Sneath
4 1974 Wilmot Fysh



Claims
1 1917 Fred Holliday #1
2 1917 Frederick Armstrong #1
3 1917 Lloyd Breadner #1
4 1917 Alfred Carter #1
5 1917 Carleton Clement #3
6 1917 Joseph Fall #1
7 1917 Medley Parlee #2
8 1917 James Smith #5
9 1917 John Aspinall #3
10 1917 Maurice Benjamin #1
11 1917 Leonard Emsden #4
12 1917 Frank Hudson #4
13 1917 John Murison #1
14 1917 William Price #1
15 1917 Oliver Stewart #1
16 1917 Anthony Wall #1
17 1917 Paul Tarascon #9
18 1917 Hartmut Baldamus #16
19 1917 Rudolf Berthold #10
20 1917 Joachim von Bertrab #1 #2 #3 #4
21 1917 Hans Bethge #5
22 1917 Heinrich Bongartz #1
23 1917 Otto Brauneck u/c
24 1917 Wilhelm Frankl #16 #17 #18 #19
25 1917 Heinrich Gontermann #7
26 1917 Walter Göttsch #7
27 1917 Josef Jacobs u/c
28 1917 Karl Menckhoff #2
29 1917 Edmund Nathanael #8
30 1917 Paul von Osterroht #3 #4
31 1917 Karl Schäfer #10 #11
32 1917 Adolf Schulte u/c
33 1917 Otto Splitgerber #3
34 1917 Georg Strasser #2
35 1917 Adolf von Tutschek #3
36 1917 Kurt Wolff #6
37 1917 Giles Blennerhasset #4
38 1917 Llewelyn Davies #1
39 1918 Gregory Blaxland #2
40 1918 Alexander Clark #4
41 1918 George Lingham #3
42 1918 Robert Little #40
43 1918 Jack Drummond #2
44 1918 Stanley Rosevear #23
45 1918 Anthony Spence #8
46 1918 Charles Banks #2
47 1918 Gerald Cooper #2
48 1918 Euan Dickson #8
49 1918 Trevor Durrant #4
50 1918 Thomas Gerrard #10
51 1918 Cecil King #10
52 1918 Charles Lupton #4
53 1918 Harry Robinson #9
54 1918 Wilfred Sneath #5
55 1918 Hans Böhning #9
56 1918 August Delling #1
57 1918 Franz Hemer #7
58 1918 Erich Just #2
59 1918 Hans Kirschstein #5
60 1918 Karl Menckhoff #22
61 1918 Fritz Pütter #17
62 1918 Manfred von Richthofen #76
63 1918 Edgar Scholtz #6
64 1918 Ernst Udet #23
65 1918 Hans Weiss #13 #14
66 1918 Hans Wolff #5 #6
67 1918 Hector Daniel #4 #5
68 1918 William Jordan #19
69 1918 Samuel Kinkead #19
70 1918 Hugh Saunders #4
71 1918 Neil Smuts #1
72 1918 Ian Napier #4
73 1918 Paul Baer #3
74 1918 Jens Larsen #9



Losses
1 1917 Hans Berrkilled in action
2 1918 Jack Drummondwounded in action
3 1918 Sydney Smithkilled in action; shot down by Manfred von Richthofen
4 1918 Wilfred Sneathkilled in action

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 16:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

US Enter W.W.I

On April 6th, the US declared war on Germany. The vote was 90 to 6 in the Senate, and 373 to 50 in the House. The increase in U-Boat activity by Germany, combined with the interception of the Zimmerman telegram (which promised Mexico it would regain part of the United States if it entered the war on the German side), precipitated the final American decision to go to war.

http://www.historycentral.com/dates/1916.html

Formal U.S. Declaration of War with Germany, 6 April 1917

Joint Resolution Declaring that a state of war exists between the Imperial German Government and the Government and the people of the United States and making provision to prosecute the same.

Whereas the Imperial German Government has committed repeated acts of war against the Government and the people of the United States of America; Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate and the House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress Assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and that the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to employ the entire naval and military forces of the United States and the resources of the Government to carry on war against the Imperial German Government; and to bring the conflict to a successful termination all of the resources of the country are hereby pledged by the Congress of the United States.

CHAMP CLARK
Speaker of the House of Representatives
THOS. R. MARSHALL
Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate
Approved, April 6, 1917
WOODROW WILSON

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Formal_U.S._Declaration_of_War_with_Germany,_6_April_1917

The war mobilization effort placed tremendous demands on both American military and civilian populations. In a wartime speech, Samuel Gompers, president of the American Federation of Labor, noted that the U.S. work force was fully committed to victory:

The World War in which we are engaged in is on such a tremendous scale that we must readjust practically the whole nation's social and economic structure from a peace to a war basis. It devolves upon liberty-loving citizens, and particularly the workers of this country, to see to it that the spirit and the methods of democracy are maintained within our own country while we are engaged in a war to establish them in international relations…

The workers have a part in this war equal with the soldiers and sailors on the ships and in the trenches…They are demonstrating their appreciation and loyalty by war work, by loaning their savings, and by the supreme sacrifice. Labor will do its part in every demand the war makes. Our republic, the freedom of the world, progress, and civilization hang in the balance. We dare not fail. We will win.


http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/apr06.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Prime Minister Alexander Ribot's Address to the French Senate on America's Entry into the War, April 1917

What particularly touches us is that the United States has always kept alive that friendship toward us which was sealed with our blood.

We recognize with joy that the bond of sympathy between the peoples is inspired by ideals which can be cultivated in the heart of democracy. The starry flag is going to float beside the tricolor. Our hands shall join and our hearts shall beat in unison.

President Wilson makes it plain to all that the conflict is truly one between the liberty of modern society and the spirit of the domination of military despotism. It is this which causes the President's message to stir our hearts to their depths as a message of deliverance to the whole world.

The people who in the eighteenth century made a declaration of rights under the inspiration of the writings of our philosophers, the people who placed Washington and Lincoln among the foremost of its heroes, the people who in the last century liberated the slaves, is well worthy to give the world such an exalted example.

For us, after such death and ruin, such heroic suffering, the words of the President mean renewal of the sentiments which have animated and sustained us throughout this long trial. The powerful and decisive assistance which the United States brings us will be not material aid alone; it will be moral aid, above all, a veritable consolation.

As we see the conscience of the whole world stirred in mighty protest against the atrocities of which we are victims, we feel that we are fighting not alone for ourselves and our allies, but for something immortal; that we are striving to establish a new order of things.

And so our sacrifices have not been in vain. The blood poured out so generously by the sons of France has been shed in order to spread the ideals of liberty and justice, which will establish concord among nations.

In the name of all the country, the Government of the French Republic addresses to the Government and people of the United States an expression of its gratitude, and its most ardent greetings.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_ribot.htm

German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on the Prospect of War with the U.S., April 1917

The directors of the American Nation have been convened by President Wilson for an extraordinary session of Congress in order to decide the question of war or peace between the American and German Nations.

Germany never had the slightest intention of attacking the United States of America, and does not have such intention now. It never desired war against the United States of America and does not desire it today.

How did these things develop? More than once we told the United States that we made unrestricted use of the submarine weapon, expecting that England could be made to observe, in her policy of blockade, the laws of humanity and of international agreements

This blockade policy, this I expressly recall, has been called illegal and indefensible by President Wilson and Secretary of State Lansing.

Our expectations, which we maintained during eight months, have been disappointed completely. England not only did not give up her illegal and indefensible policy of blockade, but uninterruptedly intensified it.

England, together with her allies, arrogantly rejected the peace offers made by us and our allies and proclaimed her war aims, which aim at our annihilation and that of our allies.

Then we took unrestricted submarine warfare into our hands; then we had to for our defence.

If the American Nation considers this a cause for which to declare war against the German Nation with which it has lived in peace for more than 100 years, if this action warrants an increase of bloodshed, we shall not have to bear the responsibility for it.

The German Nation, which feels neither hatred nor hostility, against the United States of America, shall also bear and overcome this.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_bethmann.htm

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George's Address to the American Club, London, on America's Entry into the War, 12 April 1917

I am in the happy position of being, I think, the first British Minister of the Crown who, speaking on behalf of the people of this country, can salute the American Nation as comrades in arms.

I am glad; I am proud. I am glad not merely because of the stupendous resources which this great nation will bring to the succour of the alliance, but I rejoice as a democrat that the advent of the United States into this war gives the final stamp and seal to the character of the conflict as a struggle against military autocracy throughout the world.

That was the note that ran through the great deliverance of President Wilson. It was echoed, Sir, in your resounding words today. The United States of America have the noble tradition, never broken, of having never engaged in war except for liberty. And this is the greatest struggle for liberty that they have ever embarked upon.

I am not at all surprised, when one recalls the wars of the past, that America took its time to make up its mind about the character of this struggle. In Europe most of the great wars of the past were waged for dynastic aggrandizement and conquest.

No wonder when this great war started that there were some elements of suspicion still lurking in the minds of the people of the United States of America. There were those who thought perhaps that Kings were at their old tricks - and although they saw the gallant Republic of France fighting, they some of them perhaps regarded it as the poor victim of a conspiracy of monarchical swashbucklers.

The fact that the United States of America has made up its mind finally makes it abundantly clear to the world that this is no struggle of that character, but a great fight for human liberty.

They naturally did not know at first what we had endured in Europe for years from this military caste in Prussia. It never has reached the United States of America. Prussia was not a democracy. The Kaiser promises that it will be a democracy after the war. I think he is right. But Prussia not merely was not a democracy. Prussia was not a State - Prussia was an army. It had great industries that had been highly developed; a great educational system; it had its universities, it had developed its science.

All these were subordinate to the one great predominant purpose, the purpose of all - a conquering army which was to intimidate the world. The army was the spear-point of Prussia; the rest was merely the shaft.

That was what we had to deal with in these old countries. It got on the nerves of Europe. They knew what it all meant. It was an army that in recent times had waged three wars, all of conquest, and the unceasing tramp of its legions through the streets of Prussia, on the parade grounds of Prussia, had got into the Prussian head.

The Kaiser, when he witnessed on a grand scale his reviews, got drunk with the sound of it. He delivered the law to the world as if Potsdam was another Sinai, and he was uttering the law from the thunder clouds.

But make no mistake. Europe was uneasy. Europe was half intimidated. Europe was anxious. Europe was apprehensive. We knew the whole time what it meant. What we did not know was the moment it would come.

