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2 April
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Merlijn



Geregistreerd op: 18-2-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2006 23:16    Onderwerp: 2 April Reageer met quote

Französische Stellungen bei Vaux genommen
Großes Hauptquartier, 2. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Fay (südlich der Somme) kam ein nach kurzer Artillerievorbereitung angesetzter feindlicher Angriff in unserem Feuer nicht zur Entwicklung.
Durch die Beschießung von Betheniville (östlich von Reims) verursachten die Franzosen unter ihren Landsleuten erhebliche Verluste; 3 Frauen und 1 Kind wurden getötet, 5 Männer, 4 Frauen und 1 Kind sind schwer verletzt.
Im Anschluß an die am 30. März genommenen Stellungen wurden die französischen Gräben nordöstlich von Haucourt in einer Ausdehnung von etwa 1000 Meter vom Feinde gesäubert.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer haben sich unsere Truppen am 31. März nach sorgfältiger Vorbereitung in den Besitz der feindlichen Verteidigungs- und Flankierungsanlagen nordwestlich und westlich des Dorfes Vaux gesetzt. Nachdem in diesem Abschnitt das französische Feuer heute gegen Morgen zur größten Kraft gesteigert war, erfolgte der erwartete Gegenangriff. Er brach in unserem Maschinengewehr- und dem Sperrfeuer unserer Artillerie völlig zusammen. Abgesehen von seinen schweren blutigen Verlusten hat der Gegner bei unserem Angriff am 31. März an unverwundeten Gefangenen 11 Offiziere, 720 Mann in deutscher Hand lassen müssen und 5 Maschinengewehre verloren.
Die beiderseits sehr lebhafte Fliegertätigkeit hat zu zahlreichen für uns glücklichen Luftgefechten geführt. Außer vier jenseits unserer Front heruntergeholten feindlichen Flugzeugen wurde bei Hollebeke (nordwestlich von Werwicq) ein englischer Doppeldecker abgeschossen, dessen Insassen gefangen genommen sind. Oberleutnant Berthold hat hierbei das vierte gegnerische Flugzeug außer Gefecht gesetzt.
Außerdem wurde durch einen Volltreffer unserer Abwehrgeschütze südwestlich von Lens ein feindliches Flugzeug brennend zum Absturz gebracht. Der mit Truppen stark belebte Ort Dombasle-en-Argonne (westlich von Verdun) und der Flugplatz Fontaine (östlich von Belfort) wurden ausgiebig mit Bomben belegt.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
An der Front östlich von Baranowitschi war die Gefechtstätigkeit reger als bisher.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Keine Ereignisse von besonderer Bedeutung.


Oberleutnant Berthold


http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_02.htm
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2006 9:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
None for 2 April

Births
1 1890 Erich KönigGermany
2 1895 James PearsonUSA
3 1897 Thomas HunterEngland

Deaths
1 1917 Erich KönigGermany
2 1918 Roland CritchleyEngland
3 1940 Hector GaraudFrance
4 1945 Willi RosensteinGermany
5 1961 Robert OwenWales

Claims
1 1916 Alfred AugerFrance #2
2 1916 David TidmarshIreland #1
3 1916 Luigi OlivariItaly u/c
4 1917 Stanley CockerellEngland #5
5 1917 Kelvin CrawfordEngland #4
6 1917 Oliver SuttonEngland #1
7 1917 Edmund NathanaelGermany #6
8 1917 Manfred von RichthofenGermany #32 #33
9 1917 Attilio ImolesiItaly u/c
10 1918 Alexander ClarkAustralia #3
11 1918 Henry ForrestAustralia #6
12 1918 Roby ManuelAustralia #1
13 1918 Stearne EdwardsCanada #10 #11
14 1918 Donald MacLarenCanada #14 #15
15 1918 Roy McConnellCanada #2
16 1918 John SmithCanada #3
17 1918 Horace DebenhamEngland #5
18 1918 George HaywardEngland #18 #19
19 1918 Ronald McClintockEngland #5
20 1918 Oliver RedgateEngland #11
21 1918 Herbert SellarsEngland #7
22 1918 Joseph SiddallEngland #1
23 1918 Sydney SmithEngland #5
24 1918 Edmund TempestEngland #7
25 1918 Anthony ThorntonEngland #1 #2
26 1918 Alexander VlastoEngland #3
27 1918 Frank WeareEngland #9 #10
28 1918 Henry WoollettEngland #16 #17 #18
29 1918 Hans KirschsteinGermany #4
30 1918 Franz PiechulekGermany #6
31 1918 Johann PützGermany #4
32 1918 Manfred von RichthofenGermany #75
33 1918 Wilhelm SchwartzGermany #2
34 1918 Hans WeissGermany #12
35 1918 Hans WolffGermany #4
36 1918 George McElroyIreland #23
37 1918 Charles RobsonScotland #7

Losses
1 1916 Albert DeullinFrancewounded in action
2 1917 Erich KönigGermanykilled in action; shot down in flames by 57 Squadron
3 1917 Alfred MohrGermanykilled in action
4 1918 Roland CritchleyEnglandkilled in action

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/today.cgi
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2006 9:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 2

1917 Woodrow Wilson asks U.S. Congress for declaration of war

“The world must be made safe for democracy,” U.S. President Woodrow Wilson proclaims on this day in 1917, as he appears before Congress to ask for a declaration of war against Germany.

Under Wilson, the former Princeton University president and governor of New Jersey who was voted into the White House in 1912, the United States had proclaimed its neutrality from the beginning of World War I in the summer of 1914. Even after the German sinking of the British passenger ship Lusitania in May 1915, which killed 1,201 people, including 128 Americans, caused a public outrage in the U.S. and prompted Wilson to send a strongly worded warning to Germany, the president was re-elected in 1916 on a platform of strict neutrality. Late that same year, Wilson even attempted to broker a peace between the Allies and the Central Powers, which was looked at favorably by Germany but eventually rejected by both France and Great Britain.

The first months of 1917, however, brought new offenses by Germany against American interests at sea, namely the resumption of the German navy’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfare on February 1 and the sinking of the American cargo ship Housatonic two days later. An angry Wilson broke off diplomatic relations with Germany that same day. Meanwhile, British intelligence had decoded and informed the U.S. government of a secret message sent by the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, to the German ambassador to Mexico. The so-called Zimmermann Telegram proposed a Mexican-German alliance in the case of war between the United States and Germany and promised Mexico financial and territorial rewards for its support. Wilson authorized the State Department to publish the text of the telegram; it appeared in America’s newspapers on March 1, provoking a great storm of anti-German sentiment among the U.S. population.

With German submarine warfare continuing unabated, the final straw came on April 1, 1917, when the armed U.S. steamer Aztec was torpedoed near Brest and 28 of its crew members drowned. The next day, Wilson stepped before Congress to deliver his historic war message, making clear exactly how high he considered the stakes of the war to be. “It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance.” Despite the risks, Wilson felt the U.S. could not stand by any longer; in the face of continued German aggression, the nation had the moral obligation to step forward and fight for the principles upon which it had been founded.

“We shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts,” Wilson famously intoned, “for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free.” In this speech, Wilson displayed the idealism and moral fervor that characterized his view of the rightful role of the U.S. in the world—a supremely self-righteous outlook that would earn him acclaim from many and criticism and derision from others during his lifetime and after his death (especially after his pet project at war’s end, the League of Nations, proved a failure). It was also an outlook that would, for better or worse, determine the direction of U.S. foreign policy for decades to come, up to and including the present day.

On April 4, the U.S. Senate voted in favor of war by 82 votes to 6; two days later, the House of Representatives delivered their own yes vote by 373 votes to 50, formally announcing the entrance of the United States into the First World War.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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Richard



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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2006 11:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Special to The New York Times

OTHER HEADLINES
Armed American Steamship Sunk; 11 Men Missing: The Aztec Is First Gun-Bearing Vessel Under Our Flag to be Torpedoed: Surprise Attack at Night: 12 Navy Men and Their Chief Among 17 Survivors Picked Up by a Patrol: 11 in a Lifeboat That Sank: Liner St. Paul, with Cannon, Reaches British Port in Safety- Had 61 Passengers

ashington, April 2 -- At 8:35 o'clock tonight the United States virtually made its entrance into the war. At that hour President Wilson appeared before a joint session of the Senate and House and invited it to consider the fact that Germany had been making war upon us and to take action in recognition of that fact in accordance with his recommendations, which included universal military service, the raising of an army of 500,000 men, and co-operation with the Allies in all ways that will help most effectively to defeat Germany.

Resolutions recognizing and declaring the state of war were immediately introduced in the House and Senate by Representative Flood and Senator Martin, both of the President's birth-state, Virginia, and they are the strongest declarations of war that the United States has ever made in any war in which it has been engaged since it became a nation. They are the administration resolutions drawn up after conference with the President, and in language approved and probably dictated by him, and they will come before the two Foreign Affairs Committees at meetings which will be held tomorrow morning and will be reported at the earliest practical moment.

Unreservedly With the Allies

Before an audience that cheered him as he has never been cheered in the Capitol in his life, the President cast in the lot of American unreservedly with the Allies and declared for a war that must not end until the issue between autocracy and democracy has been fought out. He recited our injuries at Germany's hands, but he did not rest our cause on those; he went on from that point to range us with the Allies as a factor in an irrepressible conflict between the autocrat and the people. He showed that peace was impossible for the democracies of the world while this power remained on earth. "The world," he said, "must be made safe for democracy."

We had learned that the German autocracy could never be a friend of this country; she had been our enemy while nominally our friend, and even before the war of 1914 broke out. He called on us to take our stand with the democracies in this irrepressible conflict, with before our eyes "the wonderful and heartening events that have been happening in the last few weeks in Russia." He reaffirmed his hope for peace and for freedom, and looked to the war now forced on us to bring these about; for, he said, a world compact for peace "can never be maintained except by a concert of the democracies of the world."

The objects for which we fight, he said, are democracy, the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own government, the rights and liberties of small nations, the universal dominion of right, the concert of free peoples to bring peace and safety to all nations, and to make the world free. These have always been our ideals, and to accomplish them, we accept the war Germany has made upon us. In fighting it we must not only raise an army and increase the navy, but must aid the Allies in all ways, financial and other, and so order our own preparations as not to interfere with the supply of munitions they are getting from us.

Trouble-making Pacifists Barred

The President delivered this speech before an audience that had been carefully sifted. All day Washington had been in the hands of belligerent pacifists, truculent in manner, and determined to break into the Capitol. They tried to take possession of the Capitol steps, up which the President must go when he entered, and met the same fate that Coxey's rioters fell in with twenty-three years ago at the hands of the police, who dispersed them.

A handful of them fell upon Senator Lodge and assaulted him. Others entered the Vice President's room and were so aggressive that they were put out. But by nightfall the authorities had them eliminated, so far as any possibility of trouble was concerned, and they were not admitted to the Capitol at all.

Two troops of the Second Cavalry guarded the approaches, and admitted nobody who could not be vouched for and the building swarmed with Secret Service men, Post Office Inspectors, and policemen on guard to see that no harm form the lovers of peace befell the President of the United States in his charge of a constitutional duty.

He came at 8:30, guarded by another troop of cavalry. If he had come in the afternoon, as he wished to do, he would have made his entry through thousands of pacifists camped outside the building and parading its corridors and waiting for him. But at night it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a disturber to get within pistol shot of the Capitol, and even those who could get into the building itself could not get into the galleries without special tickets.

President Greeted Cheers

The House an hour before had taken a recess. When it met again it was in a scene that the hall had never presented before. Directly in front of the Speaker and facing him sat the members of the Diplomatic Corps in evening dress. It was the first time any one could remember when the foreign envoys had ever sat together officially in the Hall of Representatives.

Then the doors opened, and in came the Senators, headed by Vice President Marshall, each man wearing or carrying a small American flag. There were three or four exceptions, including Senators La Follette and Vardaman, but one had to look hard to find them and Senator Stone was no exception. It was at 8:32 that they came in, and one minute later the speaker announced;

"The President of the United States."

As he walked in and ascended the Speaker's platform he got such a reception as Congress had never given him before in any of his visits to it. The Supreme Court Justices rose from their chairs, facing the place where he stood, and led the applause, while Representatives and Senators not only cheered, but yelled. It was two minutes before he could begin his address.

When he did begin it, he stood with his manuscript before him typewritten on sheets of note paper. He held it in both hands, resting his arm on the green baize covered desk, and at first he read with out looking up, but after a while he would glance occasionally to the right or left as he made a point, not as if he were trying to see the effect, but more as a sort of gesture- the only one he employed.

Congress listened intently and without any sort of interruption while he recited the German crimes against humanity, his own and his country's effort to believe that the German rulers had not wholly cut themselves off from the path which civilized nations follow, and the way in which the truth was forced upon unwilling minds. It was waiting for his conclusions, and there was no applause or demonstration of any kind for the recital.

But when he finished his story of our efforts to avoid war and came to the sentence "armed neutrality, it now appears, is impracticable because submarines are in fact outlaws when used as the German submarines are used," breathless silence, so painfully intense that it seemed almost audible.

A Roar Answers No "Submission."

