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10 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2006 6:33    Onderwerp: 10 Januari Reageer met quote

January 10

1923 Harding orders U.S. troops home from Germany

Four years after the end of World War I, President Warren G. Harding orders U.S. occupation troops stationed in Germany to return home.

In 1917, after several years of bloody stalemate along the Western Front, the entrance of America's fresh, well-supplied forces into the Great War—a decision announced by President Woodrow Wilson in April and provoked largely by Germany’s blatant attacks on American ships at sea—proved to be a major turning point in the conflict. American naval forces arrived in Britain on April 9, only three days after the formal declaration of war. On June 13, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), commanded by the celebrated General John J. Pershing, reached the shores of France.

By the time the war ended in November 1918, more than 2 million American soldiers had served on the battlefields of Western Europe and more than 50,000 of them had lost their lives. The last combat divisions left France in September 1919, though a small number of men stayed behind to supervise the identification and burial of their compatriots in military cemeteries. An American occupation force of 16,000 men was sent to Germany, to be based in the town of Coblenz, as part of the post-war Allied presence on the Rhine that had been determined by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

In 1923, after four years in Germany, the occupation troops were ordered home after President Harding succeeded Wilson in 1921 and announced a desire to return to “normalcy” after the disruptions of wartime. Meanwhile, the bitterness of the German population, demoralized by defeat and what they saw as the unfairly harsh terms of peace—of which the American occupation was a part—grew ever stronger.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2006 6:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 10. Januar

1914

1915
Französische Angriffe an der ganzen Front abgewiesen
Mißglückte Vorstöße der Russen in Galizien
Der Vormarsch der Russen in der Bukowina
Die Behandlung der Kriegsgefangenen in Frankreich

1916
Erfolgreiche Angriffe gegen die Franzosen bei Massiges
Weitere Fortschritte in Montenegro
Die Verwaltung Serbiens

1917
Die Russen von der Putna hinter den Sereth gedrängt
Stärkeres Feuer nördlich der Ancre
Niederlage der Aufständischen im Hedschas

1918
Die Luftbeute im Dezember
Rußland verzichtet auf die Verlegung der Konferenz
Selbständige Teilnahme der Ukrainer an Friedenskonferenz
Annullierung der russischen Staatsschuld
www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2010 22:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 - Het uitbreken van de Erzerum Offensief.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 10 januari 1914
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

De hervormingen in Klein Azië

PARIJS, 9 Januari. Naar de Temps verneemt zijn de moeilijkheden, bij de onderhandelingen tusschen Rusland, Duitschland en de Porte gerezen over de hervormingen in Armenië, uit den weg geruimd. De kwestie der inspecteurs-generaal is geregeld in dien zin, dat de Porte ze zal benoemen uit een door de groote mogendheden opgemaakte lijst van candidaten, behoorende tot onzijdige staten.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-10-1-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Joe Hill Trial: 1914

Defendant: Joe Hill
Crime Charged: Murder
Chief Defense Lawyers: Soren X. Christensen, Orrin N. Hilton, E.D. McDougall, and F.B. Scott
Chief Prosecutor: E.O. Leatherwood
Judge: Morris L. Ritchie
Place: Salt Lake City, Utah
Dates of Trial: June 17-28, 1914
Verdict: Guilty
Sentence: Execution by firing squad


SIGNIFICANCE: The trial of Joe Hill launched the legend of Joe Hill, a lyrical spokesman for the Industrial Workers of the World. His conviction and execution made him a martyr symbolizing, in the eyes of many union workers, all the injustice of American society.

The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW, better known as the Wobblies), organized in 1905, sent its messages to laboring people through song. Its Little Red Song Book, which set new words to popular, often religious, tunes, enjoyed print runs of 50,000. Before World War I, the Wobblies directed or participated in 150 strikes, some as large as a 10-week holdout by 25,000 textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts. Songs were an important element in Wobbly tactics, for they brought a sense of solidarity to heterogeneous groups of workers.

The song book's 1911 edition introduced a writer named Joe Hill and a song—"The Preacher and the Slave"—that became one of his most famous. To the tune of "In the Sweet Bye and Bye," it sang:

You will eat, bye and bye,
In that glorious land above the sky;
Work and pray, live on hay,
You'll get pie in the sky when you die.


Hill, a native of Sweden, was soon a popular hero. He meandered across the country, playing piano, banjo, guitar, and violin in hobo jungles, migrant workers' camps, and city slums. Each edition of the songbook introduced several of his new Joe Hill songs.

Hill was staying with friends in Salt Lake City, Utah, on Saturday, January 10, 1914, when he went out for the evening. Toward midnight, he knocked at the door of Dr. Frank M. McHugh, who dressed a bullet wound that pierced Hill's chest. Hill told the doctor, "I got into a stew with a friend who thought I had insulted his wife."

The same night, police investigated a shooting at a grocery store. Proprietor John G. Morrison and his elder son were found dead. His younger son, Merlin, 13, reported seeing two men come in carrying pistols. They shouted, "We have got you now!" and fired, then ran.

Morrison was a former policeman who had lived in constant dread of those he had previously arrested. Twice he had shot and wounded men who attacked him.

Police found Morrison's pistol, discharged. A witness reported seeing two men run from the store, one holding his hands to his chest.

After Dr. McHugh dressed Hill's wound, he read of the murders and called the police. Since Hill had been wounded the same night as the murders and he would say only that his shooting occurred during a fight over a woman, he was arrested.

Lees verder op http://law.jrank.org/pages/2799/Joe-Hill-Trial-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Instelling grensbewaking (10 januari 1920)

Mr. Th. Heemskerk brengt een wet inzake de grensbewaking tot stand. Deze opent de mogelijkheid van het instellen van (voor vreemdelingen verboden) bewakingsgebieden. De Koninklijke Marechaussee wordt belast met de grensbewaking.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1914-1945/instelling_grensbewaking_(10_januari_1920)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Freud to Ludwig Binswanger, January 10, 1915

10 January 1915
Vienna IX, Berggasse 19

Dear Dr. Binswanger,

(...) I am happy to supply all the information you ask for: two of my sons are in the army, both still training as gunners in provincial towns. My son-in-law in Hamburg has been called up and is waiting to be sent for training. My middle son's turn will come in the spring. (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.050.0128a
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Sunday 10th January 1915 - Cold better, went on duty; inlying picket. Porridge and bacon. Read Times Literary Supplement, glanced at Zoo notes, played bridge, winning every rubber, footer. Dinner:- usual and jam roll. Very good. Played No. 1 Hut footer, lost 1-0. Snowed lightly all day from 11.30am. Wet through. Poor game, conditions too bad. Tea, jam.

Evening read Star, chess with Bardsley. Tired, head dull. Read how Koenigsberg was destroyed after being bottled up in creek, aeroplane being used to locate it. Germany trying to make peace with France and Russia, not England. Fine compliment.

We could alone beat almost any possible combination in Europe. Looks as if Italy and Rumania will come in on our side in spring.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Motoring Magazine and Motor Life, January 1915



http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Motoring_Magazine_and_Motor_Life_January_1915.djvu/10
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 Jan 1915: Woman's Peace Party is formed



On the outbreak of the First World War a group of women pacifists in the United States began talking about the need to form an organization to help bring it to an end. On the 10th January, 1915, over 3,000 women attended a meeting in the ballroom of the New Willard Hotel in Washington and formed the Woman's Peace Party. Jane Addams was elected chairman and other women involved in the organization included Mary McDowell, Florence Kelley, Alice Hamilton, Anna Howard Shaw, Belle La Follette, Fanny Garrison Villard, Mary Heaton Vorse, Emily Balch, Jeanette Rankin, Lillian Wald, Edith Abbott, Grace Abbott, Crystal Eastman, Carrie Chapman Catt, Emily Bach, and Sophonisba Breckinridge.