This is the menace, this is the apprehension from which Europe has suffered for over fifty years. It paralyzed the beneficent activity of all States, which ought to be devoted to concentrating on the well-being of their peoples. They had to think about this menace, which was there constantly as a cloud ready to burst over the land.

No one can tell except Frenchmen what they endured from this tyranny, patiently, gallantly, with dignity, till the hour of deliverance came. The best energies of domestic science had been devoted to defending itself against the impending blow.

France was like a nation which put up its right arm to ward off a blow, and could not give the whole of her strength to the great things which she was capable of. That great, bold, imaginative, fertile mind, which would otherwise have been clearing new paths for progress, was paralyzed.

That is the state of things we had to encounter.

The most characteristic of Prussian institutions is the Hindenburg line. What is the Hindenburg line? The Hindenburg line is a line drawn in the territories of other people, with a warning that the inhabitants of those territories shall not cross it at the peril of their lives. That line has been drawn in Europe for fifty years.

You recollect what happened some years ago in France, when the French Foreign Minister was practically driven out of office by Prussian interference. Why? What had he done?

He had done nothing which a Minister of an independent State had not the most absolute right to do. He had crossed the imaginary line drawn in French territory by Prussian despotism, and he had to leave.

Europe, after enduring this for generations, made up its mind at last that the Hindenburg line must be drawn along the legitimate frontiers of Germany herself. There could be no other attitude than that for the emancipation of Europe and the world.

It was hard at first for the people of America quite to appreciate that Germany had not interfered to the same extent with their freedom, if at all. But at last they endured the same experience as Europe had been subjected to. Americans were told that they were not to be allowed to cross and re-cross the Atlantic except at their peril. American ships were sunk without warning. American citizens were drowned, hardly with an apology - in fact, as a matter of German right.

At first America could hardly believe it. They could not think it possible that any sane people should behave in that manner. And they tolerated it once, and they tolerated it twice, until it became clear that the Germans really meant it. Then America acted, and acted promptly.

The Hindenburg line was drawn along the shores of America, and the Americans were told they must not cross it. America said, "What is this?" Germany said, "This is our line, beyond which you must not go," and America said, "The place for that line is not the Atlantic, but on the Rhine and we mean to help you to roll it up."

There are two great facts which clinch the argument that this is a great struggle for freedom. The first is the fact that America has come in. She would not have come in otherwise. The second is the Russian revolution.

When France in the eighteenth century sent her soldiers to America to fight for the freedom and independence of that land, France also was an autocracy in those days. But Frenchmen in America, once they were there - their aim was freedom, their atmosphere was freedom, their inspiration was freedom. They acquired a taste for freedom, and they took it home, and France became free.

That is the story of Russia. Russia engaged in this great war for the freedom of Serbia, of Montenegro, of Bulgaria, and has fought for the freedom of Europe. They wanted to make their own country free, and they have done it.

The Russian revolution is not merely the outcome of the struggle for freedom. It is a proof of the character of the struggle for liberty, and if the Russian people realize, as there is every evidence they are doing, that national discipline is not incompatible with national freedom - nay, that national discipline is essential to the security of national freedom - they will, indeed, become a free people.

I have been asking myself the question, Why did Germany, deliberately, in the third year of the war, provoke America to this declaration and to this action - deliberately, resolutely?

It has been suggested that the reason was that there were certain elements in American life, and they were under the impression that they would make it impossible for the United States to declare war. That I can hardly believe. But the answer has been afforded by Marshal von Hindenburg himself, in the very remarkable interview which appeared in the press.

He depended clearly on one of two things. First, that the submarine campaign would have destroyed international shipping to such an extent that England would have been put out of business before America was ready.

According to his computation, America cannot be ready for twelve months. He does not know America. In the alternative, that when America is ready, at the end of twelve months, with her army, she will have no ships to transport that army to the field of battle. In von Hindenburg's words, "America carries no weight." I suppose he means she has no ships to carry weight. On that, undoubtedly they are reckoning.

Well, it is not wise always to assume that even when the German General Staff, which has miscalculated so often, makes a calculation it has no ground for it. It therefore behoves the whole of the Allies, Great Britain and America in particular, to see that that reckoning of von Hindenburg is as false as the one he made about his famous line, which we have broken already.

The road to victory, the guarantee of victory, the absolute assurance of victory is to be found in one word - ships; and a second word - ships; and a third word - ships. And with that quickness of apprehension which characterizes your nation, Mr. Chairman, I see that they fully realize that, and today I observe that they have already made arrangements to build one thousand 3,000-tonners for the Atlantic.

I think that the German military advisers must already begin to realize that this is another of the tragic miscalculations which are going to lead them to disaster and to ruin. But you will pardon me for emphasizing that. We are a slow people in these islands - slow and blundering - but we get there. You get there sooner, and that is why I am glad to see you in.

But may I say that we have been in this business for three years? We have, as we generally do, tried every blunder. In golfing phraseology, we have got into every bunker. But we have got a good niblick. We are right out on the course.

But may I respectfully suggest that it is worth America's while to study our blunders, so as to begin just where we are now and not where we were three years ago? That is an advantage. In war, time has as tragic a significance as it has in sickness. A step which, taken today, may lead to assured victory, taken tomorrow may barely avert disaster. All the Allies have discovered that.

It was a new country for us all. It was trackless, mapless. We had to go by instinct. But we found the way, and I am so glad that you are sending your great naval and military experts here, just to exchange experiences with men who have been through all the dreary, anxious crises of the last three years.

America has helped us even to win the battle of Arras. Do you know that these guns which destroyed the German trenches, shattered the barbed wire - I remember, with some friends of mine whom I see here, arranging to order the machines to make those guns from America. Not all of them - you got your share, but only a share, a glorious share.

So that America has also had her training. She has been making guns, making ammunition, giving us machinery to prepare both; she has supplied us with steel, and she has got all that organization and she has got that wonderful facility, adaptability, and resourcefulness of the great people which inhabits that great continent.

It was a bad day for military autocracy in Prussia when it challenged the great Republic of the West. We know what America can do, and we also know that now she is in it she will do it. She will wage an effective and successful war.

There is something more important. She will insure a beneficent peace. I attach great importance - and I am the last man in the world, knowing for three years what our difficulties have been, what our anxieties have been, and what our fears have been - I am the last man to say that the succour which is given to us from America is not something in itself to rejoice in, and to rejoice in greatly.

But I don't mind saying that I rejoice even more in the knowledge that America is going to win the right to be at the conference table when the terms of peace are being discussed. That conference will settle the destiny of nations - the course of human life - for God knows how many ages.

It would have been tragic for mankind if America had not been there, and there with all the influence, all the power, and the right which she has now won by flinging herself into this great struggle.

I can see peace coming now - not a peace which will be the beginning of war; not a peace which will be an endless preparation for strife and bloodshed; but a real peace. The world is an old world. It has never had peace. It has been rocking and swaying like an ocean, and Europe - poor Europe! - has always lived under the menace of the sword.

When this war began two-thirds of Europe were under autocratic rule. It is the other way about now, and democracy means peace. The democracy of France did not want war; the democracy of Italy hesitated long before they entered the war; the democracy of this country shrank from it - shrank and shuddered - and never would have entered the cauldron had it not been for the invasion of Belgium.

The democracies sought peace; strove for peace. If Prussia had been a democracy there would have been no war. Strange things have happened in this war. There are stranger things to come, and they are coming rapidly.

There are times in history when this world spins so leisurely along its destined course that it seems for centuries to be at a standstill; but there are also times when it rushes along at a giddy pace, covering the track of centuries in a year.

Those are the times we are living in now. Today we wage the most devastating war earth has ever seen; tomorrow - perhaps not a distant tomorrow - war may be abolished forever from the category of human crimes.

This may be something like the fierce outburst of winter which we are now witnessing before the complete triumph of the sun. It is written of those gallant men who won that victory on Monday - men from Canada, from Australia, and from this old country, which has proved that in spite of its age it is not decrepit - it is written of those gallant men that they attacked with the dawn - fit work for the dawn! - to drive out of forty miles of French soil those miscreants who had defiled it for three years. "They attacked with the dawn." Significant phrase!

The breaking up of the dark rule of the Turk, which for centuries has clouded the sunniest land in the world, the freeing of Russia from an oppression which has covered it like a shroud for so long, the great declaration of President Wilson coming with the might of the great nation which he represents into the struggle for liberty are heralds of the dawn.

"They attacked with the dawn," and these men are marching forward in the full radiance of that dawn, and soon Frenchmen and Americans, British, Italians, Russians, yea, and Serbians, Belgians, Montenegrins, will march into the full light of a perfect day.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_lloydgeorge.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 17:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oude krantenberichten Amsterdamse Trams

6 april 1914
Een 65-jarige kantoorloper doet bij de politie aangifte, dat hem op de Dam, toen hij in een tram instapte, een portefeuille met ƒ410,- is ontrold.
Op de Weteringschans botst ’s avonds een rijtuig op een tram van lijn 7. Het paard slaat op hol, maar kan bij het Rijksmuseum weer tot staan gebracht worden. Het rijtuig is beschadigd, de tram niet.

http://www.amsterdamsetrams.nl/tijdlijn/tijdlijn1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 17:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

21 April 1914: Woodrow Wilson invades Veracruz in his pajamas

On 6 April [1914], six U.S. sailors were arrested in Tampico, still controlled by Huerta’s administration. The arrests were a mistake, and the sailors were returned to their ship. However, the United States was a new military power in the world, and U.S. officers had not always shown good judgment in Mexico. The United States Navy wanted respect: the ship’s captain demanded an apology from the Mexican Navy … and a 21-gun salute! The Mexicans, politely as possible, apologized for the sailors’ inconvenience, but refused the salute. The “insult to the Navy” received a fair amount of press in the United States. Given the feeling in the United States, this minor incident gave the President a plausible excuse to “avenge the national insult” – and incidentally to cut off Huerta’s arms supplies, and liberate Mexico from the tyrant. Or so it seemed.

http://mexfiles.net/2007/04/22/21-april-1914-woodrow-wilson-invades-veracruz-in-his-pajamas/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 17:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

6 April 1914, Commons Sitting

BOARD OF ADMIRALTY.


