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Yvonne
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2006 4:54    Onderwerp: 23 Maart Reageer met quote

March 23

1918 Paris hit by shells from new German gun

At 7:20 in the morning on March 23, 1918, an explosion in the Place de la Republique in Paris announces the first attack of a new German gun.

The Pariskanone, or Paris gun, as it came to be known, was manufactured by Krupps; it was 210mm, with a 118-foot-long barrel, which could fire a shell the impressive distance of some 130,000 feet, or 25 miles, into the air. Three of them fired on Paris that day from a gun site at Crépy-en-Laonnaise, 74 miles away.

The gun sent Paris, a city that had withstood all earlier attempts at its destruction, including scattered bombings, reeling. At first, the Paris Defense Service assumed the city was being bombed, but soon they determined that it was actually being hit by artillery fire, a heretofore unimagined situation. By the end of the day, the shelling had killed 16 people and wounded 29 more. It would continue throughout the German offensive of that year in four separate phases between March 23 and August 9, 1918, inflicting a total of somewhere under 260 Parisian casualties. This low total was due to the fact that the residents of Paris learned to avoid gathering in large groups during shellings, limiting the number of those killed and wounded by the shells and diminishing the initially terrifying impact of the weapon.

Almost all information about the Pariskanone, one of the most sophisticated weapons to emerge out of World War I, disappeared after the war ended. Later, the Nazis tried without success to reproduce the gun from the few pictures and diagrams that remained. Copies were deployed in 1940 against Britain across the English Channel, but failed to cause any significant damage.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2006 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917 - USS New Mexico (BB 40) is launched as the first dreadnought with turboelectric drive.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2006 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 23 maart 1916 werd het Duits Lazarettschiff Tabora gezonken nabij Daressalam door het Brits Linieschip Vengeance en de Kruiser Challenger

Op 23 maart 1917 liep de Britse destroyer Laforey op een mijn nabij Cap Gris Nez.

Op 23 maart 1918 liepen de Duitse motorboten M36 en M40 op een mijn in de Noordzee.
De Britse destroyer Arno ging verloren in een aanvaring bij de Dardanellen.
De Italiaanse mijnenlegger Partenope werd getorpedeerd nabij Kap Bianco door UC67
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2006 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1919 Benito Mussolini breaks from Italian Socialists and establishes the Fascist Party

Births
1 1885 Otto SchmidtGermany
2 1888 Gustave DaladierFrance
3 1892 Oren RoseUSA
4 1896 Ernest OwenEngland
5 1896 William ReedEngland

Deaths
1 1918 Hans von HäblerGermany
2 1942 Jan OlieslagersBelgium
3 1959 Ernest SalterCanada

Claims
1 1917 Edmond ThieffryBelgium #2
2 1917 Georg WeinerGermany #1
3 1918 Henry ForrestAustralia #4
4 1918 Frederick ArmstrongCanada #12
5 1918 Walter BealesEngland #2 #3 #4
6 1918 Philip BurgeEngland #1
7 1918 Percival ChambersEngland #3
8 1918 Roy ChappellEngland #7
9 1918 H.E. EastonEngland #8
10 1918 Henry GoodisonEngland #2
11 1918 Reuben HammersleyEngland #5
12 1918 John HedleyEngland #10 #11
13 1918 Robert KirkmanEngland #7 #8
14 1918 Harry RobinsonEngland #6 #7
15 1918 William WellsEngland #8 #9 #10
16 1918 Claude HaegelenFrance #3 #4
17 1918 Hans-Helmut von BoddienGermany #1
18 1918 Robert HeibertGermany #6
19 1918 Fritz LoerzerGermany #9
20 1918 Johann PützGermany #3
21 1918 Bernhard UltschGermany #10
22 1918 Johannes WernerGermany #3
23 1918 Lovell BakerIreland #6
24 1918 George ThomsonScotland #19 #20 #21
25 1918 Charles BissonetteUSA #2

Losses
1 1918 John HedleyEnglandand Robert KirkmanEngland captured; shot down by Karl GallwitzGermany
2 1918 Augustus OrlebarEnglandwounded in action
3 1918 Kenneth Seth-SmithEnglandwounded in action
4 1918 Hans von HäblerGermanydied from wounds
5 1918 Erik ThomasGermanyshot down and captured

http://www.theaerodrome.com/today/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 16:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli

23 March 1915 - General Limon von Sanders was appointed as the commander of the 5 Army which was formed for the Defence of Dardanelles.

http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/Genel/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D3130239EEA0FCDF038B555D02D61282AD49

Otto Liman von Sanders

Generalleutnant Otto Liman von Sanders (February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser and military commander for the Ottoman Empire during World War I.

Liman had little time to organize the defences, but he had two things in his favor. First, the Ottoman 5th Army was the best army they had, some 84,000 well-equipped soldiers in six divisions. Second, he was helped by poor Allied leadership. Instead of using their massive fleet to force a passage through the straits to Istanbul, the British and French admirals called for ground troops to capture the Dardanelles peninsula so their battleships could sail on into the Sea of Marmara unmolested.

Mag helemaal gelezen worden... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Liman_von_Sanders
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 17:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Canadians Executed During WWI

While just over 300 British soldiers were executed for capital offences during WWI, 25 Canadians were also executed. This page is concerned with these 25 Canadians who were executed by firing squads.

Thomas Lionel Moles
Thomas Lionel Moles was born in Brompton Reigh (Somerset) on 17 November 1891. He served for four years in the Somerset Light Infantry. After leaving the British Army, Moles emigrated to Canada. Where in July 1915, Moles enlisted in the 54th (Kootenay British Columbia) Battalion. The 54th Battalion for England in 1915, entering France in August 1916.

Moles had a poor conduct sheet. He was charged for being AWOL on 18 December 1915, 23 March 1916, 6 June 1916 and 30 June 1916. He also had several convictions for drunkenness.

During October 1917, Moles was ordered to rejoin his company which was about to go into action. Instead of going forward, Moles went to a village in the rear areas. He was eventually arrested 3 weeks later, and charged with desertion.

At his court-martial Moles was found guilty and sentenced to death. At 05:30 on 22 October 1917, Moles was executed by firing squad. His remains are located in Ypres Reservoir Cemetery, Plot I, Row H, Grave 76.

http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/canadians.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 17:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1st King's (Liverpool Regiment )

This short extract covers 1st January to 3rd June 1916 covering operations at Givenchy, Calonne and Vimy Ridge. For many people, 1916 means only one thing: the Battle of the Somme, which commenced, for the infantry, on 1 June. This diary is an excellent illustration of the continual fighting and loss of experienced soldiers, even during relatively quiet times, before the Somme began

23rd March 1916 - Usual parades. Excellent bathing accommodation at mines. Men are really enjoy the opposition opportunity of bath. They seem to like Bruay. Very little crime.

http://www.1914-1918.net/Diaries/wardiary-1kings.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 17:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1917, Commons Sitting

PRISONERS OF WAR (FOOD PARCELS).


HC Deb 23 March 1917 vol 91 cc2151-2 2151

§ General IVOR PHILIPPS (by Private Notice): I beg to ask the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) what steps the Government propose to take regarding the appointment of a Committee to 2152 inquire into the supply of food parcels and bread to our prisoners of war in Germany?

§ Mr. J. HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) I do not think the Government propose to take any steps at present, but I should be glad if hon. Members interested in the subject will meet me in a Committee Room upstairs at 6.30 p.m. on Monday.

§ General IVOR PHILIPPS Does my hon. Friend suggest that there should be be some form of Committee appointed to inquire into the subject?

§ Mr. HOPE I think so, but I would rather not anticipate the discussion on Monday.

§ Mr. W. YOUNG asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs what control, if any, the Government has over the Central Prisoners of War Committee, 4, Thurloe Place, S. W.; and whether he is aware that reports are coming forward from civilian prisoners in Germany regarding the manner in which parcels are being sent?

§ Mr. J. HOPE I am asking hon. Members interested in this subject to meet me in one of the Committee Rooms of the House on Monday next at 6.30 p.m.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/mar/23/prisoners-of-war-food-parcels
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 17:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maurice Paléologue - An Ambassador's Memoirs

Friday, March 23, 1917.

This morning Buchanan has announced that King George, with the advice and approval of his ministers, offers the Emperor and Empress the hospitality of British territory; but he refuses to guarantee their safety and confines himself to a hope that they will remain in England until the end of the war.

Miliukov is obviously greatly touched by this announcement, but he added sadly: "But I fear it comes too late!"