He had told Congress at the outset that the condition which now confronted us was one which he had neither the right nor the duty to cope with alone, and that he had come to ask it to make its choice of ways to deal with it; and now he said:

"There is one choice we cannot make, we are incapable of making. We will not choose the path of submission . . ."

There was more of the sentence, but Congress neither knew it nor would have waited to hear if it had been known. At the word "submission," Chief Justice White with an expression of joy and thankfulness on his face, dropped the big soft hat he had been holding, raised his hands high in the air, and brought them together with a heartfelt bang; and House, Senate, and galleries followed him with a roar like a storm. It was a cheer so deep and so intense and so much from the heart that it sounded like a shouted prayer.

The President completed his sentence,

"And suffer the most sacred rights of our people to be ignored," and Congress relapsed into its intent and watchful silence. But when he asked for the declaration of war, when he urged them to "declare the course of the Imperial German Government to be in effect nothing less than war," the scene was even more striking.

Chief Justice Leads the Cheers

Chief Justice White had the most prominent seat on the floor; the Supreme Court sat apart from all the rest in a little island of chairs in the center of the open space before the Speaker's desk; and as he rose from his seat at the head of the little known men, he was marked out from all, as no one else was except the President himself. The Chief Justice's face wore an expression of pride and relief that was a study, and that attracted the observation of everybody; and though the cheering really needed no leader, he was its leader. At this last utterance of this President's, he compressed his lips close together as if her were trying to keep tears back, and again raised his hands as high as he could and brought his mighty palms together as if her were trying to split them.

Behind him the Senators and Representatives were cheering; and now, after a moment or two, Heflin of Alabama sprang to his feet. In a second the whole Democratic side of the House was up after him, and then Ollie James of Kentucky rose in his turn, followed immediately by the Democratic side of the Senate, and there they all stood cheering at the top of their lungs.

The same scene was repeated when the President a moment later asked Congress to recognize the state of belligerency which Germany had thus forced upon us, and to adopt measures which would bring the German Government to terms as soon as possible and end the war.

The next applause came from his statement that such a prosecution of the war would call for co-operation with the Allies, and there was more when he spoke of making them a liberal financial contribution, "so that our resources be as far as possible added to theirs." Next he took up our own preparation, independent of the Allies, and Congress applauded his proposal for strengthening the navy, for an army of "at least 500,000 men," but the applause turned to great cheering when he added, "it should be chosen, in my judgment, on the principle of universal liability to service."

After declaring that we should order our preparations so as to interfere as little as possible with the duty of supplying the Allies with munitions, which elicited more applause. The President turned to the great causes which called us into the war, and spoke no more of the injuries which Germany had inflicted upon us. It was not for revenge that we were fighting, but because we were enlisted in the battle for democracy.

"We have no quarrel with the German people," he said amid applause, and later he declared that they would be liberated as well as the people of other lands, by the war.

When he came to this part of his address the first big cheer he got was when, painting the battle of democracy an autocracy, and the difference between the two, he said that democracies "do not fill other countries with spies or set upon a course of intrigue" -and would have said more but for the cheering that split his sentence at that word.

"The Russian people have been added to the forces that are fighting for justice and for peace," he said, and they cheered again.

Not in the way of reciting injuries to which we must not submit, as he had done at the beginning but for the purpose of illustrating the differences between self-governed peoples and those that are ruled by a few, he said. "It has filled our unsuspecting communities and even our offices of Government with spies and set criminal intrigue everywhere afoot."

The cheers which this evoked showed again that this is a particularly sore spot with Congress, though the President's object at this point was only the drawing of a contrast between the nations to which we are affiliated and those which are ruled by secret diplomacy and personal government- "a government that did as it pleased and told its people nothing."

His direct charge against the German Embassy, that these plots were directed by "official agents of the Imperial Government, accredited to the Government of the United States," brought another storm of applause.

A World "Safe for Democracy."

But these charges he made only incidentally, and for purposes of illustration. They were all designed to show that "the autocratic German Government can never be a friend," and now he said:

"The world must be made safe for democracy."

This sentence might have passed without applause, but Senator John Sharp Williams was one man who instantly seized the full and immense meaning of it. Alone he began to applaud, and he did it gravely, emphatically- and in a moment the fact that this was the keyword of our war against Germany dawned on the others, and one after another followed his lead until the whole host broke forth in a great uproar of applause.

When he touched on our relations with the German-Americans there was applause for his promises to those German-Americans who "are in fact loyal to their neighbors and the Government in the hour of test," but it was altogether overshadowed by the volume of that which broke out for the antithetical sentence, "If there should be disloyalty it will be dealt with a stern hand and firm repression.

An Ovation Follows Closing Words.

The President ended at 9:11, having spoken thirty-six minutes. Then the great scene which had been enacted at his entrance was repeated. The diplomats, the Supreme Court, the galleries, the House and Senate, Republicans and Democrats alike, stood in their places and the Senators waved flags they had brought with them. Those who were wearing, not carrying flags, tore them from their lapels or their sleeves and waved with the rest, and they all cheered wildly.

Senator Robert Marion La Follette, however stood motionless with his arms folded tight and high on his chest, so that nobody could have any excuse for mistaking his attitude; and there he stood, chewing gum with a sardonic smile.

The President walked rapidly out of the hall, and when he had gone, the Senators and the Supreme Court and the diplomats went their ways. Four minutes after his departure the Speaker called the House to order for the passage of a resolution offered by Chairman Fitzgerald of the Appropriations Committee making it possible to pass the money bills within ten days under suspension of the rules, and the first day's session of the Sixty-fifth congress was at an end.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The War Resolution Now Before Congress

This resolution was introduced in the House of Representatives last night by Representative Flood, Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, immediately after the President's address:

JOINT RESOLUTION, Declaring that a State of War Exists Between the Imperial German Government and the Government and People of the United States and Making Provision to Prosecute the Same.

Whereas, The recent acts of the Imperial German Government are acts of war against the Government and people of the United States:

Resolved, By the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that the state of war between the United States and the Imperial German Government which has thus been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared; and

That the President be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to take immediate steps not only to put the country in a thorough state of defense but also to exert all of its power and employ all of its resources to carry on war against the Imperial German Government and to bring the conflict to a successful termination.
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the beno



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2010 11:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Western Front

German attack stopped at Bagatelle (Argonne).

French air raids on German aviation camps in Belgium and Lorraine.

Eastern Front

Russian cavalry defeat German cavalry in northern Poland.

Russians take Cigielka (Carpathians).

Naval and Overseas Operations

Trawlers "Jason", "Gloxinia" and "Nellie" sunk in North Sea by submarine U10.

Political, etc.

American Note to Great Britain on the blockade.

Correspondence between Great Britain and Germany as to submarine crews taken prisoner by former, published.

Austria offers Italy a rectification of frontier in the Trentino

1916
Western Front

Zeppelin raid on east coast and Scotland; 13 killed, 24 injured.

Eastern Front

Germans repulsed in Liakhovichi region.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Russians cross Upper Chorok, taking fortified mountain positions (Armenia).

Political, etc.

Powder explosion in Kent: 172 casualties.

Mr. Asquith received by the Pope.

Resumption of work advised by Clyde strike committee.

1917
Western Front

British advance west and north of St. Quentin; to west, capturing three villages; to north between Arras and Bapaume-Cambrai road, taking Croisselles and five other villages; and to north-west, at Templeux.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

British and Russians in touch at Kizil-Robat.

Naval and Overseas Operations

"Aztec", armed liner (U.S.A.), sunk by German submarine off France.

Political, etc.

President Wilson asks Congress to declare "a state of war" with Germany.

Speeches of Sir R, Boden and Lt.-Gen. Smuts re: Empire and War.

British Government give Barrow strikers 24 hours to resume work.

1918
Western Front

Scarpe river British repulse attack near Fampoux and further south capture Ayette.

Local fighting between Moreuil and Lassigny.

Generally fighting has died down.

U.S.A. agrees to brigade troops with British and French.

Eastern Front

New Polish Cabinet formed by M. Steczkowski.

Siberia reported dominated by Bolsheviks, German and Austrian prisoners being armed.

Political, etc.

"Curfew" order comes into force.

Canada: Prime Minister intends to enforce Military Act on Quebec rioters

1919
Aftermath of War

Britain: Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty promoted Admirals of the Fleet.

General Smuts' Mission to Budapest a failure (2-6 April).
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alec Guinness

Sir Alec Guinness de Cuffe (2 april 1914 - 5 augustus 2000) was een Engelse acteur. Hij was één van de meest geliefde acteurs van zijn generatie. Hij speelde een groot aantal verschillende rollen in verscheidene films, waaronder klassiekers als The Bridge on the River Kwai en Star Wars.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alec_Guinness
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Apr 2019 8:48, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 April 1914 → Commons Sitting

Suffragist Prisoners.


HC Deb 02 April 1914 vol 60 cc1345-6 1345

Mr. KEIR HARDIE asked the Home Secretary whether Mary Richardson, a suffragette prisoner, is now being forcibly fed; whether her doctor certified on her 1346 last release from prison after being forcibly fed that she was suffering from appendicitis, and that a renewal of forcible feeding might again set up the mischief and jeoparlise her life in a few hours; and whether copies of this certificate have been received by him and by the prison authorities?

Mr. McKENNA The answer to the first question is in the affirmative. Mary Richardson's medical attendant wrote to me in December last to the effect that she had warned her patient that to repeat her refusal of food and water in prison and to be subjected to forcible feeding would entail grave risk, and she has repeated the same opinion in subsequent communications. Every care is taken by the medical officers of Holloway Prison to prevent the prisoner injuring herself, but it is their plain duty as medical men to feed her even at some risk of self-inflicted injury rather than to allow her to commit suicide by starvation.

Mr. STEPHEN WALSH Is the forcible feeding going on at present?

Mr. McKENNA Yes, Sir.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/apr/02/suffragist-prisoners
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Light Horse—Palestine 1916–1918

Chapter 9: The raid to Amman, 27 March–2 April 1918 (First Es Salt)
In February, the British front had advanced eastwards into the Jordan valley and to the western shore of the Dead Sea. The Anzac Mounted Division entered Jericho on the 21st. On 22 March, a bridge was built at Hijla and after twenty-four hours of fighting the main crossing at Ghoraniye was seized and bridged. Es Salt was taken on the 25th and two mounted brigades pushed towards Amman. By the morning of the 27th the town was being attacked and the railway north and south of the town was cut and blown up. However, the arrival of Turkish and German reinforcements proved decisive and on 30 March the force was ordered to withdraw to the Jordan Valley with only the Ghoraniye bridgehead retained.

The failure to capture and hold Amman meant that the British forces were not able to link up with Arab forces farther south which were attacking the railway at Ma’an from three directions. Allenby was still anxious to co-operate with them and to deny the Turks the wheat crop on the Moab plateau, then about to be reaped. Accordingly, after a strong demonstration at the Ghoraniye bridgehead and two bold reconnaissances, a second attempt was launched, this time towards the vital railway junction at Deraa, north of Amman.

Leesvoer! https://anzacportal.dva.gov.au/multimedia/publications/australian-light-horsepalestine-19161918/chapter-9-raid-amman-27-march2
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 02 Apr 2019 8:47, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Letters of Julian Grenfell, April 1914

2 April 1914 - Potchefstroom

Darling Mother

You’ll just be back from Constantinople, today. I wonder if you’ve had tremendous fun? Do tell me all & everything about it. I’m glad the Likky Man is so well; and how is Billa-boy? No, I don’t agree with you about the 'cloudless happiness of Eton-at-fifteen'. I think each year is a step forrad, in the happiness way. Fifteen for instance, is so damned inconclusive. Not that one gets any more 'conclusive' with age, but only more reconciled to the inconclusiveness: and therefore slightly more certain of the ground. At fifteen, it is so empty: at 25 and 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 – 125, all that has happened to one for good or bad is 'all there', anyhow. And don’t you think that happiness counts rather by fullness?

Thank you awfully for the new 'Wells' book – just arrived. Did you send it? It looks very good and Wellsey.

The English politics must have been thrilling all this time. I love the poem and the picture of Dad & Niagara. I can’t quite make out exactly what part Winston is playing now? Please write short appreciation on his situation. Musketry and polo and promotion work here. It’s hard to fit it all in, for anyone with such stupendous natural and acquired and cultivated laziness as myself! Lots & Lots of different little duties, all day: and it’s cruel ard to site down to work for 12½ minutes, before you start off, instead of sitting down & smoking a cigarette because there’s not really time to start working. But I’m frightfully well & happy, and I’m in my 'misogynist 3-months' period.

All love from J

http://www.hertsmemories.org.uk/page_id__4126_path__.aspx
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British troops take over from the French Army, 2 April 1915

Extension of the British Front in the Ypres Salient

In early February the 27th and 28th Divisions of the British Army had taken over the French held sector from St. Eloi to the Ypres-Menin Road.

During the first three weeks of April, from 2nd to 17th April, the British Second Army extended its front again to take over 8 kilometres (five miles) of the French front north of the Ypres-Menin Road as far as the Ypres-Poelcappelle road to the north-east of Ypres. The French XX. Corps currently holding this area was under orders to move to another part of the French battlefront, namely the French Tenth Army sector at Arras (see map below at 'Extension of the British Line').