HC Deb 06 April 1914 vol 60 cc1592-3 1592

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if he will give the names of the members of the Board of Admiralty whose resignations he has requested during his tenure of office as First Lord?

The FIRST LORD of the ADMIRALTY (Mr. Churchill) No, Sir.

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE Will the right hon. Gentleman kindly answer my question?

Mr. CHURCHILL No, Sir!

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE Am I not entitled to have an answer to my question?

Mr. SPEAKER An answer to the question of the hon. Member has already been given. The hon. Member asked the First Lord of the Admiralty if he will give certain names, and the First Lord says that he will not.

Sir C. KINLOCH-COOKE May I ask the right hon. Gentleman if he did not indicate the other day that if I put down a question on the Paper he would answer it?

Mr. CHURCHILL No, Sir!

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/06/board-of-admiralty
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 19:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE LONDON GAZETTE, 6 APRIL, 1915.

Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own (Yorkshire Regiment).
Colonel Gerard Christian, D.S.O., oncompletion of his period of service in command of a Battalion, is retained on the Active List, under the provisions of Article 120, Royal Warrant for Pay and Promotion. Dated 28th March, 1914.
Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Ewen G. Sinclair-MacLagan, D.S.O., to be Lieutenant-Colonel. Dated 28th March, 1915.

The Royal Scots Fusiliers.
The promotion to the rank of temporary Captain of the undermentioned Lieutenants (now Captains) is antedated as follows : —
To the 14th November, 1914.
Robert J. F. Barton.
Annesley J. A. Pollock.
Samuel B. Stirling-Cookson, to the 19th November, 1914.
Lieutenant (now Captain) Alisfcer C. Bolton to be temporary Captain. Dated 1st December, 1914.

http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/29119/pages/3338/page.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Casualty List : 1st/5th Battalion Gordon Highlanders

6 April 1916 - 2404 - Murray, William D - Wounded by bomb
6 April 1916 - 2645 - Taylor, Alexander R - Wounded by bomb (Died of wounds 25/4/1916)

http://gordonhighlanders.carolynmorrisey.com/CasualtylistD.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter of 6 April 1917 from Charles Ross Francis to Sarah Margaret Francis

France
Apl 6/17
My Dear Mother:-
This is a very good
day to write you because it is
Good Friday. It is over seven
monthe now since I came over to
France, and in a way it seems
an age and yet it doesn't seem
very long since last Good Friday.
I was home that day as I was
on the course as you will remember
and we had a holiday. Every
day is the same here, but I hope
it won't be very long now until
I am celebrating some holiday in
Winnipeg. Not the 20th of May
I am afreaid, but I wonder if
it will be the 1st of July. U S
coming in should make quite
a difference and the opinion is
that it will end things up some
months sooner. It remains to be
seen.

2/
The weather has cleared up
in the last day or so and it makes
things much more comfortable to
be warm, and to have the mud
dried up. The Spring has
been worse than the Winter,
but Summer should be here soon
and make up for it.
I received the parcel No I
from yourself and Jim & enjoyed
everything very much. The
bannock was fine & the only
trouble was there was not enough
of it. The cake was in
good condition too, & I am still
enjoying the butter at every meal.
Anything that is good to eat is
always welcome & I generally have
the best of appetites, so please
except [accept] my best thanks for yourself
& and for Jim.
I had a letter from Herb.

Zes kantjes! Lees verder op http://manitobia.ca/cocoon/launch/en/correspondence/SMF/SMF_1917_0406
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry

April 6th, Good Friday, 1917
The Battalion’s objective was a line of trenches recently dug by the enemy and running between Le Vergier and the river. To capture them Brown’s company, which hitherto had stayed in reserve at Soyecourt in tolerable accommodation, was selected. B and D Companies were ordered to keep close behind A to support the attack, while C remained to garrison the outpost line. Zero was midnight, but before that snow and sleet were falling heavily. It proved the dirtiest night imaginable. Companies moved in columns across the 1,000 yards of open fields between their old positions and the objective, against which our artillery kept up as severe a fire as possible. That fire was less effective than was hoped. In its advance A Company lost men from our own shells, of which nearly all were seen to be falling very short. The German wire, still the great argument to face in an attack, was round uncut. Although at first inclined to surrender, the enemy soon saw the failure of our men to find a gap. Machine-guns were manned, which swept the ground with a fierce enfilade fire. Brown, Aitken, and Wayte behaved in a most gallant manner, the line was rallied, and a renewed attempt made to storm the trenches. In vain. No troops will stand against machine-gun fire in the open when no object can be achieved.”

Lance Corporal Richard Yeates (1896-1917)

Richard Yeates was killed in action during the Good Friday Attack of 6th April 1917

Name: YEATES
Initials: R
Nationality: United Kingdom
Rank: Lance Corporal
Regiment/Service: Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry
Unit Text: 2nd/4th Bn.
Age: 20
Date of Death: 06/04/1917
Service No: 200864
Additional information: Son of Mrs. Margaret Ada Yeates, of Poplar Gardens, Garsington, Oxford.
Casualty Type: Commonwealth War Dead
Grave/Memorial Reference: II. A. 42.
Cemetery: VADENCOURT BRITISH CEMETERY, MAISSEMY

http://oxfordshireandbuckinghamshirelightinfantry.wordpress.com/tag/6th-april-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOTE FROM CHICHERIN* TO THE ALLIED REPRESENTATIVES ON THE LANDING AT VLADIVOSTOK

6 April 1918

The People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs draws your attention to the statement made to you by the Acting People's Commissar concerning the deeply painful impression made in Russia by the landing at Vladivostok ofJapanese and English troops, whose activities are clearly directed against the Soviet Government, and concerning the extremely unfavourable effect which this violent intrusion of an alien military force into the territory of the Republic must have on the relations between that Republic and the country which you represent. The Commissariat considers it essential to remind you of the extremely tense situation created by this action, which is obviously inimical to the Republic and its regime, and to point out once again that the only way of putting an end to this state of affairs is the immediate withdrawal of the troops landed and that a precise explanation of your Government's attitude to the events which have taken place at Vladivostok is absolutely necessary as soon as possible.

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/6.htm

*Georgy Chicherin (24 November [O.S. 12 November 1872] 1872– 7 July 1936) was a Marxist revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs in the Soviet government from March 1918 to 1930. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgy_Chicherin
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1918)

6 april 1918 - Twee vluchtelingen huwden in Baarle-Hertog. Antonius Jacobus Paulussen uit Ravels trad er in de echt met de even­eens uit Ravels afkomstige Maria Anna Dickens. Eén van de getuigen was Petrus Laurijssen, achterneef van de bruidegom en wissel­wachter in Baarle-Nassau. (onuitgegeven kroniek van Jan Huijbrechts)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=191:09-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1918&catid=90:oorlog&Itemid=118
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edward Mannock (1887-1918)

(...) In Reading leert hij de grondbeginselen van het vliegen, de techniek van de vliegtuigen en de geheimen van het schieten. Verdere opleidingen krijgt hij in Hendon, waar hij op 28 november 1916 slaagt voor zijn examen (no. 3895), in Hounslow en in Hythe. Het laatste deel van zijn opleiding krijgt hij bij het 10e Reserve Squadron in Joyce Green, waar hij een piloot leert kennen die zowel zijn vriend áls zijn mentor zou worden, namelijk Majoor James McCudden VC.

Na zijn opleiding vertrekt Mick naar Noord-Frankrijk en op 6 april 1917 meldt hij zich bij het no.40 Squadron in Treizennes. Maar op de piloten van dit squadron maakt hij in eerste instantie geen indruk, en zijn eerste patrouilles lijken te wijzen op misplaatst zelfvertrouwen en grootspraak. Dit verandert pas als hij op spectaculaire wijze zijn Nieuport 17 veilig aan de grond weet te zetten nadat een van de ondervleugels tijdens de vlucht is losgeraakt.

Mettertijd wordt hij aanvaard, en op 7 juni 1917 boekt hij zijn eerste luchtoverwinning door een Albatros D.III net ten noorden van Lille neer te halen. Toch komt hij zelf niet helemaal ongeschonden uit dit luchtgevecht, want enkele dagen later wordt hij met ernstige oogpijn opgenomen in een ziekenhuis. Bij de daaropvolgende operatie worden er enkele metaaldeeltjes uit zijn linkeroog verwijderd, en na drie dagen van herstel wordt hij met verlof terug naar Engeland gestuurd. Het is ondertussen 2 juli en Mick meldt zich weer bij zijn eenheid in Frankrijk. In de weken daarop ontwikkelt hij zich heel snel tot een volwaardige piloot en haalt hij menig vijandelijk toestel neer. Op 22 juli 1917 wordt hem het Military Cross toegekend, en volgt zijn promotie tot kapitein en Flight Commander. Zijn eervolle vermelding voor het Military Cross luidt als volgt:

T./2nd Lt. Edward Mannock, R.E. and R.F.C. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. In the course of many combats he has driven off a large number of enemy machines, and has forced down three balloons, showing a very fine offensive spirit and great fearlessness in attacking the enemy at close range and low altitudes under heavy fire from the ground. (...)

Lees het gehele artikel op http://historiek.net/index.php/edward-mannock-1887-1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finnish Civil War 1918
WHITE ARMY (Valkoinen Armeija)


White Artillery Battery, before 6th of April 1918:
(First ones sent to battle in March, before Tampere battle weapons were mostly old 87 mm guns and 122 mm howitzers, lots of artillery weapons were captured in Tampere. Exceptions: Jaeger Artillery Batteries 1 - 3 sent to battle in 12th - 13th of February 1918 had all 4 guns or howitzers. Also, self-organised artillery batteries of Suojeluskunta often had 1 - 4 guns or howitzers, depending how many had been captured).

2 x gun or howitzer

85 men + 50 horses.

White Artillery Battery, after 6th of April 1918:
(Artillery Battalion = 3 Artillery Batteries. Large amounts of artillery captured in Rautu and Tampere allowed this reorganisation).