In April 1915, Aletta Jacobs, a suffragist in Holland, invited members of the Woman's Peace Party to an International Congress of Women in the Hague. Jane Addams was asked to chair the meeting and Mary Heaton Vorse, Alice Hamilton, Grace Abbott, Julia Lathrop, Leonora O'Reilly, Sophonisba Breckinridge and Emily Bach went as delegates from the United States. Others who went to the Hague included Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Emily Hobhouse, (England); Chrystal Macmillan (Scotland) and Rosika Schwimmer (Hungary). Afterwards, Jacobs, Addams, Macmillan, Schwimmer and Balch went to London, Berlin, Vienna, Budapest, Rome, Berne and Paris to speak with members of the various governments in Europe.

The women were attacked in the press by Theodore Roosevelt who described them as "hysterical pacifists" and called their proposals "both silly and base". Jane Addams was selected for particular criticism. One man wrote in the Rochester Herald, "In the true sense of the word, she is apparently without education. She knows no more of the discipline and methods of modern warfare than she does of its meaning. If the woman conceded by her sisters to be the ablest of her sex, is so readily duped, so little informed, men wonder what degree of intelligence is to be secured by adding the female vote to the electorate."

By 1917 the Woman's Peace Party had 40,000 members. However, after the United States entered the war the party fragmented. The Espionage Act, passed by Congress in 1917, prescribed a $10,000 fine and 20 years' imprisonment for interfering with the recruiting of troops or the disclosure of information dealing with national defence. Additional penalties were included for the refusal to perform military duty.

Criticised as unconstitutional, the act resulted in the imprisonment of many of the anti-war movement. This included Rose Pastor Stokes who was sentenced to ten years in prison for saying, in a letter to the Kansas City Star, that "no government which is for the profiteers can also be for the people, and I am for the people while the government is for the profiteers."



Statement issued by the Women's Peace Party (10th January, 1915)

We women of the United States, assembled in behalf of World Peace, grateful for the security of our own country, but sorrowing for the misery of all involved in the present struggle among warring nations, do hereby band ourselves together to demand that war be abolished. As women, we are particularly charged with the future of childhood and with the care of the helpless and the unfortunate. We will no longer endure without protest that added burden of maimed and invalided men and poverty-stricken widows and orphans which was placed upon us. We demand that women be given a share in deciding between war and peace in all the courts of high debate - within the home, the school, the church, the industrial order and the state. So protesting and so demanding, we hereby form ourselves into a national organization to be called the Woman's Peace Party.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USApeaceW.htm & http://timelines.com/1915/1/10/womans-peace-party-is-formed
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1915)

10 januari 1915 - “Dagelijks werden vanuit Tilburg karrevrachten met brood naar Turnhout vervoerd en door de Tilburgse bakkers tegen goede prijzen verkocht. Bij de grens sneden de Duitsers de broden in lengte richting middendoor om te zien of er geen schrifturen in waren verborgen. Deze handel werd oogluikend toegestaan.” (Tilburgse Courant)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:OpmQriSUUlUJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26view%3Darticle%26id%3D188%253A06-kroniek-van-baarle-in-de-eerste-wereldoorlog-1915%26catid%3D90%253Aoorlog%26Itemid%3D118+10+january+1915&cd=38&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

10 januari 1915. - Storm in de nacht met fel geschut. We vernemen dat Douai, Valenciennes en Arras door de Fransen zijn ingenomen...???1

Er komt dus toch beweging in en we mogen ons hier weldra aan de uitwerksels verwachten. Wat zou ik in zulke omstandigheid niet geven om maar een Hollands dagblad te kunnen lezen waar het ‘nieuws’ op betrouwbare wijze wordt medegedeeld?... 't Belang in onze eigen bladen wordt al minder. 't Geen hier onder Duitse censuur verschijnt, voldoet de mensen niet - ze stellen er geen vertrouwen in; - de mededelingen zijn al te eentonig. Het luidt onveranderlijk altijd: - Oostelijk front: ‘Duizenden Russen gevangen genomen. Westelijk front: De aanvallen van de vijand zijn bloedig afgeslagen...’

Als de Duitsers niets te verduiken hadden, zouden ze ons alle bladen laten lezen, zeggen de mensen en dat verstrekt hun in het wantrouwen en zet de drift aan om, op alle mogelijke wijze aan... nieuws te geraken.

De schone, zonnige dag eindigt met stormwind en regen, waardoor de zware rommelslagen, als van de donder, heen-dreunen. 't Wekt een gevoel van verschrikking bij de gedachte alleen aan wat er ginder gebeuren moet waar men maar altijd blijft doorvechten in zulk een afgrijselijke nacht.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

10 January 1916 - Turkish newspapers reported that ‘the whole of the Gallipoli Peninsula is now free from the enemy. They are driven out of Sedduülbahir (Sed-el - Bahr)’.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mrs. I. W. Elliott, Talladega, Alabama, to Hon. John H. Bankhead, Washington, D.C., 10 January 1917



Apr. 10, 1917
Hon. Bankhead
Washington

Dear Sir:
Do everything in your
power to prevent the conscription
of the young men from the
farms.
It is as great a battle
to provide food for the
nation, as to protect the
nation.
Sincerely,
Mrs. I. W. Elliot

http://www.archives.state.al.us/teacher/ww1/lesson2/doc10f.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Derby or Group Scheme 1915

By spring 1915 the flow of recruits was dwindling. The government, torn when it came to the question of compulsory military service, tried a half-way house scheme.



Born in 1865, Edward Stanley became the 17th Lord Derby in 1908. He played a major part in raising volunteers, especially for the King's (Liverpool) Regiment, before being appointed Director-General of Recruiting in October 1915.

In spring 1915, enlistments averaged 100,000 men per month, but this could not be sustained. The upper age limit was raised from 38 to 40 in May 1915 in an effort to keep the numbers up, but it had become clear that voluntary recruitment was not going to provide the numbers of men required. The government passed the National Registration Act on 15 July 1915 as a step towards stimulating recruitment and to discover how many men between the ages of 15 and 65 were engaged in each trade. All those in this age range who were not already in the military were obliged to register, giving details of their employment details. The results of this census became available by mid-September 1915: it showed there were almost 5 million males of military age who were not in the forces, of which 1.6m were in the "starred" (protected, high skill) jobs. On 11 October 1915, Lord Derby was appointed Director-General of Recruiting. He brought forward a programme five days later, always called the Derby Scheme, for raising the numbers. Men aged 18 to 40 were told that they could continue to enlist voluntarily, or attest with an obligation to come if called up. The War Office notified the public that voluntary enlistment would soon cease and that the last day of registration would be 15 December 1915. The men who registered under the Derby Scheme were classified into married and single, and into 23 groups according to their age. Group 1 was for single 18 year-olds, then by year up to Group 23 for single 40's; then Group 24 was for married 18 year-olds up to Group 46 for married 40's. At the same time, a war pension was introduced, to help entice men concerned about supporting their dependents given the all too-obvious chance that they may not survive.

Men who attested under the Derby Scheme were sent back to their homes and jobs until they were called up. They wore a grey armband with a red crown as a sign that they had so volunteered.

215,000 men enlisted while the scheme was on and another 2,185,000 attested for later enlistment - but 38% of single men and 54% of marrieds who were not in "starred" jobs had still avoided this form of recruitment. Their reticence did much to hasten a move to full conscription. Voluntary attestation reopened on 10 January 1916, while the government considered the position.

Call up under the Derby Scheme began: Groups 2 to 5 were called up in the last two weeks of January 1916, and Groups 6 to 13 in February. The last single groups other than the 18 year-olds were called up in March. This last batch were called up in parallel to the first men to be summoned under conscription under the Military Service Act. The recruits were not necessarily posted to their local regiments and from this time one it is not wise to assume that a man would go into his local regiment.

http://www.1914-1918.net/derbyscheme.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Uniform Resolution

Following the public meeting on 10 January 1916 which raised the ANZAC Day Commemoration Committee of Queensland, the first full meeting of that citizens’ gift of the people on 18 February approved a plan of observance which included:

That in the evening a public meeting be held in every town in Queensland, when the events of the day shall be brought before the people, a resolution submitted at every such meeting; and simultaneously throughout the State during the meetings, every person and all work come to a standstill for a period of one minute at 9 pm in honour of our fallen heroes.

The one minute’s sacred silence has endured - though not necessarily at 9 pm. In Brisbane’s ANZAC Square each 25 April, the largest commemorative gathering in Queensland recites an updated resolution in two segments as part of its post march service. However, this element of the original protocol of the ANZAC commemoration has generally fallen by the wayside in most communities.