By 17th April the British divisions holding the line in the Ypres Salient would be in position (from south to north):

■from 2nd to 8th April: the British 27th Division in the Zillebeke area south of the Ypres-Menin Road.
■from 8th to 11th April: the British 28th Division from north of the the Ypres-Menin Road as far as one kilometre west of Gravenstafel.
■from 15th to 17th April: the 1st Canadian Division from the west of Gravenstafel to the Poelcappelle-Keerselare road.

45th Algerian Division Relieves Part of the French 11th Division

On 16th April the 45th Algerian Division, under the command of General Quiquandon, took over what remained of the sector held by the French 11th Division (commanded by General Ferry). By order of General Foch the 45th Algerian Division had begun its move from the Arras sector of the French Tenth Army on 4th April. In the Ypres sector they were now on the left of the 1st Canadian Division.

The Algerian 91st Brigade moved into the front line. 90th Brigade remained in reserve at the divisional billets near Boesinghe. Personal accounts from the incoming Zouaves of the division described feelings of horror as the dawn of their first day in the front line revealed scattered decomposing corpses around them. No-man's-land was also littered with German unburied dead from the fighting of several months ago. They discovered that the trenches they were now occupying were in a bad state and were not continuous.

Crucial Timing of the Algerian Relief

Relief orders for the two Algerian brigades in the Langemarck sector were to alternate their duties between the front line and army reserve (at Crombeke and Westvleteren), with each brigade relieving the other every 8 days.

As 91st Brigade was the first to take over the line when the division arrived in the sector from 16th April, their first scheduled relief was ordered by General Quiquandon to take place during the night of 21st-22nd April, when the 90th Brigade was to move into the line in their place.

This timing of the brigade reliefs was unfortunate for the French. During the morning and afternoon of 22nd April, the actual date of the German gas attack, the Algerian troops of 90th Brigade would not only be settling in to a new trench position but would be spending their first hours in a new battlefront. They had also not served together with the troops of their neighbouring divisions, the French territorial division on their left and the Canadian division on their right.

Extension of the British Line from 30 to 48 Kilometres

With the completion of the relief of the French 11th Division by 1st Canadian Division the British Expeditionary Force had extended their commitment along the Allied front line from 30 to 48 kilometres (19 miles to 30 miles). The northern end of the extended British front line was then located at the Ypres-Poelcappelle road north-east of Ypres in Flanders. The southern end was at Cuinchy on the south side of the La Bassée canal (south-west of Lille) in Artois.

An Unexpected Advantage for the Germans

The German attack on the northern part of the Allied-held Ypres Salient had been planned and prepared for some weeks already. Because of the new secret gas weapon, its launch was conditioned by the direction of the wind. Nevertheless, the change-over of the three British divisions and one French division from the beginning of April was an unexpected bonus. The Germans did not interfere with them as they took over their new sectors. This was most likely because they did not wish to draw attention to any part of the German front line prior to the gas attack.

On the front selected for the main thrust of the German attack on the northern part of the Allied Ypres Salient, two of the three Allied divisions were new to the area, i.e. the 45th Algerian Division and the 1st Canadian Division. It was a favourable consideration for the Germans that these Allied troops would be unfamiliar not only with the ground in their new sector, but may not have experience of fighting next to one another either. The junction of the French and British forces at the Algerian and Canadian divisions was considered to be a possible weak point in the Allied line.

http://www.greatwar.co.uk/battles/second-ypres-1915/prelude/allied-relief.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Man Utd-Liverpool Match-Fixing Scandal, the 2nd of April 1915

It was a time when the First Division meant the top tier not the third; but it was also a time when the end of professional football for the duration of WWI loomed. Footballers were paid a pittance, and most of them faced the prospect of fighting and perhaps dying in the trenches. The temptation to make a few bob must have been enormous.
The Good Friday match that seven players were later convicted of fixing was at Old Trafford , between Manchester United and Liverpool: Liverpool were safe in mid-table ( Everton won the First Division that year), but Manchester United needed the then two points from a win to avoid the drop. They got them, Chelsea facing relegation (along with bottom-placed Arsenal ) accordingly, though a decision to expand the division by two clubs when it resumed after the war rescued both sides.
The scandal came to light because the players were not great at hiding what they were doing: when one Liverpool player who refused to cooperate hit the bar late on his teammates showed their anger: they and the three United conspirators stood to win a nice packet having bet on a 2-0 scoreline at odds of 7-1, a result that a missed penalty helped protect. It is probable that those who took the bets acted too, as leaflets alleging a fix and detailing the betting appeared not long after the match.
Perhaps unsurprisingly the FA found no club officials had been involved. The seven players were banned for life: one died in the war; five returned as heroes and had their bans overturned at once; the last sued the FA for libel so his remained until 1945.

http://www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=1346
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI Letters – A Window on Reality

In an earlier post I described Agar Adamson’s letters as an intriguing read for those interested in the WWI experience from an inside perspective. Agar’s wife Mabel is the recipient of many requests from her battle weary husband – requests for pens, new glasses, a pair of winter pants, various bits of food, requests to meet with Agar’s soldiers who are on leave or in hospital, requests to admonish one or other of their sons particularly on the topic of school efforts, requests for the loan of money. Agar always replies with his thanks and often an apology for burdening her once again.

Here are a few examples that illustrate the realities of living with war. Agar was fortunate that his wife moved to England for the duration.

“Thank you for your parcel containing an Easter egg, a cake, a pair of socks and the revolver holster.” 2nd April 1915

“Thank you for my mended glasses. The ham in a tin was most excellent.” 18th April 1915

“Please send me some oysters … and a pair of rubber gloves.” Midnight Xmas Day, 1915

“Thank you for boots, breeches, Blackwoods and “Canada”… 15th May 1916

“Will you send me two strong eye glass black cords, with runners, and if you can find time a good flexible metal cord.” 30th June 1916

“The chicken you sent was very nice. Will you go to Philip Grant, Lower Regent Street Gunsmith and ask him to send me his periscope rifle, the same as he has supplied us before. All ours were destroyed.” 25th July 1916

“Your lemon squash is most excellent, as near a fresh lemon as I have ever met.” 18th August 1916

“Will you please send two pair (heavy) – he’s referring to breeches - that are at the flat, also two sets of my heaviest underwear.” 16th September 1916

“Yours of the 10th arrived … also some excellent food. The grouse is always very nice, the large tin of biscuits was very nice.” 15th October 1916

“You can encourage anybody to send us socks. The Battn is badly in need of them.” 17th November 1916

“Thank you for the fur lining and dates, I am eating one of them now.” 25th November 1917

“Thank you for the most wonderful ink bottle. I don’t think a shell could spill it.” 7th December 1917

http://onewritersvoice.com/
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15041 Private Joseph L. Vince, Royal Canadian Regiment

In the Jewish cemetery in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, there is the grave of Joseph Vince RCR. The headstone informs us that he died on the 2nd April 1915, and that he was the son of the late Louis and Sarah Vince of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.

But who was Joseph L. Vince?

A genealogical search tells us something about his family background. Joseph Vince was born in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, in 1871, the 9th of 10 children, all born in Ballarat like their parents. The father, Louis Vince was born in 1827, the son of Nathan and Rosa Vince. The mother, Sarah Goldsmid was born in 1832 the daughter of Samuel and Fanny Goldsmid. Sarah died in Ballarat in 1904, there is no known record when Louis Vince died.

A check of the British Columbia provincial archives discovers a newspaper report on his death, stating that he was a veteran of South Africa and India. India of course indicates the British army, South African service could have been with the Australian, Canadian, or New Zealand's armies, as well as the British army. A check of the Canadian army records reveals no information. The Australian army records details the service of a 2126 Private Louis Vince of the 3rd Battalion Australian Commonwealth Horse. However, this Louis Vince was too young, born about 1880, and was Church of England.

The next search of the British army records has a positive identification of 6425 Private Joseph Vince of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. Joseph Vince enlisted in London England on the 3rd August 1900, joining the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. Here are some of the questions and answers on his attestation papers:

Name? Joseph Vince.
Parish or town where born? Ballarat Australia.
British subject? Yes.
What age? 24 years 6 months
Trade or calling? Salesman.
Have you been an Apprentice? No.
Married? No.
Sentenced to Imprisonment No.
Previous service? No.
Ever been rejected as unfit for service? No.
Willing to be vaccinated? Yes.
Willing to serve for 12 years? Yes.


He took 5 years off his real age.

On the next attestment record his height is given as 5 feet 7.5 inches; weight 135 pounds. Chest measurements 34 inches in, 36 inches out. Complexion Fresh. Eyes Blue. Hair Dark Brown Religion: Jew? Yes, (but it is crossed out). Then Church of England. is indicated:-- Yes. One can only speculate as to why this change was made, most likely he was advised to do so.

As stated, that all took place on the 3rd August in London. On the 9th August, 6425 Private Joseph Vince reported to his regiment in Oxford. After a year undergoing recruit training, Private J L Vince was posted on the 3rd August 1901 to the a Battalion of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry in South Africa.

Here are extracts from correspondence with the Research and Archives Section of the Oxfordshire & Buckinghamshire Light Infantry Museum.

When Joseph Vince enlisted in 1900, 1st Battalion Oxfordshire Light Infantry (the old 43rd Light Infantry of the Peninsular War fame) had been in South Africa since December 1899, The 2nd Battalion (the old 52nd Light Infantry also of the Famous Light Division in the Peninsular) were then in India (posted there in 1894). It would seem, from his short time in South Africa, that Joseph Vince must have been posted directly to the 2nd Battalion who were then stationed at Colaba Barracks, Bombay. It would seem from the record of this Battalion that in 1901 and 1902 it was receiving large numbers of Boer prisoners to India and it is possible the Private Vince was part of a contingent acting as guard.

The 1st Battalion returned to England in 1902 but at the end of 1903 virtually changed postings with the 2nd Battalion. My guess is that Joseph Vince would have been one of thirteen men who remained in India and voluntarily transferred to 1st Battalion at this time. The Battalion was based at Umballa until 7th February 1905 when it moved to Lucknow. It was posted to Burma on 8th December 1908 and based at Thayetmyo until 29th September 1910. It returned to India on 29th September 1910, Stationed at Wellington, and then moved to Kirkee on 1 April 1913.

I have given the place names where Regimental Headquarters was established but, as with nearly every regiment in the army then serving abroad, it also provided detachments of Company strength at three or four places at the same time. It is therefore impossible to state where Joseph Vince was serving at any precise date.


Joseph Vince obtained a 2nd class certificate of education on the 26th January 1903; he got his first promotion on the 22nd August 1904 as Unpaid Lance Corporal. He was granted Lance Corporal pay on the 4th May 1906, but reverted to unpaid status on the 12 June 1907. On the 10th February 1911 he was employed as a military staff in Lucknow and promoted sergeant. However, on the 1st October 1911 he is back to Private, but the next day is again unpaid Lance Corporal. His service with the Oxfordshire and Buckingham shire Light infantry ends with his honourable discharge, with the rank of Lance Corporal on the 5th December 1912. He was awarded the QueenÕs South African medal with 5 bars. South Africa 1901; South Africa 1902; Cape Colony; Orange Free State; and Transvaal.

In 1913 he goes to Canada and joins the Royal Canada Regiment, being assigned to F Company in Esquimault British Columbia, on Vancouver Island. Up until the formation of the Canadian Expeditionary Force in August 1914, personnel service records were the responsibility of the regiments. So far, The Royal Canadian Regiment has not been able to locate the records of 15041 Private Joseph L Vince. His service number indicates that he did enlist in 1913, and obviously he proclaimed his religion as Jewish. There is much more research needed to fill the gaps, and some glaring questions cry out for answers.


Was Joseph the child of a mixed marriage?
Was his father Louis Vince Church of England?
Was Louis Vince of the 3rd Battalion Commonwealth Horse Tasmanian contingent in South Africa his cousin? It would be interesting to know if this Louis VinceÕs grandfather was Nathan Vince.
What kind of salesman was Joseph Vince?
Why did he change his religion from Jewish to Church of England? Bigotry? perhaps.
On joining the British army, Joseph Vince did not tell the truth about his age, but there is nothing unusual about, indeed it was quite common.
But 29 is late for starting a military career.
What were his motives for enlisting. economic, or running away from a relationship?
On his attestation papers he declared himself to be unmarried, but was he?
In India he had the right to return to Britain with his 2nd Battalion,
but volunteered to stay on, why?
As soon as he did return to the UK for discharge, he left for Canada, why?
Did he serve along side Canadians in South Africa?
If he did, and he liked their out look on life, which had much in common the Australian contempt for authority, and nothing in common with the British class system? Then his reason for going to Canada is understandable.