4 x guns or howitzers

170 men + 100 horses.

http://www.jaegerplatoon.net/FORMATIONS1.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bavarian Soviet Republic

On 6 April [1919], the "Bavarian Soviet Republic" was proclaimed. Initially, it was ruled by USPD members such as Ernst Toller and Gustav Landauer, and anarchists like Erich Mühsam. However, Ernst Toller, a playwrighter, was not very good at dealing with politics, and his government did little to restore order in the city.
His government members were also not always well-chosen. For instance, the Foreign Affairs Deputy (who had been admitted several times to psychiatric hospitals), declared war on Switzerland, over Switzerland's refusal to lend 60 locomotives to the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Another incident saw him send cables to both the Pope and Lenin, asking as to the whereabouts of the key to the lavatory. As such, the regime collapsed within six days, being replaced by the communists, with Eugen Levine, sometimes characterized as a "potential German Lenin" as their leader.
Levine began to enact communist reforms, that included expropriating luxurious apartments and giving them to the homeless and placing factories under the ownership and control of their workers. Levine also had plans to abolish paper money and reform the education system. However, he never had time to implement them.

http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/Munich%201919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2010 21:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Harold Lloyd in A SAMMY IN SIBERIA (1919)

In this short film released on April 6, 1919 Harold plays a U.S. soldier in Russia.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ulMQzB-_9yw
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Percy Toplis @ 05 Apr 2010 21:40 schreef:
Edward Mannock (1887-1918)

(

Lees het gehele artikel op http://historiek.net/index.php/edward-mannock-1887-1918.html


Nou, liever niet, het is een niet al te best artikel die op veel vlakken de plank misslaat en de essentie volledig mist.
Ik begrijp werkelijk niet waarom Historiek dit soort slechte schoolkrantvertalingen plaatst.

Mocht je verder iets willen weten over Edward Mannock verwijs ik je toch echt naar FEW:
http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=17122
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2010 20:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Iedereen heeft óók het recht om slechte artikelen te lezen, Yvonne!

En als ik even een persoonlijke mening mag ventileren: De schrijver van het artikel, 'projectleider' Hans M., bestiert met enige geestverwanten, 'vrrrrienden' in forumjargon, WAW, een navelstaarderig forum. Het uiten van kritiek, laat staan van een eigen mening, of zelfs het hébben daarvan, wordt door de heren navelstaarders níet geapprecieerd.

Voor nóg een slecht artikel over Mannock verwijs ik graag naar http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/victoria-cross-winners/deel-04-Edward-Mannock/index.html , alweer van de hand van eminent VC-deskundige en 'projectleider' Hans M.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2010 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ben ik niet zo 1,2,3 met je eens.
Slechte artikelen en dan met name slecht vertaalde en daarna er een eigen draai aangevende artikelen kunnen geinteresseerden behoorlijk op het verkeerde spoor zetten en dat is gewoon jammer.

En het "andere"artikel van Mannock is precies hetzelfde.
Hetzelfde artikel is 2x op een site gepubliceerd en 1x in een knipselkrantje.

Een ongeschreven wet in publicatieland is dat je je artikelen niet teveel uitmelkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 17 Apr 2010 22:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ik doe het niet graag, maar ik moet je gelijk geven... Wink Beter géén artikel dan een slécht artikel! Cool I stand corrected.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 18:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Treaty of Bogotá, 6 April 1914

(...) Wilson and Bryan wanted ardently to draw the two continents of the western hemisphere into intimate economic and diplomatic relationships. As a first step, they negotiated a treaty with the Colombian government to repair the moral and diplomatic damage done by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903, when he encouraged and supported the Panamanian "revolution" that tore the province of Panama from Colombia. The Treaty of Bogotá, signed on 6 April 1914, not only awarded Colombia an indemnity of $25 million, for the loss of Panama; it also expressed the "sincere regret" of the United States that anything should have happened to impair good relations between the two countries. The sight of a great power apologizing to a small country for a wrong done in the past evoked warm approval throughout Latin America. However, Theodore Roosevelt's friends in the Senate were able to block ratification. The Harding administration, in 1921, negotiated a new treaty, which was ratified, that awarded Colombia the $25 million but omitted the apology. (...)

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Woodrow_Wilson.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Demise of Bicycle George: A Life of Crime
Kirstie Close

Abstract
This short piece looks at the life of a murderer, George Blunderfield (alias Arthur Oldring),
who was hanged in Melbourne in 1918. Melburnians, or visitors to the city, may have seen
his image on the wall at the Old Melbourne Gaol. Blunderfield's life started out normally
enough, and then descended into horrific crime. His story includes bicycle racing, escape
from an island prison, and then recruitment for service with the Australian Imperial Forces
in wartime Victoria. In the last years of his life, Blunderfield wreaked havoc from the
western to the eastern coasts of Australia. This in turn had a dramatic effect on his
immediate family, which is also detailed here. This story draws on the archives at PROV as
well as on State Records Office of Western Australia material, with help from Ms Jean
Bellamy, a distant relative of George Blunderfield.