It is certainly true that from day to day - I could almost say from hour to hour - the tyranny of the Soviet, the despotism of the extreme parties and the domination of Utopians and anarchists are becoming increasingly evident.

And so., as the latest press telegrams show me that people in Paris are cherishing curious illusions about the Russian revolution, I have telegraphed to Ribot in the following terms:

Notwithstanding the importance of all that has happened in the last twelve days, it is my opinion that the events we are witnessing are only a prelude. The forces which are destined to be the determining factor in the final result of the revolution (I mean the rural masses, the priests, the Jews, the subject nationalities, the bankruptcy of the State, the economic débâcle, etc.), have not even entered the field. So at the moment it is impossible to give any logical and practical forecast of the future of Russia. The best proof of this lies in the hopelessly contradictory prophecies offered me by people in whose judgment and open-mindedness I have the greatest confidence. Some regard the proclamation of a republic as a certainty. Others think the restoration of the Empire, under constitutional forms, is inevitable.

But if your Excellency will be good enough to rest content for the time being with my impressions, which are wholly dominated by the thought of the war, I see the course of events in the following light:

1. When will the forces to which I have just referred begin to make themselves felt? - Hitherto, the Russian nation has attacked the dynasty and the administrative caste, nothing else. We shall now be faced with economic, social, religious and ethnical problems. These problems are very formidable, from the point of view of the war; for the Slav imagination, far from being constructive like that of the Latin or Anglo-Saxon, is essentially anarchical and dispersive. Until these problems are solved the public mind will be wholly taken up with them. Yet we cannot want the solution to be precipitate, for it cannot be realized without severe upheavals. We must therefore expect that for a considerable time to come Russia's effort will be weakened and uncertain.

2. Is the Russian nation determined to continue the war to final victory? Russia implies so many different races, and ethnical antagonisms are so acute in certain regions, that the national idea is far from being universal. The conflict of social classes has a similar effect on patriotism. The working masses, the Jews and the inhabitants of the Baltic provinces, for instance, merely regard the war as senseless butchery. On the other hand,, the fighting armies and the genuinely Russian populations have in no way abandoned their hope of m victory and their determination to achieve it. If I wanted to express my idea somewhat extravagantly to make it more intelligible, I should be tempted to say that "In the present phase of the revolution Russia cannot make peace or war."

In yesterday's Petrograd Gazette the Grand Duke Cyril Vladimirovitch has had a long interview published in which he attacks the fallen sovereigns:

I have often wondered, he says, whether the ex-Empress were not in league with William II; but each time I have forced myself to dismiss so horrible a suspicion.

Who can tell whether this treacherous insinuation will not before long provide the foundation for a terrible charge against the unfortunate Tsarina? The Grand Duke Cyril should know or be reminded that the most infamous calumnies which Marie Antoinette had to meet when she faced the Revolutionary Tribunal first took wing at the elegant suppers of the Comte d'Artois.

About five o'clock I went to call on Sazonov at the Hôtel de l'Europe where he has been suffering from a stubborn attack of bronchitis for the last three weeks. I found him in a very melancholy frame of mind, though not despairing. As I expected, he sees the hand of Providence in the present misfortunes of Russia:

"We deserved chastisement. I did not think it would be so severe ... But God cannot mean Russia to perish ... . A purified Russia will emerge from this trial."

Then he spoke in strong terms of the conduct of the Emperor:

"I needn't tell you of my love for the Emperor, and with what devotion I have served him. But as long as I live I shall never forgive him for abdicating for his son. He had no shadow of right to do so! ... Is there a body of law in the world which allows the rights of a minor to be abandoned? And what's to be said when those rights are the most sacred and august on earth? Fancy destroying a three-hundred-year-old dynasty and the stupendous work of Peter the Great , Catherine II and Alexander I! What a tragedy! What a disaster!"

His eyes were full of tears.

I asked him if his health would allow him to leave for London in the near future as I had no doubt that he would consider it his duty to take up his ambassadorial post.

"I'm horribly perplexed," he said. "What line of policy can I follow in London? I shall certainly not refuse my help to honest men like Lvov and Miliukov. But will they stay in power? ... In any case, my doctor doesn't think I shall be fit to travel for at least three weeks."

I was certainly struck by his deathly pallor, his haggard features and all the signs of physical and mental suffering he betrayed.

Last night Rasputin's coffin was secretly exhumed from its resting-place in the chapel at Tsarskoe Selo and taken away to the Forest of Pargolovo, fifteen versts north of Petrograd.

In the midst of a clearing there, a number of soldiers, commanded by an engineer officer, had piled up a large quantity of pine logs. After forcing off the coffin lid they drew the corpse out with sticks; 'they dare not touch it with their hands, owing to its putrefying condition, and they hoisted it, not without difficulty, on to the heap of logs. Then they drenched it in petrol and set it on fire. The process of cremation lasted until dawn, more than six hours.

In spite of the icy wind, the appalling length of the operation and the clouds of pungent and fetid smoke which rose from the pyre, several hundred moujiks crowded round the fire all night; silent and motionless, they gazed in horror-stricken stupor at the sacrilegious holocaust which was slowly devouring the martyred staretz, friend of the Tsar and Tsarina, the Bojy tchelloviek, "Man of God."

When the flames had done their work, the soldiers collected the ashes of the corpse and buried them under the snow.

The authors of this gruesome epilogue were anticipated by Italy in the Middle Ages; the human imagination cannot go on indefinitely renewing the forms in which its passions and visions find expression.

In the year 1266 Manfred (bastard of the Emperor Frederick II, usurper-King of the Two Sicilies) murderer, perjurer, simoniac, heretic, with every crime on his soul and excommunicated by the Church, perished while warring with Charles of Anjou on the banks of the Calore, near Beneventum.

His captains and soldiers, who worshipped him for his youth, beauty, open-heartedness and charm, buried him with touching affection on the very spot where he fell.

But a year later, Pope Clement IV decreed that the pontifical process of execration and excommunication should be continued against a monster unworthy to rest in consecrated ground. On his orders,, the Archbishop of Cosenza had the body exhumed and over the unrecognizable remains pronounced the pitiless sentences which consign the outcast to Hell: In ignem æturnum judicamus. ... The ceremony took place at night, by the light of torches which were extinguished one by one until darkness was complete, when what was left of Manfred was cut in pieces and scattered far and wide.

This tragic and picturesque scene deeply moved contemporary Italy and in fact gave Dante the inspiration for one of the finest passages in the Divina Commedia. Ascending the steep mountain of. Purgatory, the poet sees the phantom of the young prince approaching him. It calls to him and says: "I am Manfred. My sins were horrible. But the infinite goodness of God has arms long enough to clasp all who turn towards it. If the spiritual father of Cosenza who was sent by Clement to scatter my bones had seen God's face of pity, my bones would be still at the end of the bridge near Beneventum, guarded by a heavy stone. And now the rains soak them and the winds play with them on the banks of the river where the Archbishop and his priests had them tossed after the torches were extinguished. But their denunciations make no man so lost that the divine love cannot restore him, so long as hope retains a single green branch within him."

I should like to offer that quotation to the poor captive Tsarina.

Mooi boek! Lees vooral verder op http://www.alexanderpalace.org/mpmemoirs/3_10.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Paris Guns of World War One
These monsters bombarded the city from 70 miles away.


On March 23 at 7:20 am in the area of the Quai de Seine in Paris a sudden thump of an explosion blew in windows and rocked buildings. Less than an hour later a second mysterious explosion occurred a mile away that killed eight Parisian civilians and wounded a dozen more. Paris was under artillery fire for the first time in the 20th Century.

The Paris Gun (s), also known as the Wilhelm Geschuetz (after Kaiser Wilhelm II), it is frequently confused with its immediate predecessor, the Lange Max (Long Max) and also with the Big Berthas - giant howitzers used by the Germans to smash the Belgian frontier fortresses, notably that at Liege in 1914. The guns were built, operated, and later thought destroyed in near total secrecy.