Joseph had 5 brothers, and 4 sisters. One sister Rose Vince married Joseph Davis, another, Fanny, married Aaron Edward Goldstein. Is it possible that the Vince, Davis, and Goldstein families are still residing in the State of Victoria? Throughout the year, flowers are placed on Joseph Vince's grave. On remembrance day a poppy wreath. If his Australian relations can be traced, and they would like a photograph of that grave, it is theirs for the asking.

http://www.victorianweb.org/history/empire/vince1.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postcard by Rudolf Zoglauer to his mother-in-law, Barbara Wimmer in Radautz, Bukovina, written on Good Friday, April 2, 1915 in Pernegg Austria

Pernegg 2/4 1915
Mutter, Liebste Schwiegermutter.
Ich Schicke meine eigen Fotografie
zur Erinnerung das ich Soldat
war und bin im Tage
Karfreitag geschrieben am 2/4/1915.
Liebste teuerste Mutter.
Vergessen sie nicht auf meine
Kati und Kinder denn ich in
der Zeit als Vater bin ich
weit weg von meinen lieben
Kindern und Kati. Ich hoffe bei
dem lieben Gott auf baltigen
Wiedersehen. Es grüßt und küßt
Ihnen. Ihrer Schwiegersohn Rudolf
samt an Kati u. Kinder und
sonst tue mir alle begrüssen.

http://www.bukovinasociety.org/museum/ancestors-in-uniform/Zoglauer-Rudolf-1880-02-24-in-uniform-1915.html
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Battle of the 'Wozzer'

Wozzer ? - To avoid all misunderstandings, let's first state that the term " the Wozzer " refers to the " Haret Al Wassir ", the red-light district in Cairo's Ezbekieh Quarter at the beginning of this century.

To the Australian and New-Zealand troops that were encamped in the vicinity of the city, it soon became known under a series of different names : the Wassah, the Wazzir, the Wazza are only a few of the many they used to refer to the place. As C.E.W. Bean, in his official history, opts for " the Wozzer ", which is probably a fairly accurate transcription of what he heard, let it be like that in this article.

2nd Wozzer ? - The term " Battle of the Wozzer " refers to the disturbances, caused in Cairo by the Anzac troops, before they were transported to Gallipoli. As such, it is in fact a misleading term, for the simple reason that events of this kind occurred twice with an interval of only 3 months. In both cases, houses were damaged and set on fire by drunk troops, citizens were maltreated, furniture was thrown out of windows and the military authorities had quite a hard time to restore order.

So, when one speaks about the " Battle of the Wozzer ", two different occurrences should be mentioned : 1st Wozzer, which took place on Good Friday, 2nd April 1915 and 2nd Wozzer, a new 'battle', which was fought on 31st July 1915.

But why not 1st Wozzer ? - As a matter of fact, the First Battle of the Wozzer was much better covered by Gallipoli historians. There are of course good reasons for this : as it was the first time a disturbance of this kind occurred in Egypt, the outbreak of violence was completely unexpected and therefore got more attention in the press.

Another fact is that every Gallipoli history deals with 'The Preparations for the Campaign'. Automatically, the first battle is then included in such a chapter, partly because of its spectacular character, but even more so as an attempt to give an impression of the mentality of the troops.

A third factor is of course that shortly after the Good Friday battle, the ANZAC forces were shipped to Gallipoli. When the 2nd battle was fought in Cairo, it was completely overshadowed by the events taking place on the Peninsula.

So why the 2nd Battle of the Wozzer ? Well, because it's a story that was never told, as far as I know at least, in more than a few vague lines. It was not the ANZACS' most glorious battle, but what happened in Cairo on that evening of 31st July 1915 may add a small piece to that big puzzle that was, and still is, the Gallipoli Campaign.

Lees verder! http://user.online.be/~snelders/wozzer/woz1.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Great Explosion, 2 April 1916

At 14:20 on Sunday 2nd April 1916, 109 men and boys were killed by an explosion at the Explosives Loading Company factory at Uplees, near Faversham. 15 tons of TNT and 150 tons of ammonium nitrate blew up when some empty sacks caught fire.

So great was the explosion that windows across the Thames estuary in Southend were shattered and the tremor was felt in Norwich. The crater made by the explosion was 40 yards across and 20 feet deep.

The Cotton Powder Company's huge factory, adjacent to the Explosives Loading Company's plant, was also seriously damaged. Most of its site now forms the Oare Marshes Nature Reserve, of international importance for its bird life.
This was the worst disaster ever to occur in the history of the UK explosives industry.

A brave attempt was made to extinguish the fire before it got out of control, but factory manager George Evetts ordered everyone to leave the site when the situation became hopeless. However, the explosion occured as everyone was leaving the site.

Included in the 116 dead, was the whole of the Works Fire Brigade. Many firemen died in subsequent smaller explosions on the site. Many bodies were recovered from the surrounding marshes and dykes, but seven were recorded as missing, most probably atomised by the explosion.
Many of the dead were buried in a mass grave at Faversham Cemetery on 6th April 1916.

http://www.faversham.org/pages/standard.aspx?i_PageID=15849
Zie ook http://www.gunpowderworks.co.uk/pdf/H1_The_Great_Explosion_(5_pages).pdf
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 22:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of EW Manifold - WWI

Edward Walford Manifold was born on 28th April 1892 and grew up in the Western District of Victoria. He travelled to England to join the Royal Field Artillery when World War I broke out.

Letter Home - 2nd April, 1916

2nd April, 1916

Dear Mother,

I am still at the gunnery school, but we break up on Saturday and go back to our batteries. I am just beginning to like this place and, although we get plenty of hard work, one learns a lot here and Major Crozier is the man to teach you.

I am glad to say the weather has taken up again and yesterday and again today have been perfect sunny days. It snowed on Sunday night and we also had some on Monday but I really think we have seen the last of winter now.

Everything is just beginning to shoot, and it won't be long before all the trees are in leaf.

I am feeling rather nervous tonight, as I see I am up for B.C tomorrow and will have to drill a battery in front of the Major, which will be rather an ordeal. Yesterday was rather a good morning as the Major took us in the riding school and we had a few rounds over the jumps. Some of the people are really awful. I don't profess to be much of a rider, but most of the men here consider thy can ride and I never saw such exhibitions as they give jumping - and some of them say they hunt too.

I and about four other men walked for miles today, Sunday, for lunch and tea, just returning at about six fifteen. There are quite a lot of our men about the district, and they do look jolly fit, and strong, but not nearly as smart as the average British Tommy.

I thought I might see someone I knew but never ran across anyone. There is no more news. I hope to see a bunch of letters waiting for me when I get back to the 'Dragoon Troop'.

Your affectionate son

Walford.

http://ewmanifold.blogspot.com/2011/04/letter-home-2nd-april-1916.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

April 2, 1916: Arrest of Rua Kenana

On the morning of Sunday 2 April 1916, 57 armed police invaded the remote Ngāi Tūhoe settlement of Maungapōhatu in the Urewera Ranges. They had come to arrest the prophet Rua Kēnana. A gunfight broke out and two Māori were killed, including Rua’s son Toko. Rua and others were arrested on charges ranging from resisting arrest to treason and transported to Auckland for trial. Rua was sentenced to 12 months’ hard labour followed by 18 months’ imprisonment.

Rua called himself the Mihāia (Messiah) and claimed to be the successor whose coming had been predicted by the prophet Te Kooti a generation before. By 1907 around 600 followers had joined him at Maungapōhatu, the community he had founded on non-violent principles. He aimed to blend the best of Pākehā practices with Māori customs to create a model community. He established a farming co-operative and a savings bank, and promised his people that both their land and their mana would be returned.

Many Pākehā saw the Maungapōhatu community as subversive and Rua as a disruptive influence. Maori politicians like Māui Pōmare and Āpirana Ngata believed that traditional tohunga (spiritual leaders) like Rua held back Māori progress.

In 1915 Rua was arrested on charges of illicitly selling alcohol at Maungapōhatu. The government was also concerned about his opposition to Tūhoe men enlisting for service in the First World War. There were rumours that he openly supported Germany. The alcohol issue provided an opportunity to bring Rua into line.

Rua was summonsed to appear before the local magistrate on 19 January 1916. He excused himself on the grounds that it was harvest time and stated that he would attend the session scheduled for February. This was viewed as contempt and a new warrant was issued for his arrest. John Cullen, the commissioner of police, began preparations for an armed police expedition to Maungapōhatu.

On 2 April 1916 Rua stood unarmed on the marae waiting to greet the approaching police when a shot was fired. In a short exchange of gunfire two Maori were killed, including Toko. Senior police officers claimed they had walked into a planned ambush. But the weight of evidence suggests it was the police who fired first.

Rua was taken to Auckland and charged with treason. A jury found him not guilty but Judge F.R. Chapman found Rua guilty of ‘morally’ resisting arrest. He lectured Rua that as a member of a race ‘still in tutelage’ he needed to learn that the arm of the law reached into ‘every corner’. Eight of the jury petitioned Parliament to have the sentence reduced.

Rua was released from jail in April 1918. The community at Maungapōhatu fell on hard times and by the early 1930s many were forced to leave in search of work. Rua went to live at Matahi, a community he had founded in 1910 on the Waimana River in eastern Bay of Plenty. He died there on 20 February 1937

http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/timeline/2/4
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

2 april 1916
Russen gezien in de statie [station] te Kortrijk.
Sensatiebericht over Holland. Nieuwe strategie en voorzeggingen over 't geen Holland zal doen! - Drift bij de besprekingen - vooringenomenheid - onwetendheid.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0020.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Tidmarsh (aviator)

Squadron Leader David Mary Tidmarsh MC (28 January 1892 – 27 November 1944) was an Irish-born World War I Royal Flying Corps flying ace credited with seven aerial victories.[1]

Tidmarsh was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the 4th Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment (Special Reserve) on 23 April 1915.[2] He began flying training at Shoreham on 27 August 1915, and transferred into the Royal Flying Corps on 13 January 1916 when he was appointed a Flying Officer in 24 Squadron.[3][4] He was piloting an Airco DH.2 on 2 April 1916 when he scored his—and his squadron's—first victory, destroying a German Albatros two-seater and killing its crew of Karl Oscar Breibisch-Guthmann and Paul Wein.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Tidmarsh_(aviator)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Theo van Doesburg: "KUNST EN KUNSTNIJVERHEID".

Naar aanleiding van een expositie van Fransche etsen te Apeldoorn, „Op den Paschviever.”

Dat ook in de provincie behoefte bestaat aan een inniger contact met producten van Kunst- en Kunstnijverheid bewees mij de onlangs door mij bezochte expositie van Fransche etsen in de gezellige, goedverlichte zaaltjes „Op den Paschviever” te Apeldoorn. Ieder die de Paschlaan passeert zal aangenaam verrast worden door het aanlokkelijk gelegen huisje waar met witte letters op een groenen grond staat „Op den Paschviever”. Vóór aan den hekingang noodigt ’n ditto geschilderd bordje u uit tot een bezoek aan de tentoonstelling van Fransche etsen. Doch het zijn niet alleen de etsen van Simon, Goo, Eug. de Lâtre, Chahine, Brouet, Célos, Bartholomé en de litho’s van Steinlen enz. die u daar wachten, het zijn ook de voorwerpen van smaak, de producten eener hoogst beschaafde kunstnijverheid, de potterie en de gedistingeerde batiks van mevrouw Wegerif-Gravenstein.

In een ander zaaltje treffen u de bizonder artistiek uitgevoerde foto’s, die u doen zien dat ook op dit gebied een geheel nieuw besef van ruimteverdeeling heerscht. Deze fotos alle in het atelier „Op den Paschviever” gemaakt, kunnen als voorbeeld dienen wat de photografie in haar schoonsten vorm zijn kan.

In een zoo smaakvol ingericht gebouwtje als dit, waar zoowel de voorwerpen der kunstnijverheid als de etsen en litho’s hunne organische zelfstandigheid aan u openbaren, is de gelegenheid het publiek in de richting van goeden smaak, d. i. groot genomen van intérieur-kunst, op te voeden, bizonder gunstig. De stap naar de abstracte, moderne intérieurkunst komt dan langzamerhand van zelf, zonder een al te groote schol teweeg te brengen. Want de schok, die het ernstig willend publiek op de moderne exposities ondergaat, wordt grootendeels veroorzaakt, doordat het zoowel in Kunst als in Kunstnijverheid vele generaties ten achter is. Men vindt in de intérieurs de meest smakelooze objecten naast en door elkander. Wat toch is eenvoudiger dan deze producten eener wansmaak te vervangen door voorwerpen die an und für sich stijl-waarde bezitten. Langs dezen weg zal de mensch zijn geluk weer in zijn omgeving vinden, precies als tijdens de Renaissance. Smaakvolle, artistieke objecten hebben het vermogen een sfeer te scheppen, die ons denken gunstig beïnvloedt. Wansmakelijke voorwerpen daarentegen hebben het vermogen een atmosfeer te scheppen die ons denken ongunstig beïnvloedt. „Mooie dingen zijn duur”, zal men zeggen. Maar mooie dingen schaft men zich maar eens aan, ze winnen steeds in waarde. Eén enkele waarlijk schoone vaas; één schoon gebatikt stuk fluweel; één stijlvol schilderij, weegt gemakkelijk op tegen de overdadige massa van smakelooze voorwerpen waarvan onze huizen vol zijn. Mooie dingen zijn dus nooit duur; ze zijn in ieders bereik.