Article

The man looked like a ferret. At least, that's what the Age printed on 23 February 1918. With bent
head, he accepted his fate, and still the newspaper mocked him. 1
Who was George Blunderfield, the man standing before the Supreme Court? What led him down
the gruesome path of rape and murder? Forty-seven years of age when he swung from the
gallows, George was one of Australia's most brutal criminals.
The Blunderfields - three sons (of which George was one), three daughters and their parents -
migrated from England to South Africa when George was eleven years old. The journey across
the Atlantic Ocean was rough and the family was keen to disembark and make their home in
Cape Town. Soon after the family arrived, young George was struck down with enteric fever
(typhoid). He writhed in a pool of sweat and agony for a number of days before recovering. This
was the first in a number of incidents George later considered had affected his brain. At his trial
for murder, he said: 'Ever since [the bout of typhoid] I have suffered from pains in the head and
loss of memory, and I become eccentric at times, lasting for a fortnight or more'. 2 Most days,
while George was still bedridden, his young sister Jessie would keep him company, entertaining
him with stories she created or had heard, as sisters often do. He enjoyed her stories about
bicycle races the most, and tales of her escapades around town. George longed to ride a bicycle
of his own one day.
Once he had recuperated, the Blunderfields set off again, this time from the Cape to Australia. 3
On this voyage, George's father instilled in him the skills to survive in the wilderness, imparting
his interest in constellations and navigation. George learnt that it was much easier to see at night
if the moon was full. 4 These lunar cycles coincided with many of the major events in his life.
The Blunderfields arrived in Adelaide around 1885. George was aged fourteen. Five years later,
in 1890, the dazzling tales of the goldfields drew him and two of his three sisters to Kalgoorlie in
Western Australia. 5
It was not long before George discovered the bicycle club in Kalgoorlie, which became his
delight. 6 Bicycles were very popular, as they were the most convenient mode of transport for
miners in outback towns such as Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie. 7 George was swept up in the craze,
competing for prize money in races from Perth to Queensland. Miners from the surrounding
districts entrusted him with the care and repair of their bicycles. 8 Thus George surrounded
himself with bicycle parts - gears, spokes, bolts and chains.
Sadly, George's happiness in the bicycle business did not last long, with a severe accident
meaning he had to retire from racing. It was while racing that George had his accident. He had
flown straight over the handlebars, landing on his head. He suffered a fractured skull. 9 This only
exacerbated ongoing problems George had had with his head since suffering typhoid many years
before.
This was when George's life took a dramatic turn; he spiralled downward and took others with
him. His first crime was not terribly serious, as he was caught on 22 September 1899 riding a
stolen bicycle. He had pulled up beside his friend on said bicycle and grinned broadly, telling
about the thrilling ride he had just had. He boasted that he had beaten the train coming from
Coolgardie to Kalgoorlie. 10 George could never keep his exploits to himself. The friend he
bragged to reported him to the police after hearing that a bicycle had been stolen. George's
response reveals much about him. He was agitated, blaming everyone but himself. His head was
buzzing. He set out to coerce the witnesses into meeting with him and devising an alibi. Many of
them were friends George had known for some years and with whom he lived in close quarters.
They agreed to meet with him, and, as the group gathered, it was getting dark. The night brought
a chill; the moon was slim, offering little light. George's close friend, Campbell, decided to light a
fire. Terrified that this fire would alert the police to their meeting, George panicked, even though
they were well out of sight of the police station. Self-preservation was his one desire; but fear and
paranoia contorted his reasoning of how to obtain it.
As Campbell knelt to light the fire, he felt a heavy blow to the back of his head. Then came
another. He recovered his balance, and staggered away from George, who had suddenly set
himself into a rage. 'Murder!' the stunned Campbell screamed as he lurched down the hill. 11
George was left atop the hill, watching his friend scuttle to safety, scrambling away from him.
Somehow, George was acquitted of assault charges. However, he was found guilty of stealing
the bicycle, and fined five pounds after a hearing at the Kalgoorlie Police Court. 12 After this
incident, although George was far less popular around the town, he continued to live in
Kalgoorlie.
His next crime was far more despicable: the rape of six-year-old Lucy Chalmer. Lucy's mother,
Sarah, had often seen George loitering around their home. He had even offered his services as a
babysitter. 13 This responsibility was instead given to Mrs Harriet Kirkwood, the Chalmers' nextdoor
neighbour. Feeling rejected and resentful, George snuck in the back door of the Chalmers'
house and raped Lucy after offering her Jew Jube lollies. When Sarah returned from the shops,
she saw George emerging from her house. Sarah went directly to bed, and did not realise
anything was wrong with Lucy until her brother asked for a glass of water at 3 am the next
morning. Sarah saw the blood on Lucy's bedclothes.
When the police questioned George about the rape, they reported that 'he appeared very nervous
and excited'. 14 He twitched and scratched himself irritably, giving the police the impression of an
insecure man, but one who was also not necessarily aggressive. He attributed his actions to the
head injuries he had suffered.
George appeared in court on 24 March 1900. The West Australian newspaper reported that
George was 'not affected in the slightest degree by the verdict'. The Blunderfield family was
dismayed. His sister fainted when the conviction was announced. 15 But George, said to be
feeling relieved, walked jauntily as he was taken from the courtroom directly to his cell at
Fremantle Gaol.
He was released seven years later, on 14 August 1907. George could not return to Kalgoorlie. He
travelled to Hopetoun, a fishing town on the south coast of Western Australia. There he moved
into Peter Durrand's boarding house and worked on the docks. George developed an interest in
firearms and ammunition during his time in Hopetoun. Not aware of his past, many of the locals
opened their hearts and homes to him, including the Effords, who lived and worked in the
Hopetoun Post Office. This was the scene of his next crime.
It had been a fairly average evening; George was in his usual high spirits whilst down at the local
pub. 16 After a few drinks, George ambled along a Hopetoun street, bathed in moonlight. He
entered his friend's home. He pulled a gun from his pocket and the darkness opened with a
crack. The bullet grazed Mr Efford's cheek and pierced his pillow. Mrs Efford jumped out of bed in
a state of panic. George beat her with an iron bar. Recoiling, he then watched from the corner as
Mr Efford, bleeding profusely from his face, hauled his bewildered wife out of the window.
Mr and Mrs Efford could not make out their attacker in the dark. He was just a shadowy figure.
But their children, Ivy and Sam, caught sight of George as they fled outside with their parents. Ivy
paused and saw George peer out through her parents' bedroom window with wide staring eyes.
Ivy recognised him; she and Sam had played with him several times. The full moon illuminated
George's face. Sam started running after Ivy, and George followed them out of the window. 17
George told the police that it was not until he was outside that he realised what he was doing.
Then he said he thanked God that he had 'controlled his feelings in time'. It was 3.30 am. 18
George's defence, when he appeared in court, was that he had suffered a skull fracture twelve
years prior, and that he still felt its effects. George was prodded and poked by medical
practitioners in the lead up to the trial, but they concluded that there was nothing physically wrong
with him. The doctor said of George:
The eyes were wildly dilated and could see movement of small muscles of the face. He was
rational. He answered hardly any questions. No evident loss of memory. A great fright could
have produced this effect. 19
George said that his previous doctor, who knew he was mentally incapacitated, had passed
away, so he could not provide evidence. Clearly, George was conscious enough of his actions to
be aware that they were wrong. It would not be surprising if the doctor he had seen previously
was actually still alive at the time, but would only have confirmed his patient's psychopathic state.
George was found guilty of attempted murder. He went to the prison on Wadjemup (now called
Rottnest Island). Wadjemup had long been a place where the colonial government sent
Indigenous prisoners from the west coast of Australia. 20 George was one of only a few white
inmates there. He arrived by boat at Wadjemup, thoroughly flea ridden and unkempt. The island
offered nothing but isolation and a lonely death. At night while he watched the cycles of the moon,
he dreamed of escape.
George was prison cook in 1914. 21 What happened on 6 April of that year has been told in many
ways. His sister Jessie believed George set his prison cell alight, and as his wardens
extinguished the flames, he escaped from Wadjemup. 22 The wardens on duty at the time of his
disappearance reported a story even more enigmatic. They said that George had gone fishing
with two other prisoners in the morning. He left them at Porpoise Bay and said he was returning
to the prison compound. He never made it back. The two men arrived back at the prison and
were surprised not to find him there preparing the evening meal. Search parties were set up.
Aboriginal trackers were sent out. Hours later, the trackers found George's clothing on the beach,
with footprints leading to the water's edge. It was incomprehensible that he could have swum to
the safety and freedom of the mainland, which is twenty kilometres away. The guards concluded
that George had drowned, or more likely had been eaten by the sharks that traverse the West
Australian coast, as no body was found. They did not think it possible that he could have swum to
the mainland. 23
But George was lucky, and he escaped. His getaway was premeditated. The evidence of his
scheming was not only in the daylight deception, but also in his use of the full moon. Some sort of
boat met him to deliver him to the mainland. Perhaps he managed to charm or con his way onto
the ferry. Either way, upon reaching the mainland, George must have used the moonlight to travel
at night, making his way further from the coast. His ability to do this demonstrates that he was not
as ill as he would have the magistrates believe, and he was likely to commit another horrendous
act.
George next emerges in the historical records in Adelaide in 1916, where his family was still
based. When his sister Jessie opened the door, she could not believe her eyes. George had been
a disgrace to the family for decades. Their father had been so destroyed by George's behaviour
that he had set himself in the path of a train, ending his life. Jessie threw whatever she could find
at George: a pot plant, a gardening hoe. She did not stop until he was out of sight. Then she
collapsed on the footpath with exhaustion, pummelling her face with her hands.
Realising that he could not keep his name after escaping Wadjemup, George changed his name
to Arthur Geoffrey Oldring. 24 No doubt his sister disowning him contributed to the decision to
change his name. George clung to the hope that his other siblings would not be so harsh. He
discovered that his brothers were fighting overseas with the Australian Imperial Forces. He
longed to find his brothers and have a second chance. They would always back him up, he
reckoned. George concocted another plan. He enlisted in Adelaide as a member of the Australian
Imperial Forces. Shortly after, he went to Mitcham in Victoria to have his medical exam. Despite
his supposed head injuries, he was cleared. 25 This further cements the argument that his head
injuries were not a sufficient explanation for his actions, but that he tried to use them to his
advantage to avoid imprisonment.
George then proceeded to military training in Seymour, Victoria. Walking down a street in North
Melbourne, during some time off, he noticed a woman trying to catch his eye. Margaret Taylor
was a widow with a twelve-year-old daughter, Rosie. George was soon acquainted with Margaret
in every way. However, he was just having a fling. She was good company for him, but George
was never going to let Margaret stall his plans for Europe. Margaret welcomed him into her home,
unaware of his sordid past in Western Australia.
Margaret was keen to woo this handsome rogue. She created elaborate schemes in order to
follow him up to the Seymour training camp. She would say she was visiting a sister in nearby
Kerrisdale so that she would have an excuse to be near him. She beseeched George a number
of times to desert the army and marry her. He always refused. George just wanted to get to
Europe, to be with his brothers. Going to the frontline, he felt he would be able to wipe out the
past. 26 Yet, Margaret persisted.
On Sunday 11 November 1917, Margaret and Rosie met with George at Trawool Bridge on the
Goulburn River.
The police found Rosie Taylor's body the following Sunday, 17 November, bobbing listlessly in
the river, her body snagged on an overhanging branch. Margaret's body was found three days
later. Both had had their skulls smashed in by heavy blows, and they were dead before they were
thrown into the flooded waters. The murder weapon was Margaret's own tomahawk, found at the
bridge where George was seen meeting with them not a week before. 27
There was little doubt that George was the murderer. He had stayed that weekend at the Meyer
Hotel in Trawool.
In addition to the murders, the autopsy of young Rosie also found that she had been 'interfered
with'. It can be guessed that George was responsible. 28
After committing the murder George had returned to the army camp. His battalion was due to
embark within the week. On Monday 18 November, an army mate mentioned the murders,
alerting him to the recovery of Rosie's body. With haste, George exchanged his uniform for
civilian garb, and deserted. But this time, he did not have time to plan his escape by the
sequence of the moon. He stumbled blindly through the scrub.
George stayed the night at a hotel before applying for a job at a Lancaster fruit farm on Saturday
23 November. Labour was short in these times of war. The farm owner employed the bedraggled
George. But watching his new employee carefully from his kitchen window during the week, the
farmer finally asked his wife on 27 November to ride into Tatura to get the police. The police were
on the lookout for a man fitting this fellow's description. The farmer was not prepared to take any
chances. 29
There was a brief hearing at the Seymour Courthouse. It was too small to seat all those who
came to hear the proceedings. 30 Arraigned for murder, George was then sent to the watch house
in Melbourne, where he awaited his Supreme Court hearing. 31
George claimed that he could not remember killing Rosie and Margaret. He blamed the typhoid
he had experienced as a boy, as well as the other head injuries he had suffered throughout his
life. On trial at the Supreme Court in Melbourne, he also mentioned being struck in the head with
a limb while logging in the forest some years before. 32 George's representatives in court
suggested he had epilepsy. 33 But the doctors could not find evidence of any physical
abnormalities.
The police visited George's sister Jessie one night to get a statement. She had moved to
Melbourne with her husband and young family. She said George became an alcoholic and was
aggressive after his bicycle accident back in Kalgoorlie. 34 And Margaret's surviving daughters,
Violet and Elizabeth, had thought him to be a drunkard when they had met him previously.
George pleaded 'mental derangement' at his trial. It did not help him. He was convicted and
sentenced to hang.
George was kept in prison cell 10, 'the condemned cell', at Melbourne Gaol until the day of his
execution, on 14 April 1918. He was ostracised from his family and friends, a long way from the
days when he had friends and the freedom of bicycles, although they had been the start of his
troubles. How he must have longed to be back among the bicycle parts and bulldust of Kalgoorlie.
Instead, he found himself in the cramped, stuffy bluestone cell.
As George sat in his lonely cell, his sister also examined the moonlight filtering into her bedroom.
She fingered the delicate embroidery on her bedspread, but she did not feel it. All her senses
could identify was George. He was not there but she could see, smell and hear him. He pervaded
her every thought. She re-read the letter that he had sent her most recently, which showed that
he was still fooling himself and trying to fool her, claiming that he had 'run a straight game since
arriving in Victoria'. 35 Her thoughts were muffled by intense resentment and despair. She took
the pills from her bedside table and took more than enough, one after the other. She was found
dead the next morning. 36
George's executioner was elderly, hard of hearing and his sight was not very keen. 37 George felt
the man's bony hands against his neck as the noose was tightened. But the doddering hangman
failed to compensate for the rope stretching during George's fall. The rope lengthened further
than anticipated. George suffered horrific damage, a near decapitation. He dropped knowing he
had caused his family immense trauma. On this day a madman was executed.