It is the fervent hope of the Executive Committee of the ADCC that by bringing this omission to the attention of our readers, they will insist that their local organisers reinsert this protocol back into its rightful place in the ANZAC commemorative ceremonies for the year 2000.

The Committee’s version of the Uniform Resolution is shown below.

Arthur Burke
Honorary Secretary ADCC

Uniform Resolution

1. This Meeting re-affirms its admiration of the magnificent heroism, self sacrifice and endurance of the Sailors, Soldiers, Airmen and Nursing Sisters of Australia and New Zealand who, on the first ANZAC Day and throughout the Great War of 1914-18, conferred a glory on Australia and New Zealand that will never fade.

2. This Meeting avers that the lofty ideals of service of the ANZACs pervaded the dauntless spirit of Australia's gallant sons and daughters who, during a period of six years of fierce and intensive warfare on land, on sea, and in the air, from 1939 to 1945 gave such heroic and self-sacrificing service in the cause of liberty; the same lofty ideals of service were exemplified in the Korean, Malayan, Borneo and Vietnam campaigns and on peace keeping operations throughout the globe.

3. This Meeting voices its heartfelt sympathy with the relatives of those who, during the wars made the supreme sacrifice, and with those who have suffered on behalf of the Commonwealth including the Korean, Malayan, Borneo and Vietnam campaigns and peace keeping operations.

4. This Meeting gives its assurance that those who have fallen shall be held in sacred memory, and that those who have survived the perils of war will ever be honoured and remembered with gratitude by the people whose hearths and homes they went forth to save so that our freedom and our free institutions under the Commonwealth of Nations might survive.

5. On the [.... th] anniversary of the immortal landings at Gallipoli this Meeting of Citizens of (............... ) expresses its loyalty and devotion to the person of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 2 and to the Commonwealth of Nations.

http://www.anzacday.org.au/anzacservices/adcommemservice/uniresolution.html#resolution
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Postcard by Kirchner, sent home by Tom on the 10th January 1916.



http://www.flickr.com/photos/glosters/1359551564/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pancho Villa



1916, January 10 - General Francisco "Pancho" Villa, in an attempt to embroil the U.S. in the turmoil in Mexico, forces 18 American mining engineers off a train and shoots them in cold blood.

http://www.fair-trade-usa.com/kronos/timebase/0077C-10A-00000a.html
Zie ook http://www.usborderpatrol.com/borderframe92A.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuport Triplane Nie-11C



The Nieuport Triplane was an experimental design built by the French and tested by the British Royal Flying Corps. As with many of the attempts to build successful triplanes by aircraft manufactures, the design was doomed to failure. The design was never adopted as a production aircraft because of the poor handling characteristics due to the aircraft's unusual wing configuration.

During 1915, designer Gustave Delage of the Société Anonyme des Établissements Nieuport had fitted a Nieuport 10 fuselage with tri-plane wings of unusual fore-and-aft geometry for experimental purposes, the arrangement being patented on 10 January 1916. It was test flown from a field next to the factory at Issy-les-Moulineaux, just a few miles from the famous Eiffel Tower. This was the first of the extraordinary Nieuport tri-planes.

There were several Nieuport triplane attempts. The first was based on a Nie. X 2-seater, the others on the Nie 17 airframe. This is a model of the 2nd triplane, which stayed with the French and differed from the later one that went to the RFC in having a Lewis gun and no cutout in the upper wing.

Progressive development of the first of the extraordinary Nieuport tri-planes led in 1916 to an even more unorthodox triplane arrangement in which the rniddle wing, attached to the forward ends of the upper fuselage longerons, was foremost and the upper wing rearmost.

Utilising a Nie 17 fuselage, powered by an Le Rhône 9J engine fitted with a large cône de pénétration ' (ie spinner) on the propeller and armed with a single synchronized Lewis gun, this triplane, designated Nie-11C (or 11.000) was officially tested by the S.T.Aé (Section Technique de l'Aéronautique) late in 1916, but the unusual configuration proved to offer poor handling and was not ordered for the Aviation Militaire.

http://www.wwiaviation.com/experimentals_british1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Bean's official report on the evacuation of Gallipoli
Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 3, 10 January 1916, pp. 35-38. NLA call no. N82




Lees verder op http://nla.gov.au/nla.aus-vn1641564-12x
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 17:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of 2nd Lieutenant Bernard James Glynn

Wednesday, January 10, 1917 - Rose 10:00 am. Had breakfast at Regent Palace. I met Sy in evening & we went to Picadilly Theatre. Slept at my room in Hendon. Went to Epsom afternoon but he was not in. Left word for him to meet me at Regent Palace.

http://www.veterans.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/glynn/jan1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Buffalo Bill


Wild Bill Hickok (links), Texas Jack Omhundro (midden), Buffalo Bill Cody (rechts)

Buffalo Bill (Scott County (Iowa), 26 februari 1846 - Denver (Colorado), 10 januari 1917), eigenlijk William Frederick Cody, was een van de kleurrijkste figuren uit het Wilde Westen.

Zijn bijnaam kreeg hij toen hij een baan aannam om de werkers aan de Kansas Pacific Spoorweg te voorzien van bizonvlees (de Engelse benaming voor de bizon is buffalo). De bijnaam werd eerder al gegeven aan een zekere Bill Comstock. Cody won de bijnaam toen hij in een wedstrijd "buffels schieten" won met 69 tegen 48.

Hij had veel baantjes, waaronder huidenjager (trapper) stierenvanger, goudzoeker (Fifty-niner) in Colorado, ruiter in de Pony Express in 1860, gids bij kolonisten-karavaans, menner van postkoetsen, soldaat in de Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog en hotelmanager. Hij werd beroemd door zijn Wild West Show.

William Cody ontving in 1872 de eremedaille (Medal of Honor) voor "betoonde moed in actie" gedurende zijn dienst als burgerverkenner voor de Cavalerie. Deze medaille werd op 5 februari 1917, 26 dagen na zijn dood, weer ingetrokken omdat hij burger was en er geen recht op had volgens nieuwe richtlijnen die het leger in 1917 uitgaf. In 1989 werd de medaille nogmaals aan hem toegekend.

Na zijn belevenissen in het "westen" ging Buffalo Bill de showbusiness in. Hij toerde door de Verenigde Staten met spektakels gebaseerd op zijn "Western"-avonturen. In 1883 richtte hij de "Buffalo Bill Wild West Show" op, een circusachtige attractie die jarenlang rondtrok. Zowel Annie Oakley (een vrouwelijke scherpschutter) als Sitting Bull maakten deel uit van deze show. De show van Buffalo Bill inspireerde Irving Berlin tot het schrijven van de musical Annie Get Your Gun in 1946.

In 1887 trad hij met het hele circus op in Londen bij de viering van het jubileum van koningin Victoria en in 1889 maakte hij een tour door Europa.

Hij sloeg zijn tenten op in de nabijheid van de wereldtentoonstelling van Chicago in 1893, een slimme zet die zeer bijdroeg tot zijn populariteit.

Tijdens zijn veelbewogen leven zag hij het Amerikaanse westen dramatisch veranderen. Tegen het eind van zijn leven maakte hij nog mee dat in zijn geliefde Wyoming de exploitatie van steenkool, aardolie en aardgas begon. In 1904 werd in de Shoshonerivier een stuwdam gebouwd voor de opwekking van elektriciteit en voor irrigatie. Deze kreeg de naam Buffalo Bill Dam.

Na zijn dood werd hij op eigen verzoek begraven in het Lookout Mountain Park in Colorado, even ten westen van de stad Denver aan de rand van de Rocky Mountains en uitkijkend over de grote vlakte (Great Plains).

Buffalo Bill mag dan een ruige buitenman zijn geweest, hij had zeker een liberale inslag met zijn uitgesproken mening over de rechten van zowel Indianen als vrouwen, en hoewel hij bekend werd als doder van de buffels sprak hij zich uit voor conservering van dit Amerikaanse symbool. Hij was tegenstander van de huidenjacht en vóór instelling van een jachtseizoen.