The Paris Guns were a weapon like the world has never seen before or since. The guns were built by the Krupps works to a design by Professor Eberhardt, an early researcher into space travel. The guns were reworked from new German navy 15inch guns meant for battleships. A sleeved insert was installed that reduced the huge rifles diameter down to 8.26 inches. After 65 shells had been fired, each of progressively larger caliber to allow for wear, the barrel was rebored to a caliber of 240 mm They were designed to hurl a 94-kg (228 pound) shell to a range of 130 km and a maximum altitude of 40 km - the greatest height reached by a human-made object until the V-2 rocket flights in 1942. At the start of its 170-second trajectory, each shell from the Paris Gun reached a speed of 1,600 km/s (almost five times the speed of sound). The shell spent 3/4 of its distance in the air traveling through the vacuum of space above the atmosphere of the earth. The distance involved in the travel of the shell was so great that the rotation of the earth was substantial enough to affect trajectory calculations. Indeed it propelled the first man-made object to reach the stratosphere at 7:10 a.m. on March 23, 1918 when it was first fired. The shell stood nearly three feet tall and used a twelve foot long powder charge. The gun itself, which weighed 256 tons and had a 34 m (111 foot) long barrel. As a military weapon the gun not a great success: the explosive load was too small, the shells inaccurate, and the guns could not achieve a good enough rate of fire to be effective. They were best remembered as a psychological warfare tool.

The guns weapon crew was made up of 80 German Kriegsmarine sailors in unmarked army uniforms under the command of an admiral. They traveled on a specially equipped set of trains and were not allowed to speak to or mingle with the army troops surrounding their positions. Every time the weapons fired in anger, a specially coordinated artillery barrage of smaller guns was set off to mask the noise and blast from Allied spotters.

Only after the shell fragments had been collected was it realized that the explosion had come from a shell. French artillery experts attached to the Parisian military district headquarters believed they were fired from a Zeppelin airship for several days before they found out the truth. Aerial spotters in the Crépy-en Laon area saw the huge German guns in action. After the first shells hit, The bombardment continued for a week until good Friday March 29th when at the Church of St Gervias a shell struck during services, collapsing the roof on its parishioners killing some 88. The German bombardment stopped for one day to allow the city of Lights to bury its dead and brace for the next incoming rounds

The flaws in the weapon's experimental design became apparent in use. One of the monsters blew up while firing, killing five crewmen. The other two soon wore out and had to have their liners replaced after some 65 rounds each.

A total of 367 shells were fired, killing 256 people and wounding 620, as well as causing considerable damage to property. Twenty shells were fired on a good day. With the German emplacements only seven miles behind the front lines heavy French 15 inch railway guns soon began searching it out. While taking increasing counter battery fire, the big guns were dismantled on May 1st and moved to another firing location. From the second location they roared from 27 May until 11 June and were moved again after being located by British airplanes. The third site in July and fourth in August lasted only four days each before being discovered and taking return fire. The last location was only able to fire 14 rounds before being discovered. With the guns further use seen as impractical the worn out guns were shipped back to Germany for the remainder of the war.

The guns were taken back to Germany in August 1918 as Allied advances threatened its security. These super guns were never captured by the Allies and their continued existence was hidden. One spare mounting was captured by American troops near Chateau-Thierry, but no gun was ever found. They were claimed to be completely destroyed by the Germans after the war however this is thought by some sources as to have not occurred until as late as the end of the 1920's.

The Paris guns were an inspiration of the genius Dr Gerald Bull in his work on advanced artillery. He researched the history of the Paris Gun and published an extensive book about it in. His work on the unfinished Iraqi super gun for Saddam Hussein in the 1980's was influenced by the lessons taught him by Dr Eberhardt's huge cannon. To this day no production artillery piece has fired a shell to a greater distance.

Jul 23, 2006, Christopher Eger, http://militaryhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_paris_guns_of_world_war_one
Zie ook: http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2008/10/09/secrets-of-the-mystery-gun-that-shelled-paris/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second battle of the Somme, 21 March-4 April 1918

On 23 March Ludendorff changed his overall plan for the battle, on the assumption that he had or was about to break through the British lines. Below was to attack to the north west, Marwitz west along the Somme to the north of Amiens and Hutier to the south west to attack the French. Marwitz and Hutier would continue to achieve successes until the end of March, but the original purpose of the attack, the thrust north west against the British, was already fading.

The new focus of the German attack came close to splitting the British and French armies, both physically and in purpose. As the British were forced further east, the need for French reinforcements became increasingly urgent. General Pétain, from whose armies those reinforcements would have to come, was increasingly convinced that the British Fifth Army was beaten. He was also worried about the possibility of a new German attack further east.

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_sommeII.html

Operation Michael

Day 3 - 23 March 1918
Early on the morning of Saturday 23 March, German troops succeeded in breaking through the line in the 14th Division's sector on the Canal at Jussy. The 54th Brigade were holding the line directly to their south and were initially unaware of their predicament, as they were unknowingly being outflanked and surrounded. The 54th Brigade History records "the weather still favoured the Germans. Fog was thick over the rivers, canals and little valleys, so that he could bring up fresh masses of troops unseen". In the confusion, Brigade HQ tried to establish what was happening around Jussy and by late morning the British were in full retreat once again in front of German troops who had crossed the Crozat Canal at many points. All lines of defence had now been overcome and there was nothing left to stop the German advance. Bitter fighting over open country ensued. There was little rest for British troops; who were either fighting, beating a retreat or doing both. During that day Aubigny, Brouchy, Cugny and Eaucourt fell.

Yet despite the drastic nature of the British position, small events still made a difference. Lieutenant Alfred Herring of the 6th Northamptonshire regiment in the 54th Brigade, despite having never been in battle before, led a small and untried platoon in a counter attack against German forces who had captured the critical Montagne Bridge on the Crozat Canal. He not only won the position back against all odds but held it against repeated attacks for twelve hours before he was captured along with the remnants of his small command. Lieutenant Herring was awarded a Victoria Cross when repatriated after the war.

By now the remnants of the 1/1st Hertfordshire Battalion were beating a retreat across the southernmost edges of the 1916 Somme battle field and by the morning of the 24th there were only eight officers and around 450 men left in command. The war diary read:

23-3-18. Before dawn the Bn marched to BUSSU & dug in hastily on the east side of the village. When both flanks became exposed the Bn retired to a line of trenches covering the PERONNE-NURLU road. After covering the 4/5th Black Watch Regt on the left the Bn withdrew to the ST. DENNIS line which was very stubbornly defended. The Bn then retired with difficulty to the line protecting the PERONNE-CLERY road with the remainder of the 116th Inf. Bde. to cover the retreat of the 117th and 118th Inf. Bdes. When this had been successfully accomplished under very harassing machine gun fire from the enemy, the Bn conformed to the general retirement on CLERY village where it concentrated. The remnants of the Bn then defended a line of trenches between the village and running down to the River SOMME.”

Thinking that he had broken through the British lines, or was about to, Ludendorff implemented the second phase of his battle plan. He issued the following directive for the "continuation of the operations as soon as the line Bapaume - Peronne - Ham had been reached: Seventeenth Army will vigorously attack in the direction Arras - St Pol, left wing on Miraumont [4.5 miles (7.2 km) miles west of Bapaume]. Second Army will take Miraumont - Lihons [near Chaulnes] as direction of advance. Eighteenth Army, echeloned, will take Chaulnes - Noyon as direction of advance, and will send strong forces via Ham". Thus, von Below's Seventeenth Army was charged with "rolling up" British forces northwards, and von der Marwitz's Second Army was to attack west along the Somme towards the to the vital railway centre of Amiens. Von Hutier's Eighteenth Army was to head south-west destroying French reinforcements en route and threaten the approaches to Paris (the Second Battle of Picardy). von der Marwitz and von Hutier would continue to achieve successes until the end of March, but the original purpose of the attack, the thrust north west against the British, was not being achieved. The fighting retreat of the British Fifth Army and the staunch resistance of the Third Army were paying off. The German infantry had incurred very heavy casualties and were now beginning to show the first signs of battle weariness. They were starting to extend their lines of supply and were outdistancing their heavy artillery support.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Michael#Day_3_-_23_March_1918
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 22 Mrt 2010 21:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 21:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German attack at St Quentin, March 1918

23 March 1918

Another heavy mist restricted visibility to 50 yards, and this was used to cover a withdrawal through Courcelles to a position at the Bois des Flaques covering Bussu and Peronne. . The retreat began at 7am and they used compasses to guide themselves in the mist. They were supported by tanks. Their new position was on a line from Doight to Bussu

1st Dublins were the Brigade reserve, and reached their positions without incident at 11am. They were 1mile SE of Peronne at Doingt, and their role was to cover the retreat of the brigade across the Somme if that became necessary. And at 2pm they were ordered to cross the Somme and take up a position at La Maisonette, a height overlooking Peronne and Biaches, and some men were sent further west to a position 2 miles east of Flaucourt

2nd Dublins were on the northern edge of Doingt when the Germans attack. This attack was repulsed and the brigade withdrew west of Peronne, where it was ordered to hold the bridgehead over he Somme for as long as possible.The Brigades on either side of them had already fallen back over the Somme. The platoon that was left holding the bridge was never heard from again

At 10.30 pm the depleted remains of 16th (Irish) division were ordered to march the 7 miles from Biaches to Cappy and form a reserve.

http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/1-batt/campaigns/1918-kaisers.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

March 23, 1918- Wobblies put on trial for anti-war stance

On this day in 1918, more than 100 Industrial Workers of the World members (Wobblies) were put on trial for opposing US entry into World War I.