Endnotes
1. 'The Trawool tragedy. Trial of Oldring concluded. Statement by accused. Verdict of guilty.
Death sentence passed', Age, 23 February 1918, p. 12h-i; 'The Trawool tragedy. What was the
motive? Trial of Oldring', Age, 20 February 1918, p. 11a.
2. 'Trawool tragedy. Inquest concluded. Remarkable statement. Oldring committed for trial',
Argus, 15 December 1917, p. 20f.
3. PROV, VA 2825 Attorney-General's Department, VPRS 264/P1 Capital Case Files, Unit 7,
George Blunderfield/Arthur Oldring, December 1917 (hereafter cited as PROV,
Blunderfield/Oldring case file).
4. G Blainey, Black kettle and full moon: daily life in a vanished Australia, Penguin, Camberwell,
Victoria, 2003, passim.
5. PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file.
6. Jessie Brown's statement to Victorian Police, in PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file.
7. B Carroll, 'Beasts of burden', in Sheena Coupe (ed.), Frontier country: Australian outback
heritage, 2 vols, Weldon Russell Publishing, Willoughby, NSW, 1989, vol. 2, p. 30.
8. State Records Office of Western Australia (SROWA), Police Court Minute Book 18 September
1899 - 11 January 1900, Cons/Acc No. 1340, Item No. 11, 7 October 1899, statement of John
Campbell.
9. SROWA, Criminal Court 20 April 1909 - 4 March 1910, Cons/Acc No. 4459, Item No. 543, 8
December 1909.
10. SROWA, Police Court Minute Book, 7 October 1899, statement of John Campbell.
11. ibid., 30 October 1899, statement of John Campbell.
12. ibid., 30 September 1899.
13. SROWA, Supreme Court Criminal Sittings, No. 29 of 1900, 6 March 1900 (statement of Sarah
Jane 'Chalmer'). 'Chalmer' is a psuedonym that has been used only in this article to protect the
real identities of the victims which can be found unaltered in the original records held at SROWA.
14. ibid. (statement of James Porter).
15. 'The Blunderfield case. Prisoner convicted. Sentenced to twelve years' penal servitude', West
Australian, 29 March 1900, p. 3c.
16. SROWA, Criminal Court, 8 December 1909, statement of David Patterson.
17. ibid., statement of Ivy Efford.
18. ibid., statement of George Blunderfield, alias George Farrow.
19. SROWA, Criminal Court, 8 December 1909, statement of Thomas Wilson.
20. B Kwaymullina, 'Wadjemup: holiday paradise or prison hell-hole', Studies in Western
Australian history, No. 22, 2001, p. 109.
21. 'The missing prisoner. Supposed case of drowning', West Australian, 8 April 1914, p. 8c.
22. PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file, statement of Jessie Brown.
23. SROWA, WAA-219 Rottnest Gaol, Item No. 269/14, 6 April 1914, report of Warden
Buckmaster.
24. Arthur Geoffrey Oldring is listed in the First Australian Imperial Force Personnel Dossiers
1914-920 (National Archives of Australia, Series no. B2455/1, Item 11545213).
25. ibid.
26. 'Verdict of guilty. Death sentence passed', Age, 23 February 1918.
27. 'The Trawool tragedy. Police inquiries', Argus, 21 November 1917, p. 8g; 'Trawool tragedy.
Mystery deepens. Woman's body found. Military kit in river,' Argus, 22 November 1917, p. 7a;
Victoria Police gazette, 22 November 1917, No. 47, p. 607.
28. PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file, autopsy report on Rosie Taylor.
29. Newspaper excerpt (n.d.), accessed at Old Melbourne Gaol.
30. 'Trawool tragedy. Inquest opened', Argus, 14 December 1917, p. 8e.
31. Newspaper excerpt (n.d.), accessed at Old Melbourne Gaol.
32. 'The Trawool tragedy. Trial of Oldring. Case for the defence. A plea of mental derangement',
Age, 22 February 1918, p. 9e.
33. ibid.
34. PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file, statement of Jessie Brown; Victoria Police gazette, 22
November 1917, p. 607.
35. PROV, Blunderfield/Oldring case file, statement of Jessie Brown.
36. 'The Trawool traged. Oldring’s sister dies,' Adelaide advertiser, 27 November 1917, p. 6g.
37. K Morgan, The particulars of executions 1894-1967: the hidden truth about capital
punishment at the Old Melbourne Gaol and Pentridge Prison, Old Melbourne Gaol, National Trust
of Australia (Victoria), Melbourne, 2004, p. 22.


http://www.prov.vic.gov.au/provenance/no9//BicycleGeorgePrint.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Mexican Revolution: The Battle of Celaya

The Battle of Celaya (April 6-15, 1915) was a decisive turning point in the Mexican Revolution. The Revolution had been raging for five years, ever since Francisco I. Madero had challenged the decades-old rule of Porfirio Díaz. By 1915, Madero was gone, as was the drunken general who had replaced him, Victoriano Huerta. The rebel warlords who had defeated Huerta – Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa, Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro Obregón – had turned on one another. Zapata was holed up in the state of Morelos and rarely ventured out, so the uneasy alliance of Carranza and Obregón turned their attention north, where Pancho Villa still commanded the mighty Division of the North. Obregón took a massive force from Mexico City to find Villa and settle once and for all who would own Northern Mexico.

Lees verder op http://latinamericanhistory.about.com/od/thehistoryofmexico/a/battleofcelaya.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Louis Bechennec

Louis Bechennec joined the regular French Navy or Marine Nationale as a volunteer in 1913 for five years, training in Toulon as a fireman (chauffeur - stoker in British usage)

During the war he served on:
- battleship (cuirassé) Charlemagne, 2 August 1914-6 April 1915
- auxiliary cruiser La Lorraine, from 27 May 1915-1917
- patrol boat (patrouilleur) Le Cyprin, Normandy Patrol Division, Cherbourg, from 26 October 1917
- patrol boat Le Pierrot II, Gascony Patrol Division, Lorient.

http://www.naval-history.net/WW1Memoir-Bechennec.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Address of President Wilson Delivered at Baltimore, April 6, 1918

Baltimore, April 6, 1918 - Fellow Citizens: This is the anniversary of our acceptance of Germany’s challenge to fight for our right to live and be free, and for the sacred rights of free men everywhere. The Nation is awake. There is no need to call to it. We know what the war must cost, our utmost sacrifice, the lives of our fittest men and, if need be, all that we possess. The loan we are met to discuss is one of the least parts of what we are called upon to give and to do, though in itself imperative. The people of the whole country are alive to the necessity of it, and are ready to lend to the utmost, even where it involves a sharp skimping and daily sacrifice to lend out of meagre earnings. They will look with reprobation and contempt upon those who can and will not, upon those who demand a higher rate of interest, upon those who think of it as a mere commercial transaction. I have not come, therefore, to urge the loan. I have come only to give you, if I can, a more vivid conception of what it is for.

The reasons for this great war, the reason why it had to come, the need to fight it through, and the issues that hang upon its outcome, are more clearly disclosed now than ever before. It is easy to see just what this particular loan means because the cause we are fighting for stands more sharply revealed than at any previous crisis of the momentous struggle. The man who knows least can now see plainly how the cause of justice stands and what the imperishable thing is he is asked to invest in. Men in America may be more sure than they ever were before that the cause is their own, and that, if it should be lost, their own great Nation’s place and mission in the world would be lost with it.

I call you to witness, my fellow countrymen, that at no stage of this terrible business have I judged the purposes of Germany in-temperately. I should be ashamed in the presence of affairs so grave, so fraught with the destinies of mankind throughout all the world, to speak with truculence, to use the weak language of hatred or vindictive purpose. We must judge as we would be judged. I have sought to learn the objects Germany has in this war from the mouths of her own spokesmen, and to deal as frankly with them as I wished them to deal with me. I have laid bare our own ideals, our own purposes, without reserve or doubtful phrase, and have asked them to say as plainly what it is that they seek.

We have ourselves proposed no injustice, no aggression. We are ready, whenever the final reckoning is made, to be just to the German people, deal fairly with the German power, as with all others. There can be no difference between peoples in the final judgment, if it is indeed to be a righteous judgment. To propose anything but justice, even-handed and dispassionate justice, to Germany at any time, whatever the outcome of the war, would be to renounce and dishonour our own cause. For we ask nothing that we are not willing to accord.

It has been with this thought that I have sought to learn from those who spoke for Germany whether it was justice or dominion and the execution of their own will upon the other nations of the world that the German leaders were seeking. They have answered, answered in unmistakable terms. They have avowed that it was not justice but dominion and the unhindered execution of their own will.

The avowal has not come from Germany’s statesmen. It has come from her military leaders, who are her real rulers. Her statesmen have said that they wished peace, and were ready to discuss its terms whenever their opponents were willing to sit down at the conference table with them. Her present Chancellor has said,—in indefinite and uncertain terms, indeed, and in phrases that often seem to deny their own meaning, but with as much plainness as he thought prudent,—that he believed that peace should be based upon the principles which we have declared would be our own in the final settlement. At Brest-Litovsk her civilian delegates spoke in similar terms; professed their desire to conclude a fair peace and accord to the peoples with whose fortunes they were dealing the right to choose their own allegiances. But action accompanied and followed the profession. Their military masters, the men who act for Germany and exhibit her purpose in execution, proclaimed a very different conclusion. We can not mistake what they have done,—in Russia, in Finland, in the Ukraine, in Rumania. The real test of their justice and fair play has come. From this we may judge the rest. They are enjoying in Russia a cheap triumph in which no brave or gallant nation can long take pride. A great people, helpless by their own act, lies for the time at their mercy. Their fair professions are forgotten. They nowhere set up justice, but everywhere impose their power and exploit everything for their own use and aggrandizement; and the peoples of conquered provinces are invited to be free under their dominion!

Are we not justified in believing that they would do the same things at their western front if they were not there face to face with armies whom even their countless divisions can not overcome? If, when they have felt their check to be final, they should propose favourable and equitable terms with regard to Belgium and France and Italy, could they blame us if we concluded that they did so only to assure themselves of a free hand in Russia and the East?

Their purpose is undoubtedly to make all the Slavic peoples, all the free and ambitious nations of the Baltic peninsula, all the lands that Turkey has dominated and misruled, subject to their will and ambition and build upon that dominion an empire of force upon which they fancy that they can then erect an empire of gain and commercial supremacy,—an empire as hostile to the Americas as to the Europe which it will overawe,—an empire which will ultimately master Persia, India, and the peoples of the Far East. In such a programme our ideals, the ideals of justice and humanity and liberty, the principle of the free self-determination of nations upon which all the modern world insists, can play no part. They are rejected for the ideals of power, for the principle that the strong must rule the weak, that trade must follow the flag, whether those to whom it is taken welcome it or not, that the peoples of the world are to be made subject to the patronage and overlordship of those who have the power to enforce it.

That programme once carried out, America and all who care or dare to stand with her must arm and prepare themselves to contest the mastery of the world, a mastery in which the rights of common men, the rights of women and of all who are weak, must for the time being be trodden under foot and disregarded, and the old, age-long struggle for freedom and right begin again at its beginning. Everything that America has lived for and loved and grown great to vindicate and bring to a glorious realization will have fallen in utter ruin and the gates of mercy once more pitilessly shut upon mankind!

The thing is preposterous and impossible; and yet is not that what the whole course and action of the German armies has meant wherever they have moved? I do not wish, even in this moment of utter disillusionment, to judge harshly or unrighteously. I judge only what the German arms have accomplished with unpitying thoroughness throughout every fair region they have touched.