Ik kan het denkbeeld, het Apeldoornsche publiek in nader contact te brengen met stijl-volle intérieur objecten in een omgeving die daaraan beantwoordt, dus niet genoeg toejuichen en zie dit denkbeeld vrij wel verwezenlijkt in het atelier „Op den Paschviever”.

Van de etsen werd ik het meest getroffen door die van Steinlen. In de litho’s toont hij zijn nauwe verwantschap met de beroemde „actualités” van zijn geestelijken vader Honoré Daumier. Het is niet waar, dat Steinlen ooit geheel los van dezen invloed gekomen is. Trouwens hoe kon het ook, zij schiepen uit dezelfde bron...... de volksziel.

Door de permanente exposities „Op den Paschviever” zal het Apeldoornsche publiek nog vele malen in de gelegenheid worden gesteld op elk gebied zijn smaak te ontwikkelen, of te herstellen.

THEO VAN DOESBURG.

Leiden, 2–4–16.

http://nl.wikisource.org/wiki/Theo_van_Doesburg/Kunst_en_Kunstnijverheid
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Der Weltkrieg am 2. April 1916

Der deutsche Heeresbericht: Französische Stellungen bei Vaux genommen

Großes Hauptquartier, 2. April.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz: Bei Fay (südlich der Somme) kam ein nach kurzer Artillerievorbereitung angesetzter feindlicher Angriff in unserem Feuer nicht zur Entwicklung.
Durch die Beschießung von Betheniville (östlich von Reims) verursachten die Franzosen unter ihren Landsleuten erhebliche Verluste; 3 Frauen und 1 Kind wurden getötet, 5 Männer, 4 Frauen und 1 Kind sind schwer verletzt.
Im Anschluß an die am 30. März genommenen Stellungen wurden die französischen Gräben nordöstlich von Haucourt in einer Ausdehnung von etwa 1000 Meter vom Feinde gesäubert.
Auf dem östlichen Maasufer haben sich unsere Truppen am 31. März nach sorgfältiger Vorbereitung in den Besitz der feindlichen Verteidigungs- und Flankierungsanlagen nordwestlich und westlich des Dorfes Vaux gesetzt. Nachdem in diesem Abschnitt das französische Feuer heute gegen Morgen zur größten Kraft gesteigert war, erfolgte der erwartete Gegenangriff. Er brach in unserem Maschinengewehr- und dem Sperrfeuer unserer Artillerie völlig zusammen. Abgesehen von seinen schweren blutigen Verlusten hat der Gegner bei unserem Angriff am 31. März an unverwundeten Gefangenen 11 Offiziere, 720 Mann in deutscher Hand lassen müssen und 5 Maschinengewehre verloren.
Die beiderseits sehr lebhafte Fliegertätigkeit hat zu zahlreichen für uns glücklichen Luftgefechten geführt. Außer vier jenseits unserer Front heruntergeholten feindlichen Flugzeugen wurde bei Hollebeke (nordwestlich von Werwicq) ein englischer Doppeldecker abgeschossen, dessen Insassen gefangen genommen sind. Oberleutnant Berthold hat hierbei das vierte gegnerische Flugzeug außer Gefecht gesetzt.
Außerdem wurde durch einen Volltreffer unserer Abwehrgeschütze südwestlich von Lens ein feindliches Flugzeug brennend zum Absturz gebracht. Der mit Truppen stark belebte Ort Dombasle-en-Argonne (westlich von Verdun) und der Flugplatz Fontaine (östlich von Belfort) wurden ausgiebig mit Bomben belegt.

http://www.stahlgewitter.com/16_04_02.htm
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air attack on Edinburgh: The air defences at East Fortune were put to the test on the night of 2 April 1916.

Two German Navy Zeppelins attacked Edinburgh. One of them was spotted over the coast near St Abbs and East Fortune was notified. At 21.40 hours Flight Sub-Lieutenant Cox took off in an Avro 504C single-seat fighter to intercept the raider but was unable to find it. He returned to East Fortune only to crash his machine on landing and he was badly injured.

http://www.nms.ac.uk/our_museums/museum_of_flight/history_of_east_fortune.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

La Patrie, 2 April, 1918: “Les emeutes de Quebec” (Riots in Quebec)

https://fontsinuse.com/uses/13952/la-patrie-2-april-1918-les-emeutes-de-quebec-
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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Louis Deullin

Albert Louis Deullin (1890-1923) was a leading French air ace during the First World War, amassing a total of 20 air victories between February 1916 and May 1918.

Born on 24 August 1890 in Epernay, Deullin enlisted with the French military in 1906, and was serving with 8 Regiment de Dragons when war broke out in August 1914.

Although promoted to Sous Lieutenant in 1915 Deullin nonetheless requested and received a transfer to the air service in April that year, receiving his pilot's brevet two months later having flown Maurice Farman aircraft. Following further pilot's training Deullin was assigned to Escadrille MF62 in early July, where he was employed in artillery spotting, reconnaissance and bombing raids.

Deullin's first confirmed 'kill' was achieved on 10 February 1916, and he was awarded the Medaille de St. Georges on the following day. Posted next to Escadrille N3 Deullin flew Nieuport aircraft, achieving two more victories before suffering the first of three wounds on 2 April 1916.

Out of action for just two weeks Deullin returned quickly to active service, earning himself a Legion d'Honneur (Chevalier) in early June. In late February 1917, by which time he had scored a total of eleven victories, Deullin was appointed to command of Escadrille Spa73 where he flew SPAD 2.7 aircraft in the skies above France and Flanders.

His final confirmed success was logged on 19 May 1918, although he also scored up to five unconfirmed kills. The following month he received the Legion d'Honneur (Officer) and was separately awarded the Croix de Guerre with 14 Palms.

Surviving the war Deullin was killed on 29 May 1923 while testing an aircraft at Villacoublay. He was 32.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/deullin.htm
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Wilson's War Message to Congress, 2 April, 1917

On 3 February 1917, President Wilson addressed Congress to announce that diplomatic relations with Germany were severed. In a Special Session of Congress held on 2 April 1917, President Wilson delivered this 'War Message.' Four days later, Congress overwhelmingly passed the War Resolution which brought the United States into the Great War.

Gentlemen of the Congress:

I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because there are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and made immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making.

On the 3d of February last I officially laid before you the extraordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that on and after the 1st day of February it was its purpose to put aside all restraints of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink every vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain and Ireland or the western coasts of Europe or any of the ports controlled by the enemies of Germany within the Mediterranean. That had seemed to be the object of the German submarine warfare earlier in the war, but since April of last year the Imperial Government had somewhat restrained the commanders of its undersea craft in conformity with its promise then given to us that passenger boats should not be sunk and that due warning would be given to all other vessels which its submarines might seek to destroy, when no resistance was offered or escape attempted, and care taken that their crews were given at least a fair chance to save their lives in their open boats. The precautions taken were meagre and haphazard enough, as was proved in distressing instance after instance in the progress of the cruel and unmanly business, but a certain degree of restraint was observed The new policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on board, the vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents. Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with safe-conduct through the proscribed areas by the German Government itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle.

I was for a little while unable to believe that such things would in fact be done by any government that had hitherto subscribed to the humane practices of civilized nations. International law had its origin in the at tempt to set up some law which would be respected and observed upon the seas, where no nation had right of dominion and where lay the free highways of the world. By painful stage after stage has that law been built up, with meagre enough results, indeed, after all was accomplished that could be accomplished, but always with a clear view, at least, of what the heart and conscience of mankind demanded. This minimum of right the German Government has swept aside under the plea of retaliation and necessity and because it had no weapons which it could use at sea except these which it is impossible to employ as it is employing them without throwing to the winds all scruples of humanity or of respect for the understandings that were supposed to underlie the intercourse of the world. I am not now thinking of the loss of property involved, immense and serious as that is, but only of the wanton and wholesale destruction of the lives of noncombatants, men, women, and children, engaged in pursuits which have always, even in the darkest periods of modern history, been deemed innocent and legitimate. Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people can not be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind.

It is a war against all nations. American ships have been sunk, American lives taken, in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to learn of, but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same way. There has been no discrimination. The challenge is to all mankind. Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it. The choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of counsel and a temperateness of judgment befitting our character and our motives as a nation. We must put excited feeling away. Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of human right, of which we are only a single champion.

When I addressed the Congress on the 26th of February last, I thought that it would suffice to assert our neutral rights with arms, our right to use the seas against unlawful interference, our right to keep our people safe against unlawful violence. But armed neutrality, it now appears, is impracticable. Because submarines are in effect outlaws when used as the German submarines have been used against merchant shipping, it is impossible to defend ships against their attacks as the law of nations has assumed that merchantmen would defend themselves against privateers or cruisers, visible craft giving chase upon the open sea. It is common prudence in such circumstances, grim necessity indeed, to endeavour to destroy them before they have shown their own intention. They must be dealt with upon sight, if dealt with at all. The German Government denies the right of neutrals to use arms at all within the areas of the sea which it has proscribed, even in the defense of rights which no modern publicist has ever before questioned their right to defend. The intimation is conveyed that the armed guards which we have placed on our merchant ships will be treated as beyond the pale of law and subject to be dealt with as pirates would be. Armed neutrality is ineffectual enough at best; in such circumstances and in the face of such pretensions it is worse than ineffectual; it is likely only to produce what it was meant to prevent; it is practically certain to draw us into the war without either the rights or the effectiveness of belligerents. There is one choice we can not make, we are incapable of making: we will not choose the path of submission and suffer the most sacred rights of our nation and our people to be ignored or violated. The wrongs against which we now array ourselves are no common wrongs; they cut to the very roots of human life.

With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States; that it formally accept the status of belligerent which has thus been thrust upon it, and that it take immediate steps not only to put the country in a more thorough state of defense but also to exert all its power and employ all its resources to bring the Government of the German Empire to terms and end the war.

What this will involve is clear. It will involve the utmost practicable cooperation in counsel and action with the governments now at war with Germany, and, as incident to that, the extension to those governments of the most liberal financial credits, in order that our resources may so far as possible be added to theirs. It will involve the organization and mobilization of all the material resources of the country to supply the materials of war and serve the incidental needs of the nation in the most abundant and yet the most economical and efficient way possible. It will involve the immediate full equipment of the Navy in all respects but particularly in supplying it with the best means of dealing with the enemy's submarines. It will involve the immediate addition to the armed forces of the United States already provided for by law in case of war at least 500,000 men, who should, in my opinion, be chosen upon the principle of universal liability to service, and also the authorization of subsequent additional increments of equal force so soon as they may be needed and can be handled in training. It will involve also, of course, the granting of adequate credits to the Government, sustained, I hope, so far as they can equitably be sustained by the present generation, by well conceived taxation....

While we do these things, these deeply momentous things, let us be very clear, and make very clear to all the world what our motives and our objects are. My own thought has not been driven from its habitual and normal course by the unhappy events of the last two months, and I do not believe that the thought of the nation has been altered or clouded by them I have exactly the same things in mind now that I had in mind when I addressed the Senate on the 22d of January last; the same that I had in mind when I addressed the Congress on the 3d of February and on the 26th of February. Our object now, as then, is to vindicate the principles of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish and autocratic power and to set up amongst the really free and self-governed peoples of the world such a concert of purpose and of action as will henceforth ensure the observance of those principles. Neutrality is no longer feasible or desirable where the peace of the world is involved and the freedom of its peoples, and the menace to that peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will, not by the will of their people. We have seen the last of neutrality in such circumstances. We are at the beginning of an age in which it will be insisted that the same standards of conduct and of responsibility for wrong done shall be observed among nations and their governments that are observed among the individual citizens of civilized states.

We have no quarrel with the German people. We have no feeling towards them but one of sympathy and friendship. It was not upon their impulse that their Government acted in entering this war. It was not with their previous knowledge or approval. It was a war determined upon as wars used to be determined upon in the old, unhappy days when peoples were nowhere consulted by their rulers and wars were provoked and waged in the interest of dynasties or of little groups of ambitious men who were accustomed to use their fellow men as pawns and tools. Self-governed nations do not fill their neighbour states with spies or set the course of intrigue to bring about some critical posture of affairs which will give them an opportunity to strike and make conquest. Such designs can be successfully worked out only under cover and where no one has the right to ask questions. Cunningly contrived plans of deception or aggression, carried, it may be, from generation to generation, can be worked out and kept from the light only within the privacy of courts or behind the carefully guarded confidences of a narrow and privileged class. They are happily impossible where public opinion commands and insists upon full information concerning all the nation's affairs.

A steadfast concert for peace can never be maintained except by a partnership of democratic nations. No autocratic government could be trusted to keep faith within it or observe its covenants. It must be a league of honour, a partnership of opinion. Intrigue would eat its vitals away; the plottings of inner circles who could plan what they would and render account to no one would be a corruption seated at its very heart. Only free peoples can hold their purpose and their honour steady to a common end and prefer the interests of mankind to any narrow interest of their own.