IWW Statement on war and militarism.

The IWW has always opposed militarism. We condemn all wars, and for the prevention of such, we proclaim the anti-militaristic propaganda in time of peace, thus promoting class solidarity among the workers of the entire world, and, in time of war, the general strike, in all industries.

Only when working people from around the world come together, recognize our common bonds and common masters, and lay down our tools and arms, will the twin yokes of militarism and capitalism be thrown off our shoulders, and the workers of the world will live in peace with each other and in harmony with the earth.


http://morrillmajority.org/blog3/2008/03/march_23_1918_wobblies_put_on.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 21:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

VCs of the First World War - Spring Offensive 1918

Christopher Bushell
Christopher Bushell VC DSO (31 October 1888-8 August 1918) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Bushell was 29 years old, and a Temporary Lieutenant Colonel in the 7th (S) Battalion, The Queen's Royal West Surrey Regiment, British Army, Commander during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross.

On 23 March 1918 west of St. Quentin's Canal and north of Tergnier, France, Lieutenant Colonel Bushell personally led C Company of his battalion, who were cooperating with an Allied regiment in a counterattack. In the course of this attack he was severely wounded in the head, but continued to carry on, walking in front of both English and Allied troops, encouraging them and visiting every portion of the lines in the face of terrific machine-gun and rifle fire. He refused to go to the rear until he had to be removed to the dressing station in a fainting condition.

He was killed in action, South of Morlencourt, Somme, France, on 8 August 1918. He is buried at Querrieu CWGC, Somme, France.

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Christopher_Bushell

His Citation reads:-

“For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when in command of his battalion. Lieut-Colonel Bushell personally led ‘C’ Company of his battalion, who were cooperating with an Allied Regiment in a counter-attack, in face of very heavy machine-gun fire. In the course of this attack he was severely wounded in the head, but he continued to carry on, walking in front of both English and Allied troops, encouraging and re-organising them. He refused even to have his wound attended to until he had placed the whole line in a sound position and formed a defensive flank to meet a turning movement by the enemy. He then went to Brigade Headquarters and reported the situation, had his wound dressed and returned to the firing line, which had come back a short distance. He visited every portion of the line, both English and Allied, in face of terrific machine-gun and rifle fire, exhorting the troops to remain where they were and to kill the enemy. In spite of the wounds, this gallant officer refused to go to the rear, and eventually had to be removed to the dressing station in a fainting condition. To the magnificent example of energy, devotion and courage shown by their Commanding Officer is attributed the fine spirit displayed and the keen fight put up by his battalion, not only on the day in question, but on each succeeding day of the withdrawal”.
Date of Act of Bravery - 22nd March 1918
St Quentin London Gazette - 3rd May 1918

http://www.queensroyalsurreys.org.uk/vc/vc14.html

Zijn volledige biografie in PDF: http://www.ashfordsfallen.com/BUSHELL%20C.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Rise of Benito Mussolini

In 1915 Mussolini was conscripted into the army, injured by a grenade explosion in training, "the most beautiful moment in his life,'' was invalided out of the army and returned to his newspaper in June 1917.

With the Italian defeat at Caporetto Oct. 24, 1917, Mussolini called for national discipline and a dictator to take over the weak government.

On March 23, 1919, Mussolini launched his fascist movement, the Italian Combat Fascists (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento), at a meeting in Milan's Piazza San Sepoloro, although his ideology was still leftist and libertarian. He formed paramilitary squads of "arditi" similar to the Freikorps and used them against his political enemies.

http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/WW2Timeline/Prelude05.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 22:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1920, Commons Sitting

ROYAL AIR FORCE - MESS KIT.


HC Deb 23 March 1920 vol 127 cc235-6 235

Mr. RAPER asked the Under-Secretary of State to the Air Ministry if he will state why it is laid down in the sealed pattern for the Air Force mess kit that pilots' and/or observers' wings may not be worn?

Major TRYON The Royal Air Force mess uniform was carefully considered by a Committee of Royal Air Force officers. Their recommendations were approved by the Air Council.

Mr. RAPER Is it not the fact that this rule was brought in by staff officers who have not the right to wear wings? Surely my right hon. Friend is aware that all pilots are proud of that special distinction, and that this is causing very great dissatisfaction?

Major TRYON I am not aware that there is dissatisfaction. I have inquired, and I understand that All Air Force officers with the exception of store officers will wear wings.

Mr. RAPER Will the hon. and gallant Member see that in future the observer and the pilot wear their wings?

Major TRYON They will wear their wings when in regular uniform. The Committee did not think it desirable to wear wings in the mess uniform.

Mr. RAPER Will the hon. and gallant Gentleman inquire why?

Major TRYON Because the officers who were asked to inquire into the matter thought that that was the best plan. Obviously, opinions differ.

Mr. J. JONES Why not provide them with haloes?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1920/mar/23/mess-kit
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2010 23:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maritieme kalender

Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

23 maart 1917 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Amstelstroom' (1910) van de Hollandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij (HSM), op weg van Amsterdam naar Londen, wordt op de Noordzee door drie Duitse torpedoboten 'V 44', 'G 86' en 'G 87' met geschutsvuur tot zinken gebracht. Van de 24 opvarenden kunnen 20 man worden gered, door de Katwijkse logger 'Holland II' (KW 155). Op 27 maart zal het nog drijvende wrak door de Duitse onderzeeboot ' UB 10' als nog tot zinken worden gebracht. (Bron: 'De Zee' (1917))

23 maart 1918 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Kambangan' van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Nederland' (SMN) wordt in Hongkong door de Britse autoriteiten in beslag genomen en onder Britse vlag bij Jardine Matheson & Co ondergebracht. In januari 1919 zal het schip te Cardiff weer aan de SMN worden teruggeven. (Bron: A.J.J. Mulder: 'De eeuw van de 'Nederland' (2003))

23 maart 1918 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Boeroe' van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Nederland' (SMN) wordt in Hongkong door de Britse autoriteiten in beslag genomen en onder Britse vlag bij Jardine Matheson & Co en later bij de British Steam Navigation Co. ondergebracht. In januari 1919 zal het schip in Brisbane (Australië) weer worden teruggegeven aan de SMN. (Bron: A.J.J. Mulder: 'De eeuw van de 'Nederland' (2003))

23 maart 1918 - Het vrachtschip ss. 'Sumatra' van de Stoomvaart Maatschappij 'Nederland' (SMN) wordt in Bombay door de Britse autoriteiten in beslag genomen en onder Britse vlag bij P&O ondergebracht. In september zal het schip weer aan de SMN met zware bodemschade worden teruggegeven. (Bron: A.J.J. Mulder: 'De eeuw van de 'Nederland' (2003))

http://www.scheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=3&d=23
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2010 12:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In oorlogsnood - Virginie Lovelings dagboek 1914-1918

Dinsdag 23 maart '15 - De heeren Brand Whitlock, Amerikaansche minister en de markies de Villalobar, Spaansche gezant, hebben onderhandeld met vertegenwoordigers van de oorlogvoerende mogendheden te Londen, Berlijn en Parijs en de toelating bekomen om de burgerlijke bevolking van België van al het noodige te voorzien. Winkels zullen daartoe geopend worden.

http://www.kantl.be/ctb/pub/loveling/html/d_1915-03-23.htm#d_1915-03-23entry1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1914 → Commons Sitting

War Time (Storage of Food and Raw Material).


HC Deb 23 March 1914 vol 60 cc27-8 28

Major ARCHER-SHEE asked the Prime Minister whether the Government will consider the advisability of appointing another Royal Commission to deal with the question of the storage of food and raw material in time of war in view of the altered circumstances since the Report of the Royal Commission of 1905?

The PRIME MINISTER Various aspects of the question of the supply of food and raw material in time of war are being carefully examined by Sub-committees of the Committee of Imperial Defence, and I see no reason to appoint a Royal Commission on the subject.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1914/mar/23/war-time-storage-of-food-and-raw-material
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Alfons Van de Perre

Alfons Jozef Van de Perre (Geel, 13 juli 1872 - Wijnegem, 4 augustus 1925) was een belangrijke figuur in de Vlaamse beweging, medeoprichter van De Standaard N.V. (...)