What, then, are we to do? For myself, I am ready, ready still, ready even now, to discuss a fair and just and honest peace at any time that it is sincerely purposed,—a peace in which the strong and the weak shall fare alike. But the answer, when I proposed such a peace, came from the German commanders in Russia, and I cannot mistake the meaning of the answer.

I accept the challenge. I know that you accept it. All the world shall know that you accept it. It shall appear in the utter sacrifice and self-forgetfulness with which we shall give all that we love and all that we have to redeem the world and make it fit for free men like ourselves to live in. This now is the meaning of all that we do. Let everything that we say, my fellow countrymen, everything that we henceforth plan and accomplish, ring true to this response till the majesty and might of our concerted power shall fill the thought and utterly defeat the force of those who flout and misprize what we honour and hold dear. Germany has once more said that force, and force alone, shall decide whether Justice and Peace shall reign in the affairs of men, whether Right as America conceives it or Dominion as she conceives it shall determine the destinies of mankind. There is, therefore, but one response possible from us: Force, Force to the utmost, Force without stint or limit, the righteous and triumphant Force which shall make Right the law of the world, and cast every selfish dominion down in the dust.

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1918Supp01v01/d139
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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Prins Hendrik

Aangezien prins Hendrik telkens weer domheden begaat die altijd aan de koningin worden overgebriefd, heeft zij telkens opnieuw aanleiding om haar man de les te lezen. En zij doet dit ook waar anderen bij zijn. Bij voorkeur zelfs...!

“Ik word dikwijls op de grofste manier behandeld,” aldus de prins. “De koningin vindt alles verkeerd wat ik doe en heeft mij, om mij te plagen, een luitenant als adjudant gegeven, die tevens als spion en controleur dienst moet doen en iederen dag aan de koningin verslag over mij moet uitbrengen.”

Het blijft prins Hendrik ook dwars zitten dat hij niets voor zijn oude vaderland kan doen. Hij schrijft althans zijn moeder 6 april 1916: […] “hoe jammer het is, dat de kans om ooit nog aan Duitse zijde het IJzeren Kruis te verdienen wel miniem zal zijn” [...]

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/wilhelmina-in-oorlogstijd/wilhelmina-1916/index.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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ss. 'Eemdijk'

Het vrachtschip ss. 'Eemdijk' (1910) van Van Solleveld, van der Meer & van Hattum's Scheepvaatbedrijf uit Rotterdam, op weg van Baltimore naar Rotterdam met een lading mais, wordt door de Duitse onderzeeboot 'UB 8' getorpedeerd. Ondanks deze torpedering blijft het schip drijven en kan door Britse sleepboten naar Southampton worden gesleept en aldaar weer worden hersteld. Eerst op 30 mei 1916 arriveert het schip weer in de thuishaven van Rotterdam.

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=4&d=6
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Proclamation 1364 (April 6, 1917) - Woodrow Wilson

Whereas the Congress of the United States in the exercise of the constitutional authority vested in them have resolved, by joint resolution of the Senate and House of Representatives bearing date this day "That the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared";

Whereas it is provided by Section 4067 of the Revised Statutes, as follows:

Whenever there is declared a war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted, or threatened against the territory of the United States, by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of a hostile nation or government, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies. The President is authorized, in any such event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be observed, on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject, and in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any such regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety;

Whereas, by Sections 4068, 4069, and 4070 of the Revised Statutes, further provision is made relative to alien enemies;

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern that a state of war exists between the United States and the Imperial German Government; and I do specially direct all officers, civil or military, of the United States that they exercise vigilance and zeal in the discharge of the duties incident to such a state of war; and I do, moreover, earnestly appeal to all American citizens that they, in loyal devotion to their country, dedicated from its foundation to the principles of liberty and justice, uphold the laws of the land, and give undivided and willing support to those measures which may be adopted by the constitutional authorities in prosecuting the war to a successful issue and in obtaining a secure and just peace;

And, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution of the United States and the said sections of the Revised Statutes, I do hereby further proclaim and direct that the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States toward all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Germany, being males of the age of fourteen years and upwards, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, who for the purpose of this proclamation and under such sections of the Revised Statutes are termed alien enemies, shall be as follows:

All alien enemies are enjoined to preserve the peace towards the United States and to refrain from crime against the public safety, and from violating the laws of the United States and of the States and Territories thereof, and to refrain from actual hostility or giving information, aid or comfort to the enemies of the United States, and to comply strictly with the regulations which are hereby or which may be from time to time promulgated by the President; and so long as they shall conduct themselves in accordance with law, they shall be undisturbed in the peaceful pursuit of their lives and occupations and be accorded the consideration due to all peaceful and law-abiding persons, except so far as restrictions may be necessary for their own protection and for the safety of the United States; and towards such alien enemies as conduct themselves in accordance with law, all citizens of the United States are enjoined to preserve the peace and to treat them with all such friendliness as may be compatible with loyalty and allegiance to the United States.

And all alien enemies who fail to conduct themselves as so enjoined, in addition to all other penalties prescribed by law, shall be liable to restraint, or to give security, or to remove and depart from the United States in the manner prescribed by Sections 4069 and 4070 of the Revised Statutes, and as prescribed in the regulations duly promulgated by the President;

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare and establish the following regulations, which I find necessary in the premises and for the public safety:

First. An alien enemy shall not have in his possession, at any time or place, any fire-arm, weapon or implement of war, or component part thereof, ammunition, maxim or other silencer, bomb or explosive or material used in the manufacture of explosives;

Second. An alien enemy shall not have in his possession at any time or place, or use or operate any aircraft or wireless apparatus, or any form of signalling device, or any form of cipher code, or any paper, document or book written or printed in cipher or in which there may be invisible writing;

Third. All property found in the possession of an alien enemy in violation of the foregoing regulations shall be subject to seizure by the United States;

Fourth. An alien enemy shall not approach or be found within one-half of a mile of any Federal or State fort, camp, arsenal, aircraft station, Government or naval vessel, navy yard, factory, or workshop for the manufacture of munitions of war or of any products for the use of the army or navy;

Fifth. An alien enemy shall not write, print, or publish any attack or threats against the Government or Congress of the United States, or either branch thereof, or against the measures or policy of the United States, or against the person or property of any person in the military, naval or civil service of the United States, or of the States or Territories, or of the District of Columbia, or of the municipal governments therein;

Sixth. An alien enemy shall not commit or abet any hostile acts against the United States, or give information, aid, or comfort to its enemies;

Seventh. An alien enemy shall not reside in or continue to reside in, to remain in, or enter any locality which the President may from time to time designate by Executive Order as a prohibited area in which residence by an alien enemy shall be found by him to constitute a danger to the public peace and safety of the United States, except by permit from the President and except under such limitations or restrictions as the President may prescribe;

Eighth. An alien enemy whom the President shall have reasonable cause to believe to be aiding or about to aid the enemy, or to be at large to the danger of the public peace or safety of the United States, or to have violated or to be about to violate any of these regulations, shall remove to any location designated by the President by Executive Order, and shall not remove therefrom without a permit, or shall depart from the United States if so required by the President;

Ninth. No alien enemy shall depart from the United States until he shall have received such permit as the President shall prescribe, or except under order of a court, judge, or justice, under Sections 4069 and 4070 of the Revised Statutes;

Tenth. No alien enemy shall land in or enter the United States, except under such restrictions and at such places as the President may prescribe;

Eleventh. If necessary to prevent violation of the regulations, all alien enemies will be obliged to register;

Twelfth. An alien enemy whom there may be reasonable cause to believe to be aiding or about to aid the enemy, or who may be at large to the danger of the public peace or safety, or who violates or attempts to violate, or of whom there is reasonable ground to believe that he is about to violate, any regulation duly promulgated by the President, or any criminal law of the United States, or of the States or Territories thereof, will be subject to summary arrest by the United States Marshal, or his deputy, or such other officer as the President shall designate, and to confinement in such penitentiary, prison, jail, military camp, or other place of detention as may be directed by the President.

This proclamation and the regulations herein contained shall extend and apply to all land and water, continental or insular, in any way within the jurisdiction of the United States.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this 6th day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seventeen and of the independence of the United States of America the one hundred and forty-first.

http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3798
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Unterzeichnung der Kriegsresolution durch Wilson

Washington, 6. April. Reuter meldet: Präsident Wilson hat den Kriegsantrag sowie eine Proklamation über den Kriegszustand mit Deutschland unterzeichnet. 1)

Beschlagnahme der deutschen Schiffe in amerikanischen Häfen

London, 6. April. Reuter meldet aus New York: Die deutschen Schiffe in New York, Boston, Baltimore und New London sind beschlagnahmt worden. Diese Maßnahme wird wahrscheinlich auf alle Häfen ausgedehnt werden, in denen deutsche Schiffe liegen. deren Zahl insgesamt 91 beträgt.

Washington, 6. April. (Reuter.) Das Justizdepartement hat Haftbefehle gegen etwa 65 Deutsche erlassen. Ungefähr 100 deutsche Schiffe sind in verschiedenen Häfen in Beschlag genommen. Die Mobilisierung von Heer und Flotte und der neuen Küstenpatrouille von Motorbooten ist angeordnet worden. 1)

1) Amtliche Kriegs-Depeschen nach Berichten des Wolff´schen Telegr. Bureaus, Band 6, Nationaler Verlag, Berlin (1917)

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/17_04_06.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vimy Ridge - April 6th 1917

My grandfather Alec Paterson was by April 1917, a Captain in the 5th battery of the 2nd Brigade CFA attached to the 1st Division. The 1st division was commanded by General Currie and they were on the the most southern part of the sector with the longest way to go to the ridge.

Alec's brigade and battery were in Neuville Saint Vaast on April 6th. This is just back of the line and was also Currie's HQ. The 2nd brigade had 4 batteries - 3 18 pounder batteries with 4 guns and one 4.5" Howitzer battery.

On April 6th preparations were in full swing. The 5th battery was in action that day "the 5th battery cleaned up all the remaining wire in front of Eisener Graben..." But Alec's job as the Battery captain was supply. The 5th battery also took delivery of a new gun that day. The key issue was ammunition.

Each 18 pounder was firing 1,500 rounds a day! There were also over 200 horses to feed and water as well as all the men.

This was still a time when horse power meant "Horse". Millions of horses died in this war. Feeding them and keeping them in water was a huge job that we can barely imagine.