Does not every American feel that assurance has been added to our hope for the future peace of the world by the wonderful and heartening things that have been happening within the last few weeks in Russia? Russia was known by those who knew it best to have been always in fact democratic at heart, in all the vital habits of her thought, in all the intimate relationships of her people that spoke their natural instinct, their habitual attitude towards life. The autocracy that crowned the summit of her political structure, long as it had stood and terrible as was the reality of its power, was not in fact Russian in origin, character, or purpose; and now it has been shaken off and the great, generous Russian people have been added in all their naive majesty and might to the forces that are fighting for freedom in the world, for justice, and for peace. Here is a fit partner for a league of honour.

One of the things that has served to convince us that the Prussian autocracy was not and could never be our friend is that from the very outset of the present war it has filled our unsuspecting communities and even our offices of government with spies and set criminal intrigues everywhere afoot against our national unity of counsel, our peace within and without our industries and our commerce. Indeed it is now evident that its spies were here even before the war began; and it is unhappily not a matter of conjecture but a fact proved in our courts of justice that the intrigues which have more than once come perilously near to disturbing the peace and dislocating the industries of the country have been carried on at the instigation, with the support, and even under the personal direction of official agents of the Imperial Government accredited to the Government of the United States. Even in checking these things and trying to extirpate them we have sought to put the most generous interpretation possible upon them because we knew that their source lay, not in any hostile feeling or purpose of the German people towards us (who were, no doubt, as ignorant of them as we ourselves were), but only in the selfish designs of a Government that did what it pleased and told its people nothing. But they have played their part in serving to convince us at last that that Government entertains no real friendship for us and means to act against our peace and security at its convenience. That it means to stir up enemies against us at our very doors the intercepted [<a href="zimmerman.html">Zimmermann</a>] note to the German Minister at Mexico City is eloquent evidence.

We are accepting this challenge of hostile purpose because we know that in such a government, following such methods, we can never have a friend; and that in the presence of its organized power, always lying in wait to accomplish we know not what purpose, there can be no assured security for the democratic governments of the world. We are now about to accept gage of battle with this natural foe to liberty and shall, if necessary, spend the whole force of the nation to check and nullify its pretensions and its power. We are glad, now that we see the facts with no veil of false pretence about them, to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included: for the rights of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them.

Just because we fight without rancour and without selfish object, seeking nothing for ourselves but what we shall wish to share with all free peoples, we shall, I feel confident, conduct our operations as belligerents without passion and ourselves observe with proud punctilio the principles of right and of fair play we profess to be fighting for.

I have said nothing of the governments allied with the Imperial Government of Germany because they have not made war upon us or challenged us to defend our right and our honour. The Austro-Hungarian Government has, indeed, avowed its unqualified endorsement and acceptance of the reckless and lawless submarine warfare adopted now without disguise by the Imperial German Government, and it has therefore not been possible for this Government to receive Count Tarnowski, the Ambassador recently accredited to this Government by the Imperial and Royal Government of Austria-Hungary; but that Government has not actually engaged in warfare against citizens of the United States on the seas, and I take the liberty, for the present at least, of postponing a discussion of our relations with the authorities at Vienna. We enter this war only where we are clearly forced into it because there are no other means of defending our rights.

It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves as belligerents in a high spirit of right and fairness because we act without animus, not in enmity towards a people or with the desire to bring any injury or disadvantage upon them, but only in armed opposition to an irresponsible government which has thrown aside all considerations of humanity and of right and is running amuck. We are, let me say again, the sincere friends of the German people, and shall desire nothing so much as the early reestablishment of intimate relations of mutual advantage between us -- however hard it may be for them, for the time being, to believe that this is spoken from our hearts. We have borne with their present government through all these bitter months because of that friendship -- exercising a patience and forbearance which would otherwise have been impossible. We shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in our daily attitude and actions towards the millions of men and women of German birth and native sympathy, who live amongst us and share our life, and we shall be proud to prove it towards all who are in fact loyal to their neighbours and to the Government in the hour of test. They are, most of them, as true and loyal Americans as if they had never known any other fealty or allegiance. They will be prompt to stand with us in rebuking and restraining the few who may be of a different mind and purpose. If there should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with with a firm hand of stern repression; but, if it lifts its head at all, it will lift it only here and there and without countenance except from a lawless and malignant few.

It is a distressing and oppressive duty, gentlemen of the Congress, which I have performed in thus addressing you. There are, it may be, many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts -- for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other.

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson's_War_Message_to_Congress
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Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on the Prospect of War with the U.S., April 1917

Reproduced below is the text of German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg's response to news that U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was to appear before the U.S. Congress on 2 April 1917 to seek authorisation for a declaration of war with Germany.

In his response von Bethmann-Hollweg reiterated the German view that war with America was avoidable and that the former's decision to renew a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare was only taken in response to Britain's continued "illegal and indefensible" naval blockade of Germany.

He concluded by stating that while Germany regretted the possibility of war with the U.S., it would yet overcome the setback
.

German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg on the Prospect of War with the U.S., April 1917

The directors of the American Nation have been convened by President Wilson for an extraordinary session of Congress in order to decide the question of war or peace between the American and German Nations.

Germany never had the slightest intention of attacking the United States of America, and does not have such intention now. It never desired war against the United States of America and does not desire it today.

How did these things develop? More than once we told the United States that we made unrestricted use of the submarine weapon, expecting that England could be made to observe, in her policy of blockade, the laws of humanity and of international agreements

This blockade policy, this I expressly recall, has been called illegal and indefensible by President Wilson and Secretary of State Lansing.

Our expectations, which we maintained during eight months, have been disappointed completely. England not only did not give up her illegal and indefensible policy of blockade, but uninterruptedly intensified it.

England, together with her allies, arrogantly rejected the peace offers made by us and our allies and proclaimed her war aims, which aim at our annihilation and that of our allies.

Then we took unrestricted submarine warfare into our hands; then we had to for our defence.

If the American Nation considers this a cause for which to declare war against the German Nation with which it has lived in peace for more than 100 years, if this action warrants an increase of bloodshed, we shall not have to bear the responsibility for it.

The German Nation, which feels neither hatred nor hostility, against the United States of America, shall also bear and overcome this.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_bethmann.htm
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British Reply to Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg's Note on the Prospect of War with the U.S., April 1917

Reproduced below is the text of the British government's response - authored by Lord Robert Cecil - to an earlier note by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg.

In this von Bethmann-Hollweg regretted the possibility of war with the U.S. but stated that if such a war was occasioned by Germany's renewal of a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Britain should be assigned responsibility.

The German Chancellor argued that Germany's submarine policy was brought about only as a reluctant reaction to Britain's continued implementation of a naval blockade of Germany, which he characterised as "illegal and indefensible".

In reply the British government dismissed Germany's "hypocritical" and "false" argument, citing speeches by Bethmann-Hollweg himself and the former German Naval Minister Alfred von Tirpitz in which both suggested that the u-boat policy would be implemented as soon as there were sufficient numbers of submarines available
.

British Government Response (by Lord Robert Cecil) to Bethmann-Hollweg's Note of April 1917
The German Chancellor claims that Germany in the past renounced the unrestricted use of her submarine weapon in the expectation that Great Britain could be made to observe in her blockade policy the laws of humanity and international agreements.

It is difficult to say whether this statement is the more remarkable for its hypocrisy or for its falseness.

It would hardly seem that Germany is in a position to speak of humanity or international agreements, since she began this war by deliberately violating the international agreement guaranteeing the neutrality of Belgium, and has continued it by violating all the dictates of humanity.

Has the Chancellor forgotten that the German forces have been guilty of excesses in Belgium, unparalleled in history, culminating in the attempted enslavement of a dauntless people, of poisoning wells, of bombarding open towns, torpedoing hospital ships and sinking other vessels with total disregard for the safety of non-combatants on board, with the result that many hundreds of innocent victims, including both women and children, have lost their lives?

The latest manifestation of this policy is to be seen in the devastation and deportations carried out by the Germans in their forced retreat on the Western front.

The Chancellor states that it is because the Allies have not abandoned their blockade and have refused the so-called peace offer of Germany that unrestricted submarine warfare is now decided on. As to this I will do no more than quote what the Chancellor himself said in the Reichstag, in announcing the adoption of unrestricted submarine war.

He said that as soon as he himself, in agreement with the supreme army command, reached the conviction that ruthless U-boat warfare would bring Germany nearer to a victorious peace, then the U-boat warfare would be started. He continued:

This moment has now arrived. Last autumn the time was not ripe, but today the moment has come when, with the greatest prospect of success, we can undertake this enterprise.

We must not wait any longer. Where has there been a change? In the first place, the most important fact of all is that the number of our submarines has been very considerably increased as compared with last spring, and thereby a firm basis has been created for success
.

Does not this prove conclusively that it was not any scruple or any respect for international law or neutral rights that prevented unrestricted warfare from being adopted earlier, but merely a lack of means to carry it out?

I think it may be useful once again to point out that the illegal and inhuman attack on shipping by the Germans cannot be justified as a reprisal for the action of Great Britain in attempting to cut off from Germany all imports.

The submarine campaign was clearly contemplated as far back as December 1914, when Admiral von Tirpitz gave an indication to an American correspondent in Berlin of the projected plan.

As for the plea that the Allies are aiming at the annihilation of Germany and her allies and that ruthless warfare is, therefore, justified, it is sufficient in order to refute this to quote the following passage from the Allies' reply of January 10, 1917, to President Wilson's note:

There is no need to say that if the Allies desire to liberate Europe from the brutal covetousness of Prussian militarism, the extermination and political disappearance of the German people have never, as has been pretended, formed a part of their design.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923
,
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usawar_cecil.htm
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President Woodrow Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany on 2 April 1917

Ingekleurde foto... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Woodrow_Wilson_War_Declaration_Speech_2_April_1917.jpg
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2 April 1918 - Planned Zeebrugge Raid

The Royal Navy plans to raid the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, sinking obsolete ships in the canal entrance to prevent German vessels from leaving port. The wind direction changes at the last moment, making it impossible to lay a smokescreen to cover the ships. The operation is cancelled. A second, more successful attempt is made on 23 April.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/2-april-1918/
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Jørgen Jensen (VC)

Jørgen Christian Jensen VC (15 January 1891–31 May 1922 (aged 31)) was a Danish-born Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Jensen was born in Løgstør, Denmark, the third of four children. He emigrated to Australia in March 1909 when he was 18, after making his way to Britain by working at sea. He became a British subject on 7 September 1914, and served in the Australian Military Forces between 1915 and 1918.

When he was 26 years old and a private in the 50th Battalion (S.A.), Australian Imperial Force during the First World War, the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 2 April 1917 at Noreuil, France, Private Jensen, with five comrades, attacked a barricade behind which were about 45 of the enemy and a machine-gun. One of the party shot the gunner and Private Jensen rushed the post and threw in a bomb. Then, with a bomb in each hand, he threatened the rest and made them surrender. He sent one of his prisoners to another group of the enemy, ordering them to surrender, which they did, but our troops began firing on them, where-upon Private Jensen, regardless of danger stood on the barricade waving his helmet, and the firing stopped. He then sent his prisoners back to our lines.

(...) He died in Adelaide in 1922 and is buried in the AIF section of the West Terrace Cemetery. His body was carried on a horse-drawn gun carriage down Sturt Street to the cemetery.

His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Australian War Memorial.

In Løgstør, Denmark, there is a statue erected in his memory in a park.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B8rgen_Jensen_(VC)
De recommendation: http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/jensen-vc.pdf
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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Jeannette Rankin

On April 2, 1917, Jeannette Rankin, from Montana, became the first woman to take a seat in the US Congress. Four days later, she voted against American entry into World War I. During her term, she also began the debate on the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, the women's suffrage amendment that gave women the vote and became the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution. Rankin was not reelected, but ran again and was elected in 1939. She voted against American entry into World War II after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor..

http://womenshistory.about.com/b/2005/04/02/april-2-1917.htm

Apr 2, 1917: Jeannette Rankin assumes office

Jeannette Pickering Rankin, the first woman ever elected to Congress, takes her seat in the U.S. Capitol as a representative from Montana.

Born on a ranch near Missoula, Montana Territory, in 1880, Rankin was a social worker in the states of Montana and Washington before joining the women's suffrage movement in 1910. Working with various suffrage groups, she campaigned for the women's vote on a national level and in 1914 was instrumental in the passage of suffrage legislation in Montana. Two years later, she successfully ran for Congress in Montana on a progressive Republican platform calling for total women's suffrage, legislation protecting children, and U.S. neutrality in the European war. Following her election as a representative, Rankin's entrance into Congress was delayed for a month as congressmen discussed whether a woman should be admitted into the House of Representatives.

Finally, on April 2, 1917, she was introduced in Congress as its first female member. The same day, President Woodrow Wilson addressed a joint session of Congress and urged a declaration of war against Germany. On April 4, the Senate voted for war by a wide majority, and on April 6 the vote went to the House. Citing public opinion in Montana and her own pacifist beliefs, Jeannette Rankin was one of only 50 representatives who voted against the American declaration of war. For the remainder of her first term in Congress, she sponsored legislation to aid women and children, and advocated the passage of a federal suffrage amendment.