In 1914 konden zijn gezin en hij vluchten naar London. Hij werd daar evenwel door de Britse en Belgische regering aangezocht deel uit te maken van een politieke missie in Zuid-Afrika. De reis van 5 december 1914 tot 23 maart 1915 en de daar opgelopen ziektes, zouden zijn gezondheidstoestand voor de rest van zijn leven zwaar ondermijnen. Later tijdens de oorlog trok hij zich het lot van de Vlaamse soldaten aan het front erg aan en bemiddelde hiervoor grotendeels tevergeefs bij de Belgische overheid.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfons_Van_de_Perre
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vasily G. Zaitsev

Vasily Grigorjevitsj Zaitsev werd geboren op 23 maart 1915 in Jelino, een dorpje aan de voet van het Oeral-gebergte in de provincie Tsjelsjabinsk. Hij werkte hier 's zomers als herder. Al op zijn vierde joeg hij met een pijl en boog op eekhoorns, en vanaf zijn twaalfde joeg hij in de bossen bij zijn woonplaats met zijn opa op herten. Hier had hij zijn bekwaamheid als sluipschutter geleerd.

http://www.stalingradbattle.nl/deslag/sluipschutters.htm
Zie ook hier: http://www.aa-clan.net/forums/showthread.php?3864-the-true-sniper-story-of-stalingrad
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geschiedenis van Palanga en Šventoji

Tijdens de eerste wereldoorlog werd Palanga bezet door het Duitse leger. Zij vielen de stad op 23 maart 1915 binnen. Tussen 1919 en 1921 behoorde Palanga en Šventoji tot Letland, maar op 21 maart 1921 werd het overgedragen aan Litouwen.

http://www.elona.nl/nl/steden/palanga_geschiedenis.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Émile Driant

Toen de Slag bij Verdun op 21 februari 1916 begon, verdedigden luitenant-kolonel Driant en zijn 1200 Chasseurs posities in het Bois des Caures. Zij vingen de eerste klap van de slag op. Er werd vreselijk gevochten maar de Chasseurs stonden machteloos tegenover de enorme bombardementen. Op 22 februari gaf Driant het bevel dat de overgebleven mannen zich terugtrokken richting Beaumont.

Gedurende die terugtocht sneuvelde Driant. Het nieuws bereikte Parijs pas op 3 april, doordat de overgebleven mannen die bij Driant waren gevangen genomen.

Een rapport, dat gedateerd is op 23 maart 1916, en dat werd geschreven door Chasseur Paul Coisne van het 56e Battalion Chasseurs die toen krijgsgevangen was in Kassel, vertelt dat Driant's laatste woorden "Oh! Là là, mon Dieu!" waren.

Barones Schrotter van Wiesbaden zond een brief met condoleances naar mevrouw Driant op 16 maart 1916. Zij schreef onder andere:

"Mijn zoon, luitenant in een artillerieregiment, die tegenover uw man vocht, vraagt mij u te schrijven en u te verzekeren dat meneer Driant begraven is, en dat zijn vijanden die toch zijn kameraden waren met alle respect en alle zorg een graf voor hem hebben gegraven (...). Er zal voor het graf gezorgd worden zodat u het kunt bezoeken als de vrede terugkeert (...)".

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/%C3%89mile_Driant
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 23 Maart 1916.

Borkel en Schaft.

- Zondag middag zweefde boven onze gemeente een vliegmachine van onbekende nationaliteit.

- De grens blijft alhier nog steeds voor het verkeer gesloten, doch hoe moeielijk ’t ook is, toch weten smokkelaars hun slag te slaan en volgens hun zeggen bestaat er aan sommige artikelen werkelijk nood o.a. koffie petroleum carbid en zeep.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Karel I

23 maart 1917: De nieuwe Habsburgse keizer, Karel I, wendt zich (tevergeefs) met een vredesaanbod tot de Franse president Raymond Poincaré.

http://www.d24.be/geschiedenis/23-maart.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ss. 'Amstelstroom'

23-03-1917: Het vrachtschip ss. 'Amstelstroom' (1910) van de Hollandsche Stoomboot Maatschappij (HSM), op weg van Amsterdam naar Londen, wordt op de Noordzee door drie Duitse torpedoboten 'V 44', 'G 86' en 'G 87' met geschutsvuur tot zinken gebracht. Van de 24 opvarenden kunnen 20 man worden gered, door de Katwijkse logger 'Holland II' (KW 155). Op 27 maart zal het nog drijvende wrak door de Duitse onderzeeboot ' UB 10' als nog tot zinken worden gebracht.

http://www.stamboomforum.nl/hulp/2/11493/0
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kirchner

Geniale kunstenaars vereenzelvigen zich met de titaan Roquairol; met dit in gedachten beeldde Heckel zijn vriend Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, medeoprichter van de Brücke, als zodanig af. Heckel, die zeer belezen was en geïnteresseerd in literatuur en filosofie, maakte een houtsnede, getiteld Roquairol (Bildnis Ernst Ludwig Kirchner), waarvan slechts enkele exemplaren zijn gedrukt. Deze toont een gekweld gezicht van Kirchner, met scherpe neus, vertrokken wenkbrauwen en twee haarlokken als slappe duivelshoorntjes op het voorhoofd. Naast deze houtsnede, vervaardigde hij ook het bovengenoemde schilderij, waarin overduidelijk eveneens Kirchner wordt afgebeeld. Toen Heckel deze werken maakte, was hij op verlof van het oorlogsfront. In het leger was hij medisch officier en verantwoordelijk voor de terugkeer van gewonde soldaten naar huis. In de winter van 1916-1917 trof hij zijn oude vriend Kirchner in Berlijn. Deze was er niet al te best aan toe, en dat is een eufemisme.

In het voorjaar van 1915 was Kirchner opgeroepen als soldaat, maar al in september werd hij op verlof gestuurd. Officieel wegens longziekte en algemene zwakte, maar in werkelijkheid was hij geestelijk niet opgewassen tegen de oorlog. Dat blijkt uit een zelfportret, dat hij tijdens dit verlof maakte (Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio). De kunstenaar, in zijn correct weergegeven uniform (waarin hij zich ook had gefotografeerd) is volkomen apathisch. Een sigaret bungelt tussen zijn lippen, zijn gezicht lijkt een masker. De ogen zijn leeg en weerspiegelen alleen het blauw van zijn uniform. Zijn rechterhand is afgehakt; hij houdt een bloedige stomp omhoog. Achter hem staan een naaktmodel en een schilderij, waar hij geen aandacht meer voor kan opbrengen. Psychisch afgestompt is hij niet meer in staat kunst te maken of opgewonden te raken - geestelijk en lichamelijk is hij impotent.

In december 1915 werd hij definitief ontslagen uit het leger en zocht hij toevlucht in een sanatorium, dat er in deze tijd niet alleen voor lichamelijk klachten was. “Ik voel me halfdood door psychische en lichamelijke kwalen”, schreef hij aan Karl Ernst Osthaus. “Werken kan ik alleen ’s nachts”(7 december 1915). Zijn arts in het sanatorium, Dr. Kohnstamm, schreef later aan dezelfde Osthaus: “Bij de heer Kirchner gaat het naast algemene lichamelijk zwakheid, om een toestand van nerveuze agitatie… steeds gevoed door de herinnering aan de militaire dienst en wat daarmee samenhangt.”(23 april 1916). Op 15 juli 1916 verliet Kirchner het sanatorium en keerde terug naar Berlijn, maar al snel kreeg hij nieuwe inzinkingen en zocht hij weer hulp. Uiteindelijk zou hij voorgoed in Davos terechtkomen.

In maart 1917, ongeveer de tijd waarin Heckel het portret schilderde, was zijn toestand nog niet verbeterd. Eberhard Grisebach schreef aan Hélène Spengler in Davos: “Alleen met hulp van een stok kon hij met moeite rechtop gaan staan en wankelend door de kamer lopen… het meest aangrijpend was een zelfportret in uniform met afgehakte rechterhand.” (23 maart 1917). Zo zag Heckel zijn vriend dus ook. Geen wonder, dat hij hem als Roquairol schilderde: een genie, maar geestelijk en lichamelijk een wrak. In 1916 schilderde Heckel, die hospik was in het leger, ook een zieke soldaat in een leeg veldhospitaal (Brücke Museum), maar vergeleken met Kirchner is deze een toonbeeld van gezondheid. Kirchner heeft de blik naar beneden gericht, en zijn hand wijst ook machteloos naar de lege weg. Hij was nog steeds bang dat hij zijn hand niet meer zou kunnen gebruiken om te schilderen, dat zijn creativiteit verdwenen was.

http://www.educatie-groningermuseum.nl/archief/duits_expressionisme/index.php?onderwerp=themas&id=2
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Antoinette W Goedkoop Nr.1.