Vanuit zijn ervaring als verkenner met respect voor de oorspronkelijke bevolking zei hij eens:

"Ieder gevecht met Indianen dat ik heb meegemaakt was het gevolg van het breken van beloftes en verdragen door de regering."

Ondanks de manier waarop Indianen werden tentoongesteld in zijn Wild-Westshows beijverde hij zich voor betere behandeling van deze bevolkingsgroep. Naast Sitting Bull had hij nog veel andere Indianen in dienst, niet in de laatste plaats omdat hij het gevoel had dat ze daardoor een beter leven hadden. Hij noemde hen "de vroegere vijand, huidige vriend, de Amerikaan."

In 1896 stichtte Cody, samen met enkele geldschieters, de stad Cody in Wyoming. In deze stad bevindt zich tegenwoordig het "Buffalo Bill Historical Center". Op slechts 80 kilometer van het Yellowstone National Park is het een echte toeristentrekker geworden waar vaak hooggeplaatsten komen jagen.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_Bill
Zie ook An Autobiography of Buffalo Bill (Colonel W. F. Cody) by Buffalo Bill: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/12740

Zie ook: Billy Connolly Totally Looks Like Buffalo Bill Cody



Wink http://totallylookslike.icanhascheezburger.com/2008/10/21/billy-connolly-totally-looks-like-buffalo-bill-cody/
En zie dan ook http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vItQtTZTcAk
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Lansdowne "Peace Letter" of 1917 and the prospect of peace by negotiation with Germany
Australian Journal of Politics and History, March 2002, Douglas Newton

Lansdowne suggested that, while Britain was fighting on for both reparation and security, security was the more practical and the more vital of these aims. Complete security, obtained from an honourable end to the war, would be "a great achievement", he argued. Greater still would be an end to the war which might "prevent the same curse from falling upon our children". For, Lansdowne prophesied, if there was to be a second war, "the prostitution of science for purposes of pure destruction" would be still more horrific. How could security from such a disaster be achieved? Rather than the standard knock-out blower's answer, the indispensability of an Allied military victory, Lansdowne answered that the best hope for post-war security lay in "an international pact", that is, in multilateral guarantees to submit international disputes to arbitration and to coerce "a Power which breaks away from the rest". This project of collective security, based on compulsory arbitration, Lansdowne reminded his readers, had already been endorsed by Wilson and Bethmann-Hollweg in speeches in May and November 1916. Similarly, it had been endorsed by the Austrian government in its Reply to the Papal Peace Note of August 1917, by Count Czernin in a speech in October 1917, and by Balfour in his reply of 10 January 1917 to the Wilson Peace Note of December 1916. How would aggressors be dealt with under this scheme, Lansdowne asked? Military and commercial sanctions were available.

http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go1877/is_1_48/ai_n6764517/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Exhibition of the Vorticists at the Penguin, 1917 January 10



http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/searchimages/images/item_10526.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt Quote

"The things that will destroy America are prosperity-at-any- price, peace-at-any-price, safety-first instead of duty-first, the love of soft living, and the get-rich-quick theory of life."
— T.R., 10 January 1917

http://www.shmoop.com/theodore-teddy-roosevelt/quotes.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mata Hari & Margueritte Francillard

Margueritte Francillard was the first French national shot for spying on the 10th January 1917. Mlle Dufays met the same end in March of the same year. The Mata Hari affair, in part due to the character's ambiguous behaviour, was just one more occasion to strengthen national unity - the British archives even show that she never gave the Germans any crucial information.

http://www.cheminsdememoire.gouv.fr/page/affichegh.php?idLang=en&idGH=258
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Trotter, Bernard Freeman, Letter, 10 January 1917



Jan. 10. 1917 Dear People, Yesterday, for the first time, I was actually in the front line trenches, about a hundred yards from the Bosch. He was obligingly very quiet. I am not with my own company, having been loaned to another for a few days, but I expect we shall be changing over in the few days, so I shall probably be staying here for a time. It's not a bad place considering the time it has been exposed to shell-fire. Of course the Germans don't shell it all the time. There are too many places just about like it along the front; and they haven't shells to waste. We had rather an amusing experience getting here. I was out with a fatigue party on Monday, got back at 4.00 & found the order waiting for me, and my kit already gone. So I had tea, and about 6.00 started out with my servant Bayley, who had been here before & thought he knew the way. My bump of locality told me that we were going wrong; and I suggested that our movements seemed rather circular, but he thought he was all right. We asked directions; but in this land of twists & turnings, and in the dark and rain we found them rather difficult to follow. We should have been here in 45 minutes. At the end of two hours we found ourselves in a village about 10 minutes walk from the place we started from. Here, however, we found someone who directed us with more than customary intelligence and in half an hour we were at our billet -- just in time for dinner. When I got back from the course on Sunday I found a great accumulation of mail, including all your letters from Dec 8. to 17. I was sorry to learn of the incursions of La Grippe into the family circle; but as the later word told of his expulsion, I didn't allow myself too much emotion. Marj. was quite right in guessing that I anticipated a rise out of my prairie allusion; tho' I had almost forgotten it in the kaleidoscopic events of the last months. Rather an aside -- in answer to mother's question, Louie's house is heated like most English houses by fire-places: one in the dining-room, one in the drawing-room. The hot water is heated by the dining-room fire. Your Christmas parcel has been sent on from Leicester but has not yet reached me. I suppose the parcel post has not yet got rid of the holiday glut. Oceans of love to all, Bun.

http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/trotter-bernard-freeman-letter-10-january-1917-2
Zie ook http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/case-study/mcmaster-university-s-own-soldier-poet-bernard-trotter
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Volume 152, January 10, 1917


PRIVATE SLOGGER, JUST ARRIVED WITH LAST DRAFT AND ON GUARD DUTY FOR FIRST
TIME, FORGETS HIMSELF WHEN THE COLONEL APPEARS ACCOMPANIED BY HIS DAUGHTER.


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14135/14135-h/14135-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New York Times, January 10, 1917 – Front Page

After an unsuccessful meeting with President Wilson, the Woman’s Party plans to picket the White House.

Krantenartikel: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9806E2D61438EE32A25753C1A9679C946696D6CF
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS = 10 JANUARY 1918

NEW YEAR HONOURS - MILITARY

Companions of the Order of St Michael & St George:
GIBBON, Colonel Charles Mont, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Chief of the General Staff; BARNET, Lieut Col Louis Edward, NZ Medical Corps; FRANCIS, Major Norton, Director of Base Records in NZ

Knight Commander of the Bath:
RUSSELL, Major General Sir Andrew, C.B., K.C.M.G.

Companion of the Bath:
BEGG, Colonel Charles Mackie, C.M.G.

Companions of the Order of St Michael & St George:
DAWSON, Major Thomas Henry; FALLA, Lieut Col Norris Stephen, DSO; HALL, Lieut Col George Thompson; MILL, Temp. Lieut Col Thomas.

Bar to the D.S.O.:
KING, Lieut Col George A, DSO; STEWART, Lieut Col, Hugh, MC, DSO; WHYTE, Lieut Col James H, DSO.

Distinguished Service Order:
ALLEN, Lieut Col Stephen Shepherd; CHARTERS, Lieut Col Alex B, CMG; McCARROLL, Lieut Col James Neil; MITCHELL, Lieut Col George; NEWTON, Lieut Col Charles T H; ROW, Lieut Col Robert Amos; WESTON, Lieut Col Claude Horace; GLENDINING, Lieut Col (temp) H C; PUTTICK, Lieut Col (temp) Edward; CAMERON, Major Frederick; ENNIS, Major Wm Oliver; GIBBS, Major David John; HULBERT, Major Edward James; McRAE, Major John; MURCHISON, Major Donald Sinclair; NEWMAN, Major Clarence Nathaniel; RICHARDSON, Major Harry McK W; RICHMOND, Major James MacDonald; STITT, Major Alan Duncan; VICKERMAN, Major Hugh.