In 1918, Rankin unsuccessfully ran for a Senate seat, and in 1919 she left Congress to become an important figure in a number of suffrage and pacifist organizations. In 1940, with the U.S. entrance into another world war imminent, she was again elected as a pacifist representative from Montana and, after assuming office, argued vehemently against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's war preparations. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, and the next day, at Roosevelt's urging, Congress passed a formal declaration of war against Japan. Representative Rankin cast the sole dissenting vote. This action created a furor and Rankin declined to seek reelection. After leaving office in 1943, Rankin continued to be an important spokesperson for pacifism and social reform. In 1967, she organized the Jeannette Rankin Brigade, an organization that staged a number of highly publicized protests against the Vietnam War. She died in 1973 at the age of 93.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jeannette-rankin-assumes-office
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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This postcard was sent by J. Galt to Miss Jeanie Logan, Mid Auchenmade, Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland on the 2nd April 1917

This postcard was sent by J. Galt to Miss Jeanie Logan, Mid Auchenmade, Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland on the 2nd April 1917 and it reads as follows:

“Dear Jeanie, I think I mentioned to you, we have now transferred our quarters to the Royal Barracks Dublin. That’s the Black Watch drawn up on the square, not us. That would be before the outbreak of hostilities but the buildings are just the same – somber and prison like. Trust you are all well, will write soon, J. Galt.”

I had thought that it would be relatively easy to identify J. Galt through the online army records at the English National Archives, Kew Gardens but the surname is not as unusal as I believed. There are at least 107 J. Galt’s serving in the British Army during this period of World War I – so whether he survived and returned to Scotland or became a casualty is not know. Another factor which hampers this search is the fact that one has to pay to view the army records at Kew and also to view Scottish census records. Thankfully the National Archives of Ireland do not charge for access to their excellent 1911 census project.

I did find out, however, that Mr Galt did not go on to marry Jeanie Logan. The 29 year old married James Craig, a farmer, on the 2nd of June 1921.

The photograph was taken by the firm of Lafayette – a company which still exists in Dublin today and the postcard was printed by the company of Bourke’s Stationers, Parkgate Street, Dublin which was located very near to the barracks.

The Royal Barracks was renamed Collins Barracks, when handed over to the Irish Free State, in 1922. It now houses the National Museum of Ireland where I work! I have to agree with Mr. Galt that some of the surrounding buildings are still somber and prison like though the museum itself is great.

Te bekijken op http://jacolette.wordpress.com/2009/12/20/postcard-from-royal-barracks-dublin-april-1917/
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 01 Apr 2011 23:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Bryn Lewis

Major Brinley 'Bryn' Lewis (4 January 1891 – 2 April 1917) was a Welsh international rugby union wing who played club rugby for Newport and Cambridge University. He is one of twelve Welsh internationals to have died in active duty during World War I.

(...) During the First World War, Lewis was a Major in 'B Battery' of the 122nd Brigade of the 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division, and was mentioned in Despatches.

Lewis was killed in action at Ypres on 2 April 1917, after the enemy shelled the rear of B Battery, hitting the mess where Lewis was situated, killing him instantly. He is buried at Ferme-Oliver Cemetery.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bryn_Lewis
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Schlacht bei Arras (2. April bis 20. Mai 1917)

Nach der verlustreichen und erfolglosen Somme-Offensive 1916 strebte der neue französische Generalissimus Georges Robert Nivelle (1858-1924) eine Änderung der Strategie an: Statt wie sein Vorgänger Joseph Joffre durch hohen Einsatz an Menschen und Material auf eine Zermürbung der Mittelmächte zu setzen, wollte er mit einem gezielten Doppelschlag bei zahlenmäßiger Überlegenheit die deutschen Linie an der Westfront durchbrechen. Im März 1917 hatten sich die Deutschen in Erwartung einer Großoffensive der Entente auf die "Siegfriedstellung" zurückgezogen und ihre Verteidigungsmöglichkeiten somit deutlich verbessert. Dennoch zogen die Briten bei Arras 33 Divisionen mit 60 Tanks zusammen. Die britische Offensive begann mit einem mehrtägigen Trommelfeuer, um die vordersten deutschen Linien zu zerstören. Am 9. April 1917 griffen die britischen Verbände auf einer Breite von 25 Kilometern an. In den folgenden fünf Wochen gelang es ihnen mit starker Unterstützung ihrer Luftstreitkräfte, auf der Linie zwischen Lens und Fontaine die Deutschen einige Kilometer zurückzudrängen, ein entscheidender Durchbruch wurde jedoch nirgends erzielt. Auch die zeitgleiche französische Offensive wurde in der Doppelschlacht an der Aisne und in der Champagne aufgehalten und konnte ebenfalls keine größeren Erfolge erreichen. Damit war das strategische Ziel der Entente, einen entscheidenden Durchbruch zu erzielen, wieder einmal fehlgeschlagen.

http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/wk1/kriegsverlauf/arras/index.html
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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2 April 1918 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: IMPRESSIVE FÊTE SUPPORTS JERSEY’S RED CROSS EFFORT

St Helier’s Royal Hotel hosted a long-planned fundraising event on Friday 5 April. Organised by the Jersey Branch of the British Red Cross, the fête offered an impressive range of stalls, entertainment and refreshments as well as a display of the organisation’s wartime work in the island.

Young ladies wearing VAD uniforms greeted visitors on arrival, selling small mementoes of the occasion. Within the hotel’s lounge were a range of stalls offering all manner of goods. There were vegetables, plants and flowers to purchase, along with jams, ornamental and other useful items. The nearby smoking room had further stalls, including one served by Lady Vernon, the Bailiff’s wife, with all types of antiques including some rare old lace.

On the first floor was the ‘Hall of Mystery’, a well-attended curiosity attraction featuring Signoras Firenze and Sybil. Visitors could also enjoy two entertaining concerts given in the ballroom, and splendid buffet served with cups of tea. The centrepiece was a display of exhibition of items made locally by the organisation for use in military hospitals.

While successful, raising over £140 for the charity’s work, organisers were a little disappointed with final numbers.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/2-april-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 17:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

DICKMANN Chaim, abt 1882 - 2 April 1918

Grafsteen... http://www.flickr.com/photos/cam37/1453869185/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 17:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2 April 1918 - Pvt Harry Robert Williams, 6th Regt USMC.

Born at Hillsboro, Mountain County, Indiana on 1 April 1897, Harry was a barber in his civilian life. He enlisted into the US Marine Corps on 13 May 1917 and, after training at Parris Island, South Carolina, he was assigned to the 82nd Company of the 6th Regiment USMC (2nd Division). A participant in action near Verdun, he died of wounds received in action at the 2nd Divisional Field Hospital on 2 April 1918. An original interment in the American Cemetery at Thiaucourt (now known as ‘St Mihiel American Cemetery'), he still lies there in Plot B, Row 10, Grave 10.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/component/content/1771.html?task=view
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 17:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Socialistisch dagblad ‘Het Volk’ verschijnt voor het eerst

Op 2 april 1900 verschijnt het socialistische dagblad Het Volk voor het eerst.

Het populaire avondblad wordt gesticht op initiatief van politicus Pieter Jelle Troelstra, als partijblad van de Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiderspartij (SDAP). Troelstra wordt zelf hoofdredacteur van de krant. In 1903 wordt hij, na een ruzie, echter vervangen door journalist Pieter Lodewijk Tak.

De krant wordt vanaf 1929 uitgegeven door de Arbeiderspers. Na de Tweede Wereldoorlog wijzigt de naam van de krant in Het Vrije Volk en wordt de krant het partijdagblad van de PvdA.

https://vandaagindegeschiedenis.nl/2-april/
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 17:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

NOTE FROM CHICHERIN, COMMISSAR FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS TO
LOCKHART, BRITISH AGENT IN MOSCOW, ON BRITISH ACTION AT ARCHANGEL


2 April 1918 - Correspondance diplmatique, p. 8l

Dear Mr Lockhart,

In view of the alarming reports which are being spread on our northern coast and of the apprehensions regarding England's intentions as far as Archangel is concerned, we should be very much obliged to you for giving us some explanations about the situation in the above district, which would enable us to reassure our alarmed northern population and to dissipate its fears.

Yours truly, CHICHERIN

http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/foreign-relations/1918/April/2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WW1: Experiences of an English Soldier

This blog is made up of transcripts of Harry Lamin's letters from the first World War.

April 2/4/1918

32507/ 9York & Lancs
C Company
12 Platoon L.G.S.
I.E.F.

Dear Kate
I have just got your letter dated 24/ I also got the money alright. Postal orders are alright. I have also had a letter from Jack and one from Ethel. Ethel told me that Jack had sent Willie a shilling for his birthday, it will soon be Connie's now. The weather here is very cold we have had frost and snow and it has been raining now two days, but still we are alright, it is very quiet not like beening in France. I am always glad to get a letter from you I have not been able to write any letters lately, but if you don't get one you will know the reason so you can write a line every week. I am pleased they are all keeping in good health at home and that dad does not get any worse. I will try and write you a long letter next time I write. Could you send me a stick of shaving shop and a piece of washing soap next time you write.

With Best Love
Harry

April 2/4/1918

32507/ 9York & Lancs
C Company
12 Platoon L.G.S.
I.E.F.

Dear Jack
Just a line to let you know I am going on alright. I was pleased to get your letter and to hear that you both are keeping well. We have had some frost and snow out here, but it as been raining for two days. I have had a letter from home and they told me you had sent Willie a birthday present. Things are very quiet out here a bit different to being out in France. things seems to be a bit rough out there now, but I hope things will change. I will write again in a few days and let you know a bit more news.

With Best Love to you both
Harry

P.S. Could you send a few envelopes and writing paper

http://wwar1.blogspot.com/2008/03/2-letters-april-2nd-1918.html
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Gloucestershire Regiment - 2nd April 1918

Title: 1/4th Battalion War Diary Entry
Regiment: The Gloucestershire Regiment
Article: Battn. moves to BERTESINA. Five officers sent forward to reconnoitre reserve line in LUSIANA area.

http://www.glosters.org.uk/onthisday/275
Homepage: http://www.glosters.org.uk/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters between Sylvester and Eva, April 1919

Le Havre, France
2 April, 1919

Dearest Eva,

Here I am back in this place of fond memory. Just got in, at just about midnight, - only about eight hours later than planned. However, our dereliction from the original plan is easily explained. For at breakfast in our hotel in Chateau-Thierry this morning, I got talking with a young machine gun captain of the 3d Division, who had just arrived; he was on his way to a nearby place, but had in mind to look over some of the ground he had fought over last year before reporting to his station. He was Captain of Co. A, 9th Machine Gun Battalion, 3d Division, and as such, fought with his division on the Chateau Thierry sector last June and July. I couldn't resist the temptation to ask him to come with us in the car, and show us the points of interest in the battleground, as he could explain everything from the point of view of one who had been actually over it. He was glad to do so, and what an interesting morning gave us. In June he was posted just at the south end of the city, and he showed us the point there where he first came under fire himself, and another point, where the first of his men was killed, where he had his guns and so on. In July he was posted somewhat east of the city, and as we went along he gave us there the whole story of the important days of July 15-18, showing where different units were located, direction of infantry advance and of artillery fire, points where the Germans attacked with their infantry and covered with their artillery fire, points where the fighting was thickest and most interesting of all, the house where he maintained his own headquarters, and the locations of his machine gun nests. He seems a natural born soldier, and a good natural understanding of military tactics which made it all very interesting and illuminating for us. I feel very fortunate to have met him, and wouldn't have missed this morning for anything.

We took dinner again in Chateau-Thierry, took our machine gun captain out to his station and then made rapid time over the 200 mile journey we had ahead of us before we should arrive at Havre. It was a fine ride, a bit cold, but not too much so. The country is fairly level until one gets to Rouen, but it is not so level as to be monotonous. We passed thru two great forests of tall straight ash trees - so many of the trees seem that way here. I think it has been a surprise to all of us who come over here for the first time to find so much country and so much forest, when we have known that European countries were more thickly populated than our own. As for the forests, they are very carefully conserved, by government regulation, and not a tree is cut down but what one is planted in its place. The principle of conservation seems to be thoroughly imbued in the minds of the French people. As for the existence of so much open country, so much farm land, the explanation is that the towns are more numerous, I suppose, for there has got to be some explanation, when this country is more thickly populated than ours, and yet one sees just as much field and forest as in our own. Here also out in the country one sees scarcely any houses, the people apparently all living in the little towns and coming out to work the farms which they rent (or own - I doubt if many own them though). I haven't talked with any French people about it, but I assume that this condition is a relic of mediaeval days, when everyone held their land from the great feudal lords who owned them, and lived together in the little towns for the protection which their lord gave them. It surely is a different looking country from ours - one can border the towns as simply as anything; the houses don't become gradually farther apart as you go out into the country, as with us, but are just as close together everywhere and the borders of the town are absolutely abrupt on all sides; many of the older ones have walls about them. I think I spoke of the old walled city of Rocroi where I stopped on my leave trip.

We had supper in Rouen, and had tire trouble right outside, so were held up sometime there. We also had to beg some gasoline from a British lorry park, which we had some difficulty in finding. But we have finally arrived, and are putting up at the Hotel Continental, on the sea. Tomorrow morning we shall roll up impressively in our Cadillac to make Spalding's and Taylor's eyes stand out.