De foto komt uit een serie gemaakt op 23 maart 1917 tijdens de tewaterlating van de torpedoboten Z3 en Z4 bij de NSM in Amsterdam-Noord.
Op de achtergrond de Z4, net tewater, en op de voorgrond de vlag op de boeg van de Z3, iets eerder tewater gelaten.

http://www.kustvaartforum.com/viewtopic.php?f=4&t=2972&start=150
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dada manifesto by tristan tzara, 23rd march 1918

The magic of a word - DADA - which for journalists has opened the door to an unforeseen world, has for us not the slightest importance.

To launch a manifesto you have to want: A.B. & C., and fulminate against 1, 2, & 3,

Vreemde jongens die dadaisten... Lees verder op http://www.391.org/manifestos/19180323tristantzara_dadamanifesto.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Invoering van de zomertijd in 1916

Engeland was toen samen met Frankrijk in een kostbare en tragische oorlog met Duitsland verwikkeld en om de kolenreserves zo veel mogelijk te sparen voerde Duitsland als eerste op 30 april 1916 (om één uur vóór middernacht) in eigen land en in de door haar bezette delen van België en Frankrijk de zomertijd in. Nederland volgde het voorbeeld van Duitsland op de volgende dag en Engeland deed hetzelfde drie weken later (21 mei).

Nadat ook in 1917 de zomertijd in Nederland op een ad hoc basis was toegepast, werd uiteindelijk op 23 maart 1918 de periode waar binnen de zomertijd werd toegepast wettelijk vastgelegd tussen de uiterste dagen 31 maart en 1 oktober (Staatsblad 1918/165). Voorts zou het begin- en het einddatum elk jaar tijdig in het Staatsblad en in de Nederlandsche Staatscourant aangekondigd worden. Voor 1917 werd ook bepaald dat het uur van de aanvang telkens om 2 uur na middernacht van de betreffende dag zou zijn; evenzo zou bij het einde van de zomertijd de klok om 3 uur na middernacht van de betreffende dag teruggezet worden. Enkele jaren later, op 22 maart 1922, werd de wettelijke zomertijdperiode nog verder verruimd tot de uiterste dagen 18 maart en 9 oktober (Staatsblad 1922/130).

http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/wettijd/wt_text4a.htm
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Het bunkertje aan de Groigne

Het bunkertje aan de Groigne (Oudekapelle) is op zijn minst een curieus geval te noemen.

De constructie bestaat in feite uit 2 delen : een bakstenen en een betonnen gedeelte. Ze ligt zo'n 3 kilometer ten noordwesten van de IJzer, waar tijdens de oorlog de Belgische 1ste linie ingericht was.

De betonnen constructie is zonder twijfel Belgisch, want inscripties verraden de eenheid die het bouwwerk neergepoot hebben: "7/A - 3e Bie Ob - 1918".

De 3de batterij Houwitzers (105mm) behoorde tot het 7de artillerieregiment, op zijn beurt onderdeel van de Belgische 1ste legerdivisie. Deze legerdivisie was in de sector van Nieuwkapelle aanwezig was tussen 21 december 1917 tot 23 maart 1918 en tussen 17 april 1918 tot 28 juni 1918. In die maanden moet het betonnen gedeelte geconstrueerd zijn.

http://users.telenet.be/hannedecoodt/Groignebunker.htm
Zie ook http://inventaris.vioe.be/dibe/relict/78461
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

William Ellsworth Robinson (1861 – 1918)

Better known by his nickname Chung Ling Soo, Robinson was an American stage magician who preserved his role as a Chinese man religiously. On March 23, 1918, he was performing in the Wood Green Empire, London, where tragically his “bullet catch” trick went wrong and he died instantaneously due to severe injuries in chest.

http://www.topyaps.com/top-10-people-who-died-while-performing/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"My Four Years in Germany" (1918)

Cast: Halbert Brown, Willard Dashiell, Louis Dean, Earl Scheneck, George Riddell, Fred Stone, Karl Dane, Fred Hern, Percy Standing, William Bittner, Arthur Dubel, Ann Dearing, A. B. Conlwright, and William Nigh.

A World War I propaganda drama in documentary form. Based upon the recollections of the American ambassador to Germany, James W. Gerard who was witness to the events that preceded the American entry into World War I.

Released April 29, 1918, directed by William Nigh, produced by My Four Years In Germany, Inc., and distributed by First National Exhibitors' Circuit. Based upon the very popular book, My Four Years In Germany, by James W. Gerard (New York, 1917).
The film reportedly cost $50,000 to produce and it earned $430,000.

Favorable Reviews

After demonstrating their cruelty through a number of incidents, including one in which a German officer kills a lame shoemaker in Zabern, Germany, the German troops invade Belgium. As World War I progresses, the United States ambassador to Germany witnesses many instances of German intrigue and cruelty.

Since the film was released during the war, the reviews were very favorable, as expected.

Variety, March 15, 1918. "My Four Years In Germany" purports to depict the events in Berlin continuing up to the time the United States declared war upon Germany, principally the events in which the American ambassador participated such as his interviews with the Kaiser and other German officials, showing how they systematically "doubled crossed " the United States and other nations with whom they were supposed to be on terms of amity. "

The New York Times, March 11, 1918. "Gerard Sees His Film, Makes a Speech At Presentation Of 'My Four Years In Germany'"
"Another movie expose of the Kaiser and the workings of German politics reached Broadway last night at the Knickerbocker Theater, where a film version of ex-Ambassador James W. Gerard's book, My Four Years In Germany, was shown for the first time. Mr. Gerard, who figures conspicuously in the story, was among those present, and an audience which packed the house found much to applaud, considerable to hiss, and not a little to cheer. The most interesting part of the film is the treatment of the prisoners at Wittenberg."

Motion Picture News, March 23, 1918. " While there is no personal story interwoven with the facts, these in themselves are fully dramatic enough to make the ten reels pass tirelessly. There is no stone left unturned to arouse the audience to a sense that the German manner of conducting war is synonymous with barbarism. One witnesses the heart rendering sight of helpless prisoners shot down before German firing squads because, "there will be less mouths to feed," of English and Russian soldiers placed in the same pens together so that the former contact diseases common among the latter and feeding of the prisoners as dogs. All of which Mr. Gerard was an eye witness, and more, is utilized to spread the propaganda. "

Photoplay, June 1918. "The entire production stands apart from the eagle screaming variety of war films, which are only too common in these martial times. "

Inevitable Controversy

"My Four Years In Germany" was the first major film of the Warner Brothers, which included many scenes of brutalities in German prison camp where they placed English prisoners at Wittenburg that was crowded with Russian soldiers who were sick with typhus. Many of the scenes supposedly were from captured enemy newsreels, but the most shocking scenes were faked in a small studio in Grantwood, New Jersey. Battle scenes were shot at Camp Upton, Long Island.

After Major Metellus Lucullus Cicero Funkhouser, Chicago's Second Deputy Superintendent of Police and head of the city's censor board, ordered scenes of the film cut that showed extreme cruelty by the Germans. George Creel, Chairman of The U.S. Government Committee on Public Information, requested that Funkhouser be asked to resign. His replacement ordered the restoring of the expurgated material.

In 1919 a sequel was produced, " Beware! " which had ex-Ambassador Gerard warning of Prussian deception and calling for safeguards to prevent Germany from ever rising again to a position of international
power.

The New York Times, May 27, 1928. "GERARD CONDEMNS THE MOVIE 'DAWN' - The Picturized Story Of Edith Cavell Is Strongly Objected to by the Former Ambassador as Untrue and Provocative Hate "

The Director

William Nigh (1881-1955) was a Wisconsin-born actor-turned-director. He entered the movie business in 1911 and made his directorial debut in two-reel comedies for Mack Sennett. During a career spanning over thirty years, he directed numerous films ranging from comedies, melodramas and westerns. He was made his first feature film in 1915 and was highly regarded during the silent era. However, most of his sound films were of the low-budget category. He entered the sound era and specialized in mysteries, westerns, and action films. Just a few of his silent films are available. They include "Across To Singapore" and "Desert Nights."

http://www.silentsaregolden.com/DeBartoloreviews/rdbmyfouryear.html
Te lezen op http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/7238 of http://www.gwpda.org/memoir/Gerard/4yrsTC.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 20:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin, "Record Of Wireless Message To Béla Kun", March 23, 1919

Lenin to Béla Kun in Budapest

Please inform us what real guarantees you have that the new Hungarian Government will actually be a communist, and not simply a socialist, government, i.e., one traitor-socialists.