The Military Cross:
ANDERSON, Capt Forbes Herbert; ANNABELL, Capt Norman; BEETHA, Lieut Ralph Fitzroger; BLACK, Lieut Ralph John; BORRIE, Capt William Gilbert; BRIDGEMAN, 2nd Lieut Guy; BRUCE, Capt David; CONNOR, Capt John; DALLINGER, Lieut James Type; DANSEY, Capt Harry Delamere; DEAN, Lieut Arthur Gordon; DUNN, Capt Robert Wakelin; EVANS, Capt James; GLASSE, Lieut Alfred Onslow; GORDON, Capt Kenneth Farquharson; GOULDING, 2nd Lieut Fritz Stanley; GOW, 2nd Lieut Gordon Verney; HILL, Lieut Roland Justice; INGRAM, Lieut Christopher ; JEFFERY, Capt James Gordon; JOHNS, Capt Frederick Noel; KEESING, Lieut Henry Mark; LEVIEN, Lieut Edward; LYON, Lieut Gerald; MACKENZIE, Capt Hector Campbell; McGREGOR, Lieut Ewen John; McKENZIE, 2nd Lieut Charles Ronald; McLEAN, Rev Walter, chaplain; MOLLOY, Capt Cyril Henry; MORISON, Capt Bruce Haultain; RUTHERFORD, Capt Thomas Wyville; TUCK, 2nd Lieut George Albert; VENABLES, Capt Joseph Kendrick; WAINSCOTT, 2nd Lieut Albert George; WALKER, Capt William Huatahi; WATTS, Capt Malcolm McPherson; WHITE, Lieut Alfred Thomas; WILKES, Capt Thomas Martin; WILSON, Capt Newman Robert.

Royal Red Cross, Second Class:
BILLINGTON, Nurse Frances May; LOONEY, Sister Mary Frances; McGANN, Staff Nurse Susannah Josephine; TRUMBLES, Nurse Lucy Mary; WILLIS, Nurse Ida Grace.

Distinguished Conduct Medal:
BOWMAN, L/Cpl Noel David; BULLOCK, Cpl Walter Whiston; CRUICKSHANK, Pte Victor; DENSEM, Rflm John; GREIG, Driver-Sgt Frederick; GUSTAFSON, Sgt Major Wm Alfred; MANAGH, Rflm Sandy Nelson; McCREANOR, Joseph; McKENZIE, Kenneth; OHLSON, Athol Wm Merrill; PRICE, Henry Wooles; RITCHIE, Lawrence Robert; SELBY, Gnr Alfred; WADE, Sidney. [All except SELBY are mentioned in the book “The Complete NZ Distinguished Conduct Medal” collated by Alan Polaschek 1983]

Meritorious Service Medal:
CAMERON, Duncan; CHOATE, Samuel Stanley; COLEBROOK, Ernest Sydney; FORREST, Stanley Vincent; GRIFFIN, George Harry; GUY, Albert Hector; HUNT, Reginald Eames; JONES, Thomas; KENNA, Timothy; LANGRISH, James Grant; LOVELL, George Edward; MERCER, Wm James; ROBINSON, Gilbert Richard; SHAW, Lewis; WALDEN, Harold Levett

Military Medal:
CAMPBELL, Keith; KIDD, Robert; PYCROFT, Edward James; SMITH, John; WILSHER, John Frederick.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn10jan1918.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leon Trotsky, "The International: Will the Allies Throw Away the Last Chance?"
Source: The Call, 10 January 1918

The following pronouncement by L. Trotsky, the People’s Commissioner for Foreign Affairs in the Russian Government, was transmitted through the wireless stations of the Russian Government on December 29th. On Friday, January 4th, extracts were released for publication. The first paragraph appeared, and on the evening of that day the Liberal organs in the Press were demanding the reason for withholding the information for five days. The Press was, and apparently is still, without knowledge of the fact that the paragraphs published were but excerpts from a document of profound world importance.

TO ALL THE PEOPLES AND GOVERNMENTS OF THE ALLIED COUNTRIES.

The peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, between the delegation of the Russian Republic and the delegations of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria are interrupted for ten days till January 8th, with the purpose of giving the Allied countries the last possibility of taking part in the subsequent negotiations and of securing themselves against all consequences of a separate peace between Russia and the enemy countries. Two programmes have been formulated at Brest-Litovsk. The first expresses the views of the All Russian Congress of the Workmen’s, Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies. The second is in the name of the Governments of Germany and its Allies.

The programme of the Russian Government is the programme of an ultimate Socialistic democracy. This programme has for its object the creation of such conditions, first, that every nationality, independently of its strength and the level of its general evolution, should have complete freedom for its national progress, and, secondly, that all the people should be united in economical and cultural cooperation.

The programme of the Governments of the countries at war with us is characterised by the declaration that the Allied Powers (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) have not in view the forcible annexation of territories occupied during the war; that is to say, that the enemy countries are ready – in accordance with a peace treaty – to clear themselves away from the now occupied territories of Belgium, the Northern Departments of France, Serbia, Montenegro, Rumania, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland with the purpose that the future destinies of territories the nature of whose Governments is a matter of contest should be settled by the respective populations themselves. This step, which the enemy Governments are taking under the pressure of circumstances and chiefly under the pressure of their own labouring classes to meet the demands of Democracy, consists in the renouncing of new violent annexations and indemnities.

But, renouncing new annexations, the enemy Governments have they idea that the old annexations and the old violence, over the people are sanctioned by historical prescription. This means that the destinies of Alsace-Lorraine, Transylvania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and so on, upon the one side, and of Ireland, Egypt, India, Indo-China, and so on, on the other side, should not be subject to revision. Such a programme is profoundly inconsequent, and represents a compromise resting on no basis of principle between the pretensions of Imperialism and the demands of the Labouring Democracy. Nevertheless, the submission of such a programme is a big step forward.

The Governments of the Allied peoples (those in alliance with Russia) have not joined in the peace negotiations up to the present, and they have sternly refused to state clearly the reasons for their attitude. It is impossible now to affirm that the war is for freeing Belgium, the Northern Departments of France, Serbia, and so on, because Germany and her Allies are expressing their willingness to withdraw from these territories if a general peace is concluded.

Now that the enemies have declared their peace conditions it is impossible to solve the existing difficulties by general expressions as to the necessity of carrying the war onto the end. It is necessary to state clearly what is the peace programme of France, Italy, Great Britain, and the United States. Are they asking, like ourselves, that the right of the determination of their own destinies should be given to the peoples of Alsace-Lorraine, Galicia, Posen, Bohemia, and South Slavonia? If they are doing so, are they willing also to recognise the right to the determination of their own destinies in the case of the peoples of Ireland, Egypt, India, Madagascar, Indo-China, and other countries, just as under the Russian Revolution this right has been given to the peoples of Finland, Ukrainia, White Russia, and other districts? It is clear that the demand that the right of self-determination be given to peoples who are a part of the enemy States, and to refuse this right to peoples of their own States or their own colonies would mean the putting forward of the programme of the most cynical imperialism

If the Governments of the Allied countries would express their readiness, together with the Russian Government, to found a peace upon the complete and unconditional recognition of the principle of self-determination for all peoples in all States, if they would begin by the giving of this right to the oppressed peoples of their own States, this would create such international conditions that when the inherently contradictory programmes, of Germany, and especially Austro-Hungary, were shown in all their weakness objection would be overcome by the pressure of all the interested peoples. But up to the present, the Allied Governments have in no way shown, and, in view of their class character, they could not show, their readiness to accept a really democratic peace. They are not less suspicious and hostile in regard to the principle of national self-determination than are the Governments of Germany and Austro-Hungary. Upon this point the awakened proletariat of the Allied countries have as few illusions as ourselves. With the existing attitude of the Governments, all that is possible is that the programme of Imperialistic compromise, which is the basis of the peace conditions of Germany should be met by another programme of Imperialistic compromise or the war be continued. But now, when at Brest-Litovsk two programmes are before us, it becomes necessary to give a clear and categorical reply. Ten days were given for the continuation of the peace negotiations. Russia is not depending in these negotiations upon having the agreement of the Allied Governments. If these continue to be opposed to a general peace, the Russian delegation will nevertheless continue the peace negotiations. A separate peace signed by Russia undoubtedly will be a severe blow to the Allied countries, first of all to France, and to Italy. The provision of the inevitable consequences of a separate peace must determine the policy not only of Russia, but also of France and Italy, and all the other Allied countries. The Russian Government has striven all the time for a general peace. Nobody can deny the importance of the results obtained in this respect, but as to the future, all depends upon the Allied peoples themselves. To force their own Governments to state immediately their peace programmes and to participate in the peace negotiations has become a matter of national self-preservation with the various Allied peoples. The Russian Revolution has opened the way to an immediate general peace on the basis of agreement. If the Allied Governments are willing to make use of the last opportunity, general negotiations could be started immediately in one of the neutral countries. In these negotiations, with the conditions that there should be complete publicity, the Russian Delegation would continue to defend the programme of International Socialistic Democracy as opposed to the Imperialistic programme of the Governments, Allied and enemy alike. The success of our programme will depend upon the degree in which the will of the Imperialistic classes will be paralysed by the work of the Revolutionary proletariat in every country. If the Allied Governments with the blind tenacity which is characteristic of decadent perishing classes again refuse to take part in peace negotiations, then the working classes will be placed under the iron necessity of grasping the authority from the hands of those who cannot, or will not, give peace to the peoples.