It's time to turn out the light so that John can sleep, also my story is done.

Goodnight and lots of love.

Sylvester.

Leuke site! http://www.cromwellbutlers.com/sbel0419.htm
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2011 20:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lt Burnard, Royal Flying Corps WW1 diary
OTD 1918. Airman on Western Front with 35 Squadron, then prisoner of war.

Tuesday, April 2nd [1918]: There interviewed by a German ex-Flying Corps Officer, a lawyer of Leipzig, who carried out a cross examination, but got no very vital information out of me. Gave me a cigar, and promised to have a message dropped the other side of the line for me; whether out of kindliness or to inspire confidence and so get more information I know not. He was very thoughtful and courteous. Gave me the choice of going to the camp or to the Hospital; chose the later, and he sent me there in a cart (Heard from Hanna afterwards that he arrived at the Camp at 6pm. the same evening). Hospital had been a factory – very crude. Put on a large room containing about 100 wounded, in all stages, our own and German about equally mixed. Two other English officers there, one a fellow named Ahern, of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers, of Youghal, Co. Cork, who knew Abby Perry slightly.
Getting wind up somewhat about people at home. Wondering how soon I should be reported missing, and how soon afterwards definite news about my being a prisoner of war would go through. Am afraid they must have had a least a fortnight of suspense at home. Am longing to get a letter off.
Treated awfully well by the French inhabitants of this part of the country, who frequently offered me bread, and called out expressions of sympathy from their doorsteps as I hobbled past. Forgot to say that after taking off my boot at Le Cateau (the big black field boots) I couldn’t get it on again next morning, so I had to wear a sort of sandal, cut from an old boot and tied on with string; and I carried the boot in my hand.
Met an ex-clerk of John Knights at the hospital whose name I forget. He had lost his right arm and had hopes of getting back to England. Gave him appropriate messages for JKs.

https://raburnard.uk/2-april-1918/
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2012 21:00    Onderwerp: April 2, 1917: When America Joined the World Reageer met quote

2 april 1917

America set aside its isolationist heritage and, for better or worse, became a full-fledged member of the international oecumene. It was on April 2, 1917, that President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress for a formal declaration of war against Germany. The sympathies of most Americans long lay with Britain and the Allies. Two and a half years after the first shots were fired, few harbored any illusions that American neutrality was anything but naïve wishful thinking. By the first week of April, a virtual state of war had existed between the United States and Germany for at least a month.

Two years into the Great War, Germany was being strangled by an unrelenting blockade imposed by Britain. Unwilling to defy the British blockade, American trade with Germany and the Central Powers was practically nonexistent. The situation was the reverse when it came to Britain. From 1914 to 1916, American exports to the United Kingdom nearly quadrupled.

It was this trans-Atlantic lifeline that Germany sought to bring to an end when it commenced unrestricted submarine warfare. In the previous five months, German submarines or saboteurs were responsible for destroying 15 American merchant vessels, resulting in 70 casualties. German diplomatic ineptitude inflamed an already volatile situation in late February, when Britain intercepted a telegram from the German Foreign Secretary proposing that Mexico should join in an offensive alliance against the United States in the event the Americans should declare war on Germany.

March of 1917 was perhaps the month that determined the fate of twentieth century Weltpolitik. It was the month when America accepted the inevitability of joining the European fray. The biggest news of all came mid-month, when the Russian Revolution swept the czar from power. With the end of the autocratic Romanov dynasty, the Great War seemed to have morphed into an ideological conflict of representative democracies against medieval repression. Americans applauded the events in far away St. Petersburg, unconcerned that the turmoil there could evolve into something even more repressive than what it had replaced.

In England, news of America’s entry into the war was met with jubilation. The Stars and Stripes flew next to the Union Jack atop the Palace of Westminster. In Berlin, the mood was far gloomier. 300,000 workers were on strike. The Kaiser was becoming more and more impotent as Germany assumed the mantra of a military dictatorship under generals Ludendorff and Hindenburg. That process intensified with America’s entry into the war, bringing a new sense of urgency bordering on panic to Germany’s military leaders.

That’s not to say Germany was impotent this late in the war. Far from it. Germany’s submarine warfare increased in its devastation. U-boat sinkings reached nearly a million tons in the two months following America’s declaration of war. Germany still possessed more military muscle than France, which was teetering on the brink of collapse following a disastrous offensive the second half of April. In the course of two weeks, 250,000 French soldiers were killed or wounded for just 500 yards of real estate. The real question now was whether America’s military impact might have come too late to prevent a French and Italian surrender. That was surely in General Ludendorff’s thoughts as he initiated a series of offensives late in 1917 and early 1918.

Students of history have long debated what would have happened had Germany not provoked America’s entry into the war with its unrestricted submarine warfare. Would the United States have still been pulled into the war by other means? Assuming a negative answer to that question, would Germany have managed to outlast its continental enemies? Or would the shortages of food and materiel force a German surrender even without the presence of American doughboys? I have my doubts about that. I suspect Germany would have outlasted France and Italy. If those countries left the battlefield, I suspect London would have been forced to reach a settlement recognizing German dominance on the continent in return for British control of the seas.

Ultimately, a settlement of that sort would have proved temporary. Nationalism in the Balkans and the Mideast could not be permanently stifled. Lenin, and Stalin after him, would have still ruled Russia. Once Stalin consolidated his hold on power, surely he would have looked at the nationalistic turmoil on Russia’s western border as an opportunity for Russian imperial ambitions. Further east, England could not prevent the rise of Gandhi in India, and its colonies in Africa still would have demanded their independence within one or two generations.

A stalemate peace in late 1917 or 1918 would have left unresolved too many sources of instability to be very long lasting. But the wars that would have inevitably commenced by mid-century would have looked a lot different than the Götterdämerung of 1939-1945. While there probably would have been a Stalin, there would not have been a Hitler, at least not a German one. France might be a different story. I can easily imagine a revanchist France looking for a new Napoleon, a French version of Hitler, perhaps, complete with Jewish or North African scapegoats on whom to lay blame for the disaster of 1917. As for Italy, there may have been a Mussolini, but he may have sought a benefactor and protector in Paris instead of Berlin.

Ultimately, I think America’s entry into the World War I was a short-term benefit to democratic governance in the world. Its long-term impact, I fear, may have been at least as negative as it was positive. Without America’s direct involvement, there would have been no Versailles Treaty. Without Versailles, there would have been no Hitler. No Hitler, no Holocaust. No Hitler, no German-Japanese alliance, or at least none that would have been so brutally threatening to civilized society. No German-Japanese alliance, no Hiroshima or Nagasaki. No Cold War? No Korea or Vietnam?

I am far too jaded to suggest the world would have avoided all the horrors of the 20th century if only America had managed to stay out of the First World War. There surely would have been enough residual hatred and resentment to bring about plenty of bloodshed within a generation or two. Still, I think the 20th century would have developed far differently than it actually did. Would the carnage of the mid-20th century have been as intense? What of American isolationism? Just how long could America pretend to live apart from affairs on the opposite side of the globe? I don’t know the answers to these questions. There probably isn’t much value in even asking them. But it is certainly an interesting exercise to ponder them.

Bron: http://open.salon.com/blog/procopius/2012/04/02/april_2_1917_when_america_joined_the_world
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2019 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Muziek bij Goethe's Faust

Op 2 april 1918 ging Diepenbrocks Muziek bij Goethe’s Faust in het Amsterdamse Paleis voor Volksvlijt in première. Het was zijn vierde compositie voor het theater en de derde keer dat Diepenbrock in opdracht werkte van regisseur Willem Royaards (1867-1929) en zijn gezelschap, de N.V. Het Tooneel. Omdat Diepenbrock het verzoek om samenwerking pas eind februari van Royaards had gekregen, was haast geboden. De elfdelige partituur is binnen een maand gecomponeerd en werd voltooid op 26 maart, net op tijd voor de eerste repetities. Evenals bij zijn andere werken voor het theater, diende Diepenbrock de begeleiding in te richten voor een orkest van maximaal dertig musici. (...)

Lees verder op https://www.diepenbrock-catalogus.nl/work/149;jsessionid=4B00DCE6FFB1A573CDF0DAF688BCF30F?r=421#tab-description
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2019 8:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Remebering Albert Ernest Crocker of Penpol...

... who died serving with the 7th Battalion, Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry on 2 April 1918. He has no known grave and his name is listed on the Pozieres Memorial.

Reading the 7th Battalion War Diary for March to April 1918, many men of the 7th Battalion were listed as wounded, killed in action or missing after the March 1918 German Spring Offensive.

Albert was listed in Soldiers Died in The Great War (SDGW) as born at Paul (near Penzance?) lived St. Feock and Residence at Penpol. He enlisted in Perranwell.

Lees verder op https://devoranwarmemorial.wordpress.com/2018/04/02/remembering-albert-ernest-crocker-penpol-devoran-ww1-2-april-1918/
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-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2019 8:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot - 58th Field Ambulance, R.A.M.C.

2 April 1918; Tuesday - Up at about 7.30. Paraded at 10 o’clock and marched to a camp near to Baileul. Glorious day. Walked into Meteren at night and had some eggs at Jan’s. Beautiful afternoon and pleasant walk. Rained last thing.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/2018/04/02/2-april-1918-tuesday/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2019 8:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stadtarchiv Düsseldorf, „Tagebuch Willy Spatz“ 1914-1919

Willy Spatz (1861-1931) war Professor an der Kunstakademie Düsseldorf.

Dienstag, den 2. April. Die schweren Kämpfe im Westen dauern an, allerdings augenblicklich nicht mehr mit der Stärke wie vor einer Woche. Die Engländer berichten: „In den letzten Tagen sind wenig neue Divisionen in den Kampf geworfen worden, was vermuten läßt, daß der Feind einen zweiten größeren Angriff vorbereitet, der jeden Augenblick losgehen kann. Unsere Linie hat sich zurückgezogen. Nirgends haben die Deutschen einen Keil hineintreiben können, was doch der eigentliche Zweck des Angriffs war. Jetzt stehen wir ruhiger u. unerschütterter ihnen gegenüber wie früher. Nach dem Stoß gegen die Front von 50 Meilen muß jetzt der Feind seinen ganzen Durchbruchsplan als vereitelt ansehen. Er muß jetzt versuchen, unsere Linien in anderer Richtung zu durchbrechen.

Das Scheitern des Angriffs bei Arras ist von großer Bedeutung, weil der Feind dadurch sehr in seinem Plan gestört worden ist.“ – Wie ein Blick auf die Karte ergibt, näheren wir uns immer mehr u. mehr dem wichtigen Platz Amiens. Paris wird weiter beschoßen durch die rätselhafte Kanone, die 120 Kilometer weit trägt und über die die widersprechendsten Einzelheiten erzählt werden. Wir leben in höchst aufregenden Tagen! – Von Else kam gestern eine Karte an vom 29.3.18; sie schreibt: „Meine Lieben! Wir hatten einen herrlich schönen Karfreitag. Heute morgen war ich mit Frau Dr. Heller in der Kirche. Die Predigt u. der Vortrag des Pfarrers setzten mich in angenehmes Erstaunen. Leider ist die Kirche nicht geheizt, so daß man jämmerlich friert. Herzliche Grüße Else.“ – Die Rückseite der Karte trägt folgenden richtigen Spruch: „Das Leben ist ein Sauerkraut, Wohl dem, der es gesund verdaut.“ – Meine l. Frau begab sich heute Morgen zu dem Seelenamt von Frau Rennebom, das um 8 ¼ Uhr stattfindet; ich werde zur Beisetzung um 2 Uhr zum Nordfriedhof gehen mit ihr, und gemeinsam auch der lieben Mutter Grab besuchen.

https://archivewk1.hypotheses.org/32689
_________________

"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 02 Apr 2019 8:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Halberstadt CL.II

Begin 1917 werd door IDFlieg een specificatie uitgebracht voor een nieuw type, CL. Dit type was bedoeld om verkenners te escorteren en als aanvalsvliegtuig voor grondsteun.
Halberstadt ontwikkelde een toestel, gebaseerd op de weinig succesvolle Halberstadt D.IV jager. Het was een geheel houten, eenmotorige tweedekker, voorzien van een mitrailleur voor de waarnemer/schutter. De Cl.II werd in mei 1917 goedgekeurd en ging in productie.
Halberstadt bouwde zo'n 700 toestellen, alvorens op de opvolger, de CL.IV, werd overgeschakeld. BFW, Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke, bouwde ook nog eens 200 stuks.

De eerste Cl.II, registratie 6315/17 landde op 31 december 1917 bij Sas van Gent. Het werd als H414 in dienst genomen.
Op 2 april 1918 landde een twee toestel, registratie 14252/17 bij Aardenburg. Dit toestel werd als H415 in gebruik genomen.

Foto op https://kw.jonkerweb.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=436:halberstadt-clii&catid=56&lang=nl&showall=1&Itemid=494
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"A grand canyon has opened up in our world, the fissure, the crack, grows wider every day. Neither on each side can hear a word that the other shrieks and nor do they want to."
-Stephen Fry on political correctness.
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