Have the Communists a majority in the government? When will the Congress of Soviets take place? What does the socialists' recognition of the dictatorship of the proletariat really amount to?

It is altogether beyond doubt that it would be a mistake merely to imitate our Russian tactics in all details in the specific conditions of the Hungarian revolution. I must warn you against this mistake, but I should like to know where you see real guarantees.

So that I may be certain that the answer has come to me from you personally, I ask you to indicate in what sense I spoke to you about the National Assembly when you last visited me in the Kremlin.

With communist greetings,
Lenin

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/mar/23.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Mrt 2011 21:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: "Eighth Congress of the R.C.P.(B.) March 18-23, 1919"

8. Resolution On The Attitude To The Middle Peasants

Basing itself on the Party Programme adopted on March 22, 1919, insofar as it concerns work in the rural areas, and giving full support to the law already promulgated by the Soviet government on socialist land settlement and the measures for the transition to socialist farming, the Eighth Congress recognises that at the present time it is particularly important to adhere more strictly to the line of the Party in respect of the middle peasants, to display a more considerate attitude towards their needs, end arbitrary action on the part of the local authorities, and make an effort towards agreement with them.

1) To confuse the middle peasants with the kulaks and to extend to them in one or another degree measures directed against the kulaks is to violate most flagrantly not only all the decrees of the Soviet government and its entire policy, but also all the basic principles of communism, according to which agreement between the proletariat and the middle peasants is one of the conditions for a painless transition to the abolition of all exploitation in the period of decisive struggle waged by the proletariat to overthrow the bourgeoisie.

2) The middle peasants, who have comparatively strong economic roots owing to the lagging of agricultural techniques behind industrial techniques even in the leading capitalist countries, to say nothing of Russia, will continue to exist for quite a long time after the beginning of the proletarian revolution. Therefore, the tactics of the functionaries of the Soviets in the villages, as well as of Party functionaries, must envisage a long period of co-operation with the middle peasants.

3) The Party must at all costs ensure that all Soviet functionaries in the countryside have a clear and thorough grasp of the axiom of scientific socialism that the middle peasants are not exploiters since they do not profit by the labour of others. Such a class of small producers cannot lose by socialism, but, on the contrary, will gain a great deal by casting off the yoke of capital which exploits it in a thousand different ways even in a most democratic republic.

The correctly applied policy of Soviet power in the countryside, therefore, ensures alliance and agreement between the victorious proletariat and the middle peasants.

4) While encouraging co-operatives of all kinds as well as agricultural communes of middle peasants, representatives of Soviet power must not allow the slightest coercion to be used in setting them up. Associations are only worth while when they have been set up by the peasants themselves, on their own initiative, and the benefits of them have been verified in practice. Undue haste in this matter is harmful, for it can only strengthen prejudices against innovations among the middle peasants.

Representatives of Soviet power who permit themselves to employ not only direct but even indirect compulsion to bring peasants into communes must be brought strictly to account and removed from work in the countryside.

5) All arbitrary requisitioning, i.e., requisitioning not in conformity with the exact provisions of laws issued by the central authority, must be ruthlessly punished. The Congress insists on the strengthening of control in this field by the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture, People’s Commissariat of the Interior, and the All-Russia Central Executive Committee.

6) At the present time the extreme chaos which has been caused in all countries of the world by the four years of imperialist war in the predatory interests of the capitalists, and which has become particularly acute in Russia, places the middle peasants in a difficult position.

In view of this, the law issued by the Soviet government on the emergency tax, as distinct from all the laws issued by all the bourgeois governments in the world, makes a point of laying the burden of the tax wholly on the kulaks, the inconsiderable number of peasant exploiters who particularly enriched themselves during the war. The middle peasants must be taxed very mildly, so that the sum levied is fully within their means and not burdensome to them.

The Party demands, in any case, lenience towards the middle peasants in collecting the emergency tax, even if this reduces the total revenue.

7) The socialist state must extend the widest possible aid to the peasants, mainly by supplying the middle peasants with products of urban industries and, especially, improved agricultural implements, seed and various materials in order to raise efficiency in agriculture and ensure improvement of the peasants’ working and living conditions.

If the present economic chaos does not allow the immediate and full implementation of these measures, it remains the duty of local Soviet authorities to explore all possible avenues to render the poor and middle peasants any real aid to support them at the present difficult moment. The Party finds it necessary to establish a large state fund for this purpose.

8) In particular, efforts must be made to give real and full effect to the law issued by the Soviet government which requires of state farms, agricultural communes, and all other similar associations that they render immediate and all-round assistance to the middle peasants in their neighbourhood. Only on the basis of such actual assistance is it possible to achieve agreement with the middle peasants. Only in this way can and must their confidence be won.

The Congress draws the attention of all Party workers to the need to put into effect immediately all the points set forth in the agrarian section of the Party Programme, namely:

(a) regulation of the use of land by the peasants (elimination of scattered holdings, the open field system, etc.), (b)supply of improved seeds and artificial fertilisers to the peasants, (c) improvement of the breeds of the peasants’ livestock, (d) spreading of agronomical knowledge, (e) agronomical assistance to the peasants, (f) repair of the peasants’ farm implements at repair shops belonging to the Soviets, (g) organisation of centres hiring out implements, experi- mental stations, model fields, etc., (h) improvements to the peasants’ land.

9) Peasants’ co-operative associations with the object of increasing agricultural production, and especially of processing farm produce, improvements to the peasants’ land, support of handicraft industries, etc., must be accorded extensive aid, both financial and organisational, by the state.

10) The Congress reminds all concerned that neither the decisions of the Party nor the decrees of Soviet power have ever deviated from the line of agreement with the middle peasants. In the cardinal matter of the organisation of Soviet power in the countryside, for instance, a circular letter signed by the Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars and the People’s Commissar for Food was issued when the Poor Peasants’ Committees were established, pointing to the need to include in these Committees representatives of the middle peasants. When the Poor Peasants’ Committees were abolished, the All-Russia Congress of Soviets again pointed to the need to include representatives of the middle peasants in the volost Soviets. The policy of the workers’ and peasants’ government and the Communist Party must in the future too be permeated by this spirit of agreement between the proletariat and the poor peasants on the one hand, and the middle peasants on the other.

http://marxistsfr.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/rcp8th/08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Mark IV Female tank passing through Peronne on 23 March 1918.

In the background can be seen an abandoned Expeditionary Force Canteen and smoke from burning stores. Artist: Aitken T K (2nd Lieutenant)

http://www.iwmprints.org.uk/image/743781/aitken-t-k-2nd-lieutenant-a-mark-iv-female-tank-passing-through-peronne-on-23-march-1918-in-the-background-can-be-seen-an-abandoned-expeditionary-force-canteen-and-smoke-from-burning-stores
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Marion Simpson from George Phair - 23 March 1918

Transcript:
Well I am sorry to say I am not from Hamilton. I do not know very much about Eastern Canada. I only stopped for seven weeks in Toronto some years ago. From there I went to Winnipeg. I was working there for six years until I joined the army to do my bit.
You people are certainly doing your share toward giving the boys over here comfort and happiness, if it is only a letter of a few kind words. It is much appreciated by us boys over here. I don't know really what we would do if it was not for the kind people of Canada. Our Comforts would be little over here.
Before closing I want to thank you again for the smokes which I enjoyed very much. And also for your nice letter.
Hoping to hear from you again
From
Yours Sincerely
George Phair

Een briefje in het kader van de Case Study: Socks for the Boys - Marion Simpson and the Knitters of the First World War
Bekijk het origineel op http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/phair-george-letter-23-march-1918-0
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day, Friday 23 March 1917 - Birmingham Mail

ASLEEP AT WORK - John Tame, 3 back 249, Herbert Road, Small Heath, and J. Woolley, 68. Ralph Road, Saltley, were summoned before Lord Ilkenston (Stipendiary) at the Birmingham Police Court to-day for neglect of work. Defendants were employed as stokers, and were working nights. It was alleged that both were found fast asleep near the boiler, the gauge of which only registered a pressure of 2lb. They were each fined £3 and costs.

http://www.voicesofwarandpeace.org/2017/03/23/on-this-day-23-march-1917/
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Daily Telegraph March 23 1917 - David Lloyd George praises the Russian Revolution

David Lloyd George considers the Russian Revolution “the greatest service which they [the Russian people] have yet made to the cause for which the Allied peoples have been fighting since August, 1914” (see page 5). On the same page a Reuter’s report considers that the ex-Tsar’s “cup of bitterness must be full to overflowing;” the Prime Minister’s response is hardly going to help him there. And we have a description of the moment when the erstwhile monarch was first apprised of the revolution to interest readers who might have begun to felt sated by the coverage of this event by now.