In these ten days the destinies of hundreds of thousands and of millions of human lives will be settled. If on the French and Italian fronts an armistice is not concluded before there is a new offensive, irrational, pitiless and useless, like all those that have preceded, will demand new and incalculable sacrifices on both sides. This war, begun by the dominating classes, logically is leading to the complete destruction of European nations. But the people will live, and they have the right to live. They must overthrow all those who are not permitting them to live freely. Addressing the Governments with the present proposal to take part in peace negotiations, we promise every support to the working classes of every country which will rise against their own national Imperialists, chauvinists and militarists, under the banner of peace, the brotherhood of people, and the Socialist reconstruction of society.

(Signed) L. TROTSKY,
People’s’ Commissioner for Foreign Affairs.

MANIFESTO of the International Zimmerwald Socialist Commission and the Foreign Representatives of the Executive Committee of the Bolsheviks: –

“Men and women workers! On November 7th, in Petrograd, the workers and soldiers won a victory over the Government of capitalists and landowners. .... As you read this manifesto, the Baltic fleet, the army in Finland and the vast majority of the soldiers at the front and in the rear are ranged under the flag of the Government of the Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils. The Government just hurled from power, and which had been set up by the people on the ruins of Tsarism, trod under foot the popular interests; raised the price of bread in the interests of the landowners.; left the war profiteers untouched; gave the masses courts-rnartial instead of freedom; made no attempt to enter into peace negotiations, but continued to drive the soldiers and workers to war, as the hostages of the Allied capitalist classes. The workers and soldiers of Petrograd drove out this Government, as they had previously driven out the Tsar. Their first word is Peace. They demand an immediate armistice, immediate peace negotiations, which must lead to the conclusion of an honourable peace without annexations or contributions, and on the basis of the right of every nation to decide its own fate. Men and women workers! Red Petrograd is appealing to you – to you, before whom stands the spectre of a fourth war winter; with his ice-cold hands outstretched towards your sons, fathers and brothers. The next word lies with you.

“However courageous the Russian workers and soldiers may, be, they cannot, alone, win bread, freedom or peace. The capitalists, landowners and generals of Russia, all the forces of exploitation and oppression, will use every effort to drown the Workers’ and Soldiers’ Revolution in blood. They will attempt to cut off the supply of foodstuffs to the towns; and they will egg on the Cossacks against the Revolution. This internal foe is not the only deadly danger threatening the pacifist policy of the Russian Revolution. The Governments of the Central Powers, as those of the Allies, are enemies of the Russian Revolution, for the latter paves the way for the liberation of the masses the world over. The Central Powers may attempt to take advantage of civil war to gain new victories, thereby strengthening the waning will of their peoples to continue the war. The Entente countries will help the counter-revolutionaries with money. Workers of all countries – it is a question of your own vital interests, of your own blood!

“If the Russian Revolution is defeated by the combined efforts of Russian and foreign capital, the capitalist classes will drag you from one battlefield to the other, until you are bled to death. We appeal, not for words of sympathy, but for real help in the fight. Rise in your might, go forth into the streets, exert pressure on your Government by every means at your disposal. There must not be a fourth winter campaign. Do not accept high-sounding peace-loving phrases. Judge each Government in accordance with its readiness to conclude an immediate armistice on all fronts; in accordance with its readiness to enter into negotiations and to conclude peace.

“We invite the representatives of all parties which intend to take part in this struggle for peace to Stockholm. Make insistent and energetic demands for passports, demand the liberation of imprisoned comrades who enjoy the confidence of the International proletariat, so that they, too, may take part in the work for peace. Let us have a speedy armistice! Let not another shot be heard! Forward for peace negotiations! Rise for the struggle for peace based on the free desires of all the peoples! Long live the international solidarity of the proletariat! Long live Socialism!”


http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/01/international-appeal.htm
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Ukraine's Plea for Inclusion in Brest-Litovsk Peace Negotiations, 10 January 1918

Reproduced below is the text of Ukrainian President Vinichenko's formal plea for inclusion in the German-Russian peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, on 10 January 1918.

With the disintegration of the Russian monarchy in February 1917 nationalist Ukrainian leaders (led by Vinichenko) moved swiftly to seek a form of independence within the Russian union, a desire granted by the Provisional Government in July 1917. With the success of the Bolshevik October Revolution of the same year however, the Ukrainians found themselves accused of essentially aiding and abetting anti-Bolshevik forces within Russia.

Ukrainian President Vinichenko consequently issued a proclamation of autonomy on 20 November 1917 in response to the unrest within Russia. He reiterated the Ukraine's desire to remain autonomous within a wider Russian union - to no avail. The following month, December 1917, brought the Ukraine into civil war against Bolshevik forces (click here to read Lenin's ultimatum on the subject).

Ultimately the Ukrainians sought protection from the Germans with whom they negotiated a peace treaty at Best-Litovsk in 1918. Exacting a heavy economic price for their support the Germans duly took the Ukrainians' side and obliged the Bolsheviks to accept an autonomous Ukraine. The Ukraine declared independence on 22 January 1918.

Ukrainian President Vinichenko's Appeal to the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, 10 January 1918

1. The entire democracy of the Ukrainian State is striving for the termination of the war, for peace throughout the entire world, and a general peace between all the belligerent powers must be democratic and must assure to every people, even the smallest, full and unlimited national self-determination.

2. The peace which is to be concluded between all the powers must be democratic and must assure to every people, event the smallest, full and unlimited national self-determination.

3. In order to render possible the real expression of the people's will, proper guarantees must be given.

4. Any annexation that means annexation by force or the surrender of any portion of territory without the consent of its population is therefore inadmissible.

5. Any war indemnities, without regard to the form given them, are from the standpoint of the interests of the working classes also inadmissible.

6. In conformity with regulations to be drawn up at the peace congresses, material assistance must be given to small nations and States which in consequence of the war have suffered considerable losses or devastations.

7. The Ukrainian Republic, which at present occupies the Ukrainian front on its own territory and is represented in all international affairs by its Government, whose duty is the protection of the Ukrainian people's interests and which acts independently, must, like other powers, be allowed to participate in all peace negotiations, conferences, and congresses.

8. The power of the (Petrograd) Council of Commissioners does not extend to the whole of Russia, and therefore not to the Ukrainian Republic. Any eventual peace resulting from negotiations with the powers waging war against Russia can therefore be binding for the Ukraine only if the terms of this peace are accepted and signed by the Government of the Ukraine Republic.

9. In the name of all Russia only such a Government (and it must be an exclusively Federal Government) can conclude peace as would be recognized by all the republics and regions of Russia possessing a State organism. If, however, such a Government cannot he formed in the near future, then this peace can only be concluded by the united representatives of those republics and regions.

Firmly adhering to the principle of a democratic peace, the Secretariat General is also striving for the speediest possible attainment of this general peace, and attaches great weight to all attempts which can bring its realization nearer. The Secretariat therefore considers it imperative to have its representatives at the conference, while at the same time it hopes that a final solution of the peace question will be reached at an international congress.