The diary mentions on the 6th that the horses of the 6th battery that were clipped according to orders are dying at the rate of 3 per day owing to "overwork and exposure" Horses that were not clipped are looking fine - someone screwed up and the brigade major who is writing the diary is making a point.

http://smartpei.typepad.com/robert_patersons_weblog/2007/04/vimy_ridge_apri.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New Zealand soldiers inspect their gas masks following a shell gas bombardment during the second Somme campaign.
Photograph taken at Bertrancourt, France, 6 April 1918
.

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/media/photo/inspecting-gas-masks-1918
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Apr 2018 9:23, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 20:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Group Photograph of Royal Welsh Fusiliers at rest

From the effects of Private 200614 Eben Morris, M.M., 1st/4th Bn. Royal Welsh Fusiliers, killed in action 6th April 1918, aged 22.

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/6956?REC=29
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 6, 1918: The Zapatista Bands Continue Attacking the Military and Civil Trains

On April 6, 1918, the press of the capital reported that a game of Zapatistas, led by Colonel Rafael Castillo, derailed a freight train and attacked one of passengers going from Mexico City to Acámbaro. The onslaught occurred at 19 kilometers from the capital, between the stations of San Bartolito and Río Hondo.

In the attack, the rebels killed the general and deputy Salvador González Torres, and took a payer of the Mexican Army, several workers of the station and 15 passengers as prisoners. The wounded were moved to Mexico City.

Zapata never agreed or ordered the bombing of trains. However, the Zapatista heads, such as Genovevo de la O and Everardo González, as well as the Suria heads operated in the State of Mexico, such as Francisco Pacheco, had autonomy and decentralization, which made it possible to carry out such attacks with war purposes and to obtain resources.

http://www.mexicoescultura.com/actividad/189380/en/april-6-1918-the-zapatista-bands-continue-attacking-the-military-and-civil-trains.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Apr 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Banana Wars Letter U.S. Marine Seibo, Dominican Republic, April 6, 1919

This letter was written by a U.S. Marine, who was involved in the “Banana Wars”. The letter was written from Seibo (El Seibo), Dominican Republic, April 6, 1919. From the letter…

Dear Vera,

Again our company is the goat and we are in the mountains for another ? Months. Your last letter came just before we set off for this place and in the hustle and bustle of a quick departure your letter was left with my mail in Macoris.

I had just got settled in the city and was getting ready to Santo Domingo City when we hurried out to this town. The cause of such a move, was to concentrate our company which was divided between two places. Now we are all in this place and each week sees three or four of our number going home. This move of men going home is making old man gloom prevalent among us more strongly than before. I don’t know how long it will be before I get home, but I hope it is soon.

Our camp is located on the top of a hill at the bottom of which runs a nice river where we swim. We sleep in tents and have our own cooks, who put out he best food in any company of our Brigade. Of course I am gaining weight and am now up to my normal weight. The funniest thing happened since I have had the flu, my hair started to fall out. All my good head of hair went to pieces and after debating over the matter, of having my hair clipped all off, I finally decided upon it yesterday.

How that I have no more to say tonight, I will close hoping that you are in the best of health.

Your friend,

http://herolettersww1.blogspot.com/2010/04/banana-wars-letter-us-marine-seibo.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2018 9:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Shire-wide news extracts from the Moruya Examiner of 6 April 1918, provided by the Moruya & District Historical Society:

KIND FRIENDS. – We have to acknowledge with sincere thanks some beautiful samples of his choice apples from Mr. S. Kimpton, of Deua River, and a case of the very best pears and apples from Mr. Jos. Taylor, of Kiora. We are truly grateful for our friends’ kind thought. May their shadows never grow less!

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. – Mrs. Lawrence, treasurer of the local Knitting Class, in receipt of the following:- “ I am writing you a few lines thanking you and the people of the Knitting Class for parcel received. It was very acceptable. I am getting along fine over here. It is twelve months since I left Moruya. Well, you will have to excuse this short note. Wishing all the best and kindest regards, from a Moruya soldier, Tpr. J. Coman.”

AFTERNOON TEA. – Mrs. C. Cheesman entertained the members of the Knitting Class to an afternoon tea in the Shire Hall on Thursday, when a pleasant time was spent, the younger members particularly having an enjoyable time.

The youngest son of Mr. J. A. Greig, of Bingie, was taken suddenly ill during the week. Dr. Quilter at once ordered the patient to Sydney for treatment, and kindly gave the use of his car and chauffeur to take the child as far as Nowra, to catch the early train yesterday.

ILLNESS. – On Thursday Mrs. E. Lawrence was admitted to the local hospital suffering from a severe attack of her old complaint – bronchitis. Mrs. Alf Foreman was also admitted the same day in a state of excruciating pain through erysipelas. At the time of going to press both patients were much improved.

SHIPPING. – The local steamer which left the wharf here last Saturday morning became fast on a sandbank near Mr. A. Louttit’s. She however floated off on the evening tide, but only proceeded as far as the coal wharf, nearly opposite Mr. Rose’s where she again stuck. Here she remained until the following night, when she crossed the bar for Sydney at about 11 p.m. Low tides and being heavily laden with timber was the cause of trouble. The steamer returned yesterday morning and was to have left again at 2 o’clock this morning.

MOTOR CAR. – Mr. Thomson of Bateman’s Bay brought a new model motor car to town on Tuesday morning. It was the centre of interest to a large number of men whilst it remained in the main street. The engine and gears were taken from a Harley Davidson motor bicycle. The hand wheels are from some motor car and the remainder is Mr. Thomson’s own make. A notable feature is the electric lighting arrangements in which the light remains at the same strength whether the engine is running fast or slow. The starting handle is also an improved model, being at the side of the car instead of in front.

PERSONAL AND OTHERWISE. – Remember the sacrifices offered by our brave Australians in the great offensive, and buy a Red Cross House Badge.

Canvassers will shortly make a Red Cross “drive” in this district. Every house will be bombarded till it displays a Red Cross Badge.

NAROOMA. – (From our Correspondent.) - On Tuesday last, March 26th, Narooma was in Festal array, the occasion being the home-coming of Lance-Corporal James Anderson, D.C.M., who has been on active service for the past two years in France, having been wounded twice. On the first occasion he greatly distinguished himself although wounded, and on the second occasion he received a knock-out which necessitated his being invalided home, and is now an inmate of the Randwick Military Hospital, where, I understand, he has to undergo an operation, having lost one of his eyes, hence he was granted a few days leave to come home and visit his friends and relatives. Word was only received late on Monday evening by his father that he was coming home via the s.s. Merimbula, so the citizens were early astir on Tuesday morning making preparations for his reception.

https://www.beagleweekly.com.au/single-post/2018/04/04/100-Years-Ago---April-6th-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2018 9:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The White House Historical Association - April 6, 1917

At eight o’clock on the morning of April 2, 1917, president Woodrow Wilson and his wife Edith “threw responsibilities to the winds for a few hours,” boarding their limousine at the White House and riding to a local club where they played golf for a few hours before returning to Washington, D.C. Grave events were afoot there, thanks to Germany’s recent decision to resume unrestricted submarine warfare—including against then-neutral American ships bound for Europe—and the Zimmermann telegram from the German foreign minister encouraging Mexico to declare war against the United States. By the beginning of April, American intervention in World War I seemed inevitable. Wilson confirmed it on the evening of April 2 by going to the Capitol with his wife, daughter Margaret and secretary Helen Woodrow Bones and delivering a speech to Congress.

“I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government of the United States,” he said; “that it formally accept the status of belligerent which has thus been thrust upon it; and that it take immediate steps not only to put the country in a more thorough state of defense, but also to exert all its power and employ all its resources to bring the Government of the German Empire to terms and end the war.”

After summarizing the events that had led to war, and asking Congress to raise funds for the conflict ahead and impose a draft, the President concluded: “The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.”

Lees verder op https://www.whitehousehistory.org/april-6-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2018 9:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 6/1916: Another bad day for New Brunswick's 26th Battalion.

Canada's 6th Brigade is occupying trenches taken from German troops March 26th by the British. Knowing a German counterattack is coming, they request a Lewis Machine Gun crew - one officer and six men - from each battalion of Canada's 5th Brigade. The crew from the 26th is led by Lt. Frank Lockhart from Petitcodiac. One soldier in the crew (Private Reginald Nichols) is wounded early and evacuated. In the German attack that follows every single man in the Lockhart machine gun crew is killed. The Germans regain the trenches lost to the British 11 days ago.

Photo: Lt Frank Lockhart (far right) seated with other officers of the 26th Battalion. The only one of the four to survive the war was Captain P.D. McAvity at left. Next to McAvity is Lt. Col. A.E.G McKenzie, soon to be commanding officer of the 26th Battalion. Next to him is Major W.H. Belyea who died just two weeks ago (March 20th, 1916). Byron O'Leary collection.

https://www.facebook.com/newbrunswick26th/photos/pb.667243563411545.-2207520000.1460114983./814081048727795/?type=3&theater
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Apr 2018 9:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Winterbottom, Sydney Amyas Letter: 1916 April 6th

Aunt Agneses

Victoria. B.C.

April 6, 1916

Dear Mum.

This is to wish you very many happy returns of your birthday and many more to come and I'm sure they will if you don't scrap too much.

The flowers are from Helen and myself. We both went down and chose them on Saturday.

I am writing this note in Aunt Agneses dining room. I have just had a nice supper and am therefore feeling jake.

I was walking down to have dinner at Aunt Agneses when I met Aunt Florie driving to the cathedral in her Ford. She stopped and I went to the service with her. Afterwards I had dinner with her. At four o'clock she showed me about Victoria a little while. First we visited Grandpa's grave on which Aunt Florie left some snow-drops. We next drove along Dallas Road along that big back-water. We then drove by Grandpa's little house. After that we drove all over beacon hill park. The bantams have their barracks there. Then Aunt Florie drove me back to Aunt Agneses where I had the said supper.

Please tell Keith that I'll pay him for the bike at the end of the month.

While I write this Adrian is violently playing the mandolin in the drawing-room. He is soon coming home for three weeks to help his father in his seeding. If someone wrote and said they wanted me to get a seeding-leave I could most likely get a month off to do the job.

Write when you can.

Your loving son

Sid. W.

http://www.canadianletters.ca/content/document-9030
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