Also in today’s paper: A second cousin of the Kaiser goes missing whilst flying over Allied lines – page 5. For a member of the ruling class of an enemy country the précis of his life is more sympathetic to him than you might expect.

Is écht een mooi archief... https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ww1-archive/12214408/Daily-Telegraph-March-23-1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A funeral for victims of the Revolution. A large procession of mourners pay their respects at a graveside at the Field of Mars, Petrograd, 23 March 1917.

Foto! https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205091215
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Women locomotive cleaners, Bradford, 23 March 1917

Nog een foto! http://on-trac.co.uk/the-history-of-women-in-rail/women-locomotive-cleaners-bradford-23-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 23 March 1917 → Commons Sitting → ORAL ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS.

PRISONERS OF WAR (FOOD PARCELS).

General IVOR PHILIPPS (by Private Notice): I beg to ask the hon. Member for Sheffield (Central Division) what steps the Government propose to take regarding the appointment of a Committee to 2152 inquire into the supply of food parcels and bread to our prisoners of war in Germany?

Mr. J. HOPE (Lord of the Treasury) I do not think the Government propose to take any steps at present, but I should be glad if hon. Members interested in the subject will meet me in a Committee Room upstairs at 6.30 p.m. on Monday.

General IVOR PHILIPPS Does my hon. Friend suggest that there should be be some form of Committee appointed to inquire into the subject?

Mr. HOPE I think so, but I would rather not anticipate the discussion on Monday.

Mr. W. YOUNG asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs what control, if any, the Government has over the Central Prisoners of War Committee, 4, Thurloe Place, S. W.; and whether he is aware that reports are coming forward from civilian prisoners in Germany regarding the manner in which parcels are being sent?

Mr. J. HOPE I am asking hon. Members interested in this subject to meet me in one of the Committee Rooms of the House on Monday next at 6.30 p.m.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/mar/23/prisoners-of-war-food-parcels
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23rd March 1917 - More potato queues | Worcestershire in WW1

Home Front:

Long Queue in Worcester: There was a very long queue of would-be potato buyers outside the shop of Mr J. Ford in Little Angel Street this afternoon. It extended from the shop (which is within a few paces of Broad Street) along the length of Little Angel Street to the Five Ways. It began two deep, but a little farther on broadened out into fours and sixes. It seemed to get longer and thicker every few minutes. Mr. Ford allowed a maximum of four pounds to each person, and all waited their turn with great patience and cheerfulness.

Invalided Soldier’s Gratitude: Pte. A. Harrison, of the West Yorks, whose home is at 42, Sunnyside, Boughton Street, writing to us from the Red Cross Auxiliary Hospital, Dundee, where he is being treated for trench fever, contracted on the Somme, says: “I am progressing fine. I shall be spending my 10 days’ leave in good old Worcester very soon; then off back up the line again. I am in a V.A.D. Hospital, and the food and general treatment are great. It was just like being at home to come here. The nurses and sisters and all concerned are just like mothers to us. We always get paper and envelopes given us and stamps, and always a good supply of cigarettes; we get all we wish for. When we get up we are taken to the pictures and theatres several times a week and motor rides; so what more can we wish for? I have a brother in the Worcestershires now in the big push. He joined up at the commencement of the war, and has now been in France well over two years.”

http://www.ww1worcestershire.co.uk/key-dates/1917/03/more-potato-queues/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1916 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

Albert John Oswald Parslow enlists. Albert is commemorated on the Centenary of WWI in Orange Honour Roll; he would die of wounds in France on 13 April 1917.

Harold Charles Wythes enlists. Harold is commemorated on the Centenary of WWI in Orange Honour Roll; he would be killed in action in France on 5 May 1917.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/23-march-1916/
De Honour Roll: http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/honour-roll/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Minneapolis torpedoed 23 March 1916

U-boat U-35 torpedoed SS Minneapolis on 23 March 1916 with the loss of 12 lives.

https://livesofthefirstworldwar.org/community/3246

The British transport vessel SS Minneapolis is torpedoed without warning by German submarine U-35 in the Mediterranean Sea 195 miles northeast of Malta. Twelve crewmembers are killed in the explosion. Attempts to salvage the vessel fail; she sinks two days later. The ship was transporting 60 tons of horse fodder from Marseilles to Alexandria at the time of the attack.

http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/23-march-1916/
Ook hier: http://ww1blog.osborneink.com/?p=12928
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 23 Mrt 2018 9:40, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1916 - Captain JD Hills - Letters from the front

23 March 1916 - Last night I forsook the comfort of my downy couch and slept once more in a dug-out. This was not as you might imagine from any desire for the realities of trench warfare, but because it is now necessary for one member at least of the Bde Hqs to live at night in the advanced “battle” headquarters. Last night it was the Generals turn to go up there & I went in attendance. It was a little cold but I slept quite well, except of course for an occasional mouse or two. One little brute ran straight across my face; I very nearly screamed. My regiment had a stroke of very bad luck indeed yesterday; poor old Farmer who has never missed an hour since the day we came out was killed by a trench mortar. Death fortunately was instantaneous. He is an officer about whom you have probably not heard very much, and yet I think undoubtedly he was the best officer the regiment has ever had. He was absolutely fearless, & never lost his head in any circumstances. Loved by his men every one of whom he knew intimately, he was also one of the most cheerful members of the mess. I knew him very well & can never remember having seen him either angry or despondent. He can never be replaced. Going along one of the trenches today I suddenly came across a very familiar looking countenance, to which I immediately attached the name Walcott. It was in fact a son of L Walcott & he has just rejoined the Brigade – having been at home sick for some time. I am sorry you are so unfortunate with your pets, they all seem to come to an untimely end. We here have a cat, or rather five cats & certainly not less than 200 kittens – they are becoming rather a nuisance.

https://ww1lettersfromthefront.wordpress.com/2016/03/23/23-march-1916/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Field Gun arrives at Spalding Station, 23rd March 1916

Staff at Spalding Railway Station with a 77mm German field gun which was brought to the town by rail for an exhibition on the 23rd March 1916. This gun was captured at the battle of Loos, which was described as one of the first genuinely large scale British offensive actions of WW1.

Click on image to enlarge... https://www.southhollandlife.com/2016/04/german-field-gun-arrives-spalding-station-23rd-march-1916/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edgar Wynn Williams: Experiences of the War 2 – March 1916 to July 1916

The first instalment of Edgar Wynn Williams’ diary of war experiences traced his career
from his decision to join the army (8 December 1915) through to 22 March 1916, by which
time he had been stationed in Egypt for two months, and had seen some action as a driver
with the Army Service Corps. The diary continues from 23 March 1916 in this second
instalment, in which we gain further insight into his time and experiences while attached to
the South African Expeditionary Force in Egypt, and then in France. We read about his
activities and daily routine, with many detailed descriptions of his duties.
As with the first instalment of the diary, there are numerous references to correspondence
with home – for example, on 1 April 1916, ‘Today I had a parcel from Olga [Bevan, his
fiancée] containing sugar tea etc.’ On 15 May Edgar noted that his mail consisted of 11
letters, 6 (belated) birthday cards and 19 newspapers.

Lees verder op http://www.swansea.ac.uk/media/PDF%20Edgar%20Wynn%20Williams%20-%202%20v5.pdf
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Diary of Arthur L. Linfoot - January 1914 – December 1918

23 March 1916; Thursday - On parade as usual. Route march in the afternoon. Only about 8 miles with the band in attendance part of the way. Stayed in at night.

https://www.arthurlinfoot.org.uk/category/1916/march1916/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Mrt 2018 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

23 March 1915 – Sinai | The Great War Blog

When the Ottoman surge against the Suez Canal was broken at the beginning of February, Bedouin and Druze levies saw the defeat as an excuse to take their newly-issued, modern rifles and vanish into the desert like a mirage. (...)

Lees verder op http://ww1blog.osborneink.com/?p=6822
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