VINICHENKO
President of the Secretariat

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/ukraine_brestlitovsk.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 18:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Re-organising the British Army

On the 15th December 1917 the treaty of Brest-Litovsk was finally signed by the Communist government and Russia was definitively out of the war.

The following month Lloyd George agreed to the British Army taking over even more of the front line from the French, it's area of responsibility would henceforth stretch from Ypres in Flanders down to the Oise River south of St Quentin.

Haig informed the British Government that he previewed the need for about 600 000 men in 1918 to cover his losses, both already accrued and those to come. Even in moments of comparative tranquillity the British Army suffered some 2 000 casualties every week through routine bombardments, trench raids and their own operations to make sure that the Germans had little rest.

Lloyd George said he could have a 100 000, working on the principle that what Haig didn't have he couldn't waste in futile attacks.

The result was the decision to reorganise the British Army, reducing each division by one brigade to leave three. The men from the disbanded units would be transferred to other battalions. The order went out on the 10th January 1918 with instructions to the effect that Regular Army battalions and those in the 1st Line Territorial Army (those with a designation such as 1/5th Bn) should not be broken up.

With the make up of the Army as it was with some divisions being New Army (Kitchener men) others Territorial, some a mixture, the disbandments were far from evenly spread. Some of the disbandments were greeted with bitter resentment as men who had served together were drafted out into the unknown.

This reorganisation was completed by the 4th March according to the paper work but undoubtedly it would take some units time to acclimatise into their new surroundings.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_kaiser.htm
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The First great War and the Instauration of INCE (1914-1918)

By 1914 with the outbreak of the First Great War and following similar actions in other countries, the necessity for closing the stock markets from 1 August became apparent. The closure lasted until 1 October 1917 and during that period the foreign exchange quotations were assured by " committees for the daily fixing of foreign exchange rates" set up for that very purpose at the Chambers of commerce Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma and Torino (Royal Decree 919 of 30 August 1914 and Ministerial Decree of 1 September 1914 issued by the Ministers for Agriculture, Industry and Trade in concert with the Treasury Minister). These committees were chaired by the president of the local Chamber of commerce and the directors of the local branches of the central bank and of local banks, businessmen involved with exchange rate negotiations and foreign exchange brokers. Nominations to the committees was done by the president of the local Chamber of commerce.

Fixing meetings were held twice weekly on Tuesday and Friday between 1400 and 1500 hours. The fixing was decided on the basis of declarations and information on the prices in cash and letters of credit in Paris, London, Berlin, Vienna, New York and Buenos Aires.

The Ministers for Agriculture, Industry and Trade in concert with the Treasury Minister had responsibility for publishing in the Royal Official Gazette the average of exchange rates fixed on the above markets. The Treasury Minister decided the rate to apply for payment of customs duties.

From 20 April 1915 the fixing was done on a daily basis: this was set out in the Ministerial Decree of 15 April 1915 on communication of exchange rates fixed on foreign markets. In October of that year with Ministerial decree of 22 October 1915 the fixing was distinguished between Chèque and telegraphic payments.

The October Decree also gave Chambers of commerce the power to publish the exchange rates fixed by their respective committees. These exchange rates, however, did not have official status since the single exchange rate having full legal force for payments in foreign currency remained that fixed by the Ministers and published in the Official Gazette (Trade Regulations Art. 39) .

The official rate took on especial importance with the issue of Legislative decree 224 of 27 February 1916 on payments in gold. It set down that "for the duration of the war all payments to be made for contracts carrying the clause "in gold" or its equivalent shall be made in legal currency at the official rate on the day payments are due".

From 1916 to 1917, despite the war, daily contracting in foreign exchange continued to grow substantially to the point where, to meet the urgent demands of traders, it was decreed to re-open Italian Stock Exchanges as from 1 October 1917 (Regent Legislative Decree 1407 of 2 September 1917) under the following conditions:

the only operations permitted to the Stock Exchanges were to be buy, both for securities and exchange;

all Stock Markets following the same timetable, from 10.45 to 11.15 and for 14.15 to 15.00 on working days;

the Stock list shall contain, in chronological order, all prices fixed, and for consolidated earnings and exchange rates, also average prices;

stock brokers and persons temporarily admitted to the outcry trading floor shall declare all prices fixed, specifying the amount of contracts made;

the average exchange rates as per Article 39 of the Trading Regulations shall be fixed by the Treasury Minister and by the Ministers for Industry, Trade and Labor on the basis of the averages for the Stock Exchanges of Genova, Milano, Napoli, Roma, and Torino. The Re-opening decree also stipulated the end of the functions of the fixing committees set up in 1914.

The stock markets functioned with regularity only a few weeks. In late October Italy's military situation worsened significantly with the defeat at Caporetto. The impact on the markets was so negative that it was felt better to suspend all Stock market trading as from 10 November and to re-instate the former committees for the fixing of foreign exchange rates.

With the closing of the Exchanges a period of heavy monetary restriction followed which led to on 11 December of the same year the creation of the National Institute for Foreign Exchange (Istituto Nazionale per i Cambi con l'Estero - INCE) which " would have responsibility for the duration of the War and for six weeks after the cease of hostilities for trading in any form that could serve to make payments outside of Italy" (Regent legislative Decree 1956 of 11 December 1917).

The work of INCE in fixing foreign exchange rates began with the application of Regent legislative Decree 26 of 10 January 1918 which established that for the duration of the war gold prices, as per Art. 39 of the Trade Regulations and RLD 224 of 28 July 1916 would be decided in accordance with the Ministers for Industry, Trade and Labor and the Treasury Minister. These decisions were to be taken, as a rule, on Saturday of every week on the basis of buying and selling prices in London and fixed by INCE for the following week.

http://uif.bancaditalia.it/UICFEWebroot/DocServlet?id=new/en/cambi/2-docu/1/normativa-2.xml
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German anti tank rifle

The background was that in October 1917 the Rifle Testing Committee (G.P.K.) had received orders from the War Ministry to develop a large calibre machine gun for use against tanks and aircraft to be ready for Spring 1918. They responded saying this was not possible but a rifle should be developed quickly, especially given the serious problem with tanks.

When the order for the rifle deveopment was given to Mauser on 27 November 1917 the calibre was still undecided, whether it should be 13mm or 15mm, rimmed or rimless. In December 1917 the development of the cartridge was given to Polte and the G.P.K. decided it should be 13mm and rimmed, and on 10 January 1918 the first firing trials took place. Development was completed by March 1918 and the first production ammunition is dated April 1918.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=99416
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French push for British to extend even further

On 15 December 1917, the War Office cabled Haig to say that new French Prime Minister Clemenceau - he took office in November - had threatened to resign if the British did not extend as far as Berry-au-Bac, a further 37 miles of front on from Barisis. Haig reluctantly arranged with Pétain to extend down to a short distance beyond the River Oise. The extension of the line began on 10 January 1918, with Lieutenant-General Sir Hubert Gough's Fifth Army being given the unenviable task of preparing to be attacked.

http://www.1914-1918.net/extension.htm
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Toespraak "An das Deutsche Volk" van keizer Wilhelm II op 6 augustus 1914. Heropname, gemaakt op 10 januari 1918

"An das Deutsche Volk! Seit der Reichsgründung ist es durch 43 Jahre mein und meiner Vorfahren heißes Bemühen gewesen, der Welt den Frieden zu erhalten und im Frieden unsere kraftvolle Entwicklung zu fördern. Aber die Gegner neiden uns den Erfolg unserer Arbeit. Alle offenkundige und heimliche Feindschaft von Ost und West, von jenseits der See, haben wir bisher ertragen im Bewusstsein unserer Verantwortung und Kraft. Nun aber will man uns demütigen. Man verlangt, dass wir mit verschränkten Armen zusehen, wie unsere Feinde sich zu tückischem Überfall rüsten. Man will nicht dulden, dass wir in entschlossener Treue zu unserem Bundesgenossen stehen, der um sein Ansehen als Großmacht kämpft und mit dessen Erniedrigung auch unsere Macht und Ehre verloren ist. Es muss denn das Schwert nun entscheiden. Mitten im Frieden überfällt uns der Feind. Darum auf zu Waffen! Jedes Schwanken, jedes Zögern wäre Verrat am Vaterlande. Um Sein oder Nichtsein unseres Reiches handelt es sich, das unsere Väter sich neu gründeten. Um Sein oder Nichtsein deutscher Macht und deutschen Wesens. Wir werden uns wehren bis zum letzten Hauch von Mann und Ross. Und wir werden diesen Kampf bestehen, auch gegen eine Welt von Feinden. Noch nie war Deutschland überwunden, wenn es einig war. Vorwärts mit Gott, der mit uns sein wird, wie er mit den Vätern war."

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/dossiers/24511541/
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Secretary of State for Air

The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet level British position. The person holding this position was in charge of the Air Ministry. It was created on 10 January 1919 to manage the Royal Air Force. On 1 April 1964, the Air Ministry was incorporated into the Ministry of Defence and the position of Secretary of State for Air was abolished.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Secretary_of_State_for_Air
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The Free State of Bottleneck
Frank Jacobs, September 2007



In the 20th century, Allied forces occupied Germany not just once, but twice. The better-known (and longer-lasting) occupation took place in the decades after World War II. The lesser-known one occurred after World War I. For a few years after 1918, British, French and American forces took up positions in the Rhineland, wholly occupying the area west of the river Rhine – but eventually also some areas on the Rhine’s right bank.

One of the unintended consequences of that expansion of Allied military sovereignty over the Rhine was the creation of the so-called Freistaat Flaschenhals, literally translated: the Free State of Bottleneck, after its geographic shape. This miniature quasi-state existed for just a bit over four years, from 10 January 1919 until 25 February 1923.

Flaschenhals came into being after the Allies extended their jurisdiction in a 30 km radius from the Rhine-side cities of Cologne (UK), Koblenz (US) and Mainz (France). Because of the proximity of Mainz and Koblenz, the US and French ‘circles’ of occupation across the Rhine didn’t quite overlap. The resulting bottleneck-shaped area between both circles contained the Wisper valley, which comprises the towns of Lorch and Kaub, and the villages of Lorchhausen, Sauerthal, Ransel, Wollmerschied, Welterod, Zorn, Strüth and Egenrod.

The Wispertal wasn’t just hemmed in on two sides by the American and French zones of occupation, but also cut off from the rest of unoccupied Weimar Germany by the Taunus mountain-range in the east. Thus effectively left to fend for themselves, the approximately 8.000 people of the Wisper Valley declared their independence in early 1919, declaring Lorch its capital and electing the mayor of that largest city in the valley its president. Herr Präsident Pnischneck oversaw the administration of the ministate, which even produced its own stamps, currency and passports.

Since transportation by land, air and water was impossible and trains were not permitted to stop in Flaschenhals, the main source of income of the ministate was smuggling. At one time, this even involved hijacking a French coal train in nearby Rüdesheim and driving it to Flaschenhals, where the contents were distributed among the population.

Flaschenhals felt confident enough to draw up plans for an embassy in Berlin. The Free State was abolished before this could happen. Following the French occupation of the Ruhr area in 1923, Flaschenhals was eventually reincorporated into the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.

The history of the Flaschenhals may not be widely known outside the area itself, but there it is an added tourist attraction, mainly in the towns of Lorch and Kaub. Not that tourists are scarce in the area, which is part of the Unesco World Heritage Site of the Rhine Gorge.

http://bigthink.com/ideas/21231
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Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation

No 13 Squadron

Like so many other units formed at this time, No 13 was a corps reconnaissance squadron, forming at Gosport on 10 January 1915 and moving to France the following October. Initially equipped with BE 2s, it received RE 8s in April 1917, operating these until Mar 1919 when it was reduced to cadre and eventually disbanded on the last day of 1919.

http://www.rafweb.org/Sqn011-15.htm
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West Virginia Archives and History: When The Socialists Ran Star City
By Stephen Cresswell

On the night of January 10, 1915, ecstatic Socialists paraded in the streets of Star City, a village a few miles distant from Morgantown, the Monongalia County seat and home of the state university. Having just won their fourth consecutive municipal election, party members had valid reason to celebrate. The 1915 race had been especially hard fought, with members of the rival Citizens' party exerting every effort to oust the Socialists. Mayor William Shay led the parade, beating a big bass drum. The Morgantown New Dominion noted that Shay "allowed his enthusiasm to get the better of him," and burst both sides of the drum. The parading Socialists visited the homes of Citizens' party members and serenaded the losing candidates. Finally Mayor Shay addressed the crowd, arguing that it was a shame "citizens of the town found it necessary to divide along political lines," and invited the uninitiated to join the Socialist movement. As the parade broke up, everyone headed to Socialist Hall, where supporters of both parties enjoyed a dance.

Lees verder op http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh52-5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 22:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Officers and men of the 11th Battalion, AIF photographed on 10 January 1915 at the Great Pyramid near Mena Camp shortly after their arrival in Egypt.



http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/2visiting/graves/g_lonepine.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 09 Jan 2011 22:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Frank John Scott & Cleve James Scott

Cleve James Scott

Cleve Scott was a remarkable young man who distinguished himself in battle. Cleve held the rank of Second Lieutenant when he enlisted with the Australian Imperial Force Infantry Reinforcements at Adelaide on 10 January, 1916.

Mooi PDF'je... http://www.gawler.sa.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/Frank_and_Cleve_Scott.pdf
Nog meer PDF's uit Gawler: http://www.gawler.sa.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=488
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2011 11:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Army Capstone Concept & the Genesis of German World War One Assault Squad & Infiltration Tactics - The Historical Linkage
by Dave Shunk

Lessons learned and refinements were immediately applied to the organization, tactics and weapons by Captain Rohr. Highly successful combat tests occurred again in January 1916 and later in February 1916 at a battle and place called Verdun.

Timeline – notice the quick implementation – two months to the first combat test and six months to complete combat testing and experimentation.

1915 – 8 August 1915 – Captain Rohr takes command of the experimental unit
1915 – 12 October 1915 – First combat test & success of squad tactics & weapons in Vosges Mountains
1916 – 10 January 1916 – First combat test of the complete assault detachment, again in Vosges Mountains
1916 – 22 February 1916 - Assault Detachment successfully fights at Verdun

Lees verder op http://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/journal/docs-temp/487-shunk.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 14:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 10 januari 1914
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

De hervormingen in Klein Azië

PARIJS, 9 Januari. Naar de Temps verneemt zijn de moeilijkheden, bij de onderhandelingen tusschen Rusland, Duitschland en de Porte gerezen over de hervormingen in Armenië, uit den weg geruimd. De kwestie der inspecteurs-generaal is geregeld in dien zin, dat de Porte ze zal benoemen uit een door de groote mogendheden opgemaakte lijst van candidaten, behoorende tot onzijdige staten.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-10-1-1914.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 14:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 januari 1914

10. 1. Freispruch für Oberst Adolf von Reuter, den Hauptverantwortlichen in der sogenannten Zabern-Affäre
http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/1914/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 14:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 januari 1914
10. Januar: Alberto Garelli bezwingt mit einem selbst gebauten Motorrad den 1925 Meter hohen, tief verschneiten Pass von Mont Cenis in der Nähe von Moncenisio bei klirrender Kälte, ein Unternehmen, das zur damaligen Zeit als unmöglich galt.

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/1914
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 15:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tagesübersicht: 10. Januar 1914

http://anno.onb.ac.at/cgi-content/anno?datum=19140110&zoom=33
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

January 10 - 1914:
Quote:
The Munich Police inform Linz, where Hitler is wanted for failing to register for military service, that he is living at 34/III Schleissheimerstrasse, Munich


http://htbo.tripod.com/ht5.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 10 Jan 2014 17:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

10 January - 1914

Quote:
In the long running Saverne (or Zabern) affair in Alsace Lorraine (then part of Germany, previously and later, part of France), two senior German military officers are acquitted of charges of unlawfully appropriating authority from the civilian police. The Prussian elite and the emperor Wilhelm are jubilant, but “Alsatians and Lorrainers felt themselves more helplessly at the mercy of the arbitrariness of the German military than ever”
[Wikipedia].

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saverne_Affair
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