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7 Januari

 
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2006 16:15    Onderwerp: 7 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 7

1915 Bolshevik envoy approaches German ambassador in Turkey


As Bolshevik groups work to foment revolution among Russia’s peasants, Alexander Helphand, a wealthy Bolshevik businessman working as a German agent, approaches the German ambassador to Turkey in Constantinople to let him know how closely German and Bolshevik interests are aligned.

“The interests of the German government are identical with those of the Russian revolutionaries,” Helphand claimed. The Bolsheviks were working feverishly to destroy the czarist regime and break the country into smaller socialist republics. At the same time, Germany was depending on a major upheaval within Russia to break the stalemate on the Eastern Front and push the immense but volatile country toward peace negotiations with the Germans. Helphand persuaded the German Foreign Ministry that a mass strike was the key to revolution in Russia—and that Germany should lend a hand to the Bolsheviks in their efforts to engineer that strike.

The conversation marked the beginning of Germany’s growing interest in the fomentation of the Russian revolution—an interest that culminated in their facilitation, in April 1917, of the return of exiled Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin from Switzerland to Petrograd in a train that passed over German soil. His journey was the result of efforts made by the German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmermann, to convince the kaiser and the army that Lenin’s presence was paramount to the success of revolution in Russia—a revolution Germany should support despite the inherent threat Marxism posed to imperial regimes like the kaiser’s. Germany did not have to wait long to see the results of its investment. In November 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks seized power. Barely a month later, Russia sought peace with Germany.

http://www.historychannel.com/
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2006 16:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 7. Januar

1914

1915
Die Franzosen bei Sennheim zurückgeworfen

1916
Vertreibung der Russen vom Kirchhof von Czartorysk

1917
Russischer Entlastungsangriff bei Focsani zusammengebrochen - Der Mgr. Odobesci vom Münchener Leibregiment erstürmt

1918
Heftige Artillerietätigkeit an der Westfront

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 13:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Calvin Coolidge: Have faith in Massachusetts: Massachusetts Senate President Acceptance Speech Jan. 7, 1914

Honorable Senators:

I thank you, with gratitude for the high honor given, with appreciation for the solemn obligations assumed, I thank you.

The commonwealth is one. We are all members of one body. The welfare of the weakest and the welfare of the most powerful are inseparably bound together. Industry cannot flourish if labor languish. Transportation cannot prosper if manufactures decline. The general welfare cannot be provided for in any one act, but it is well to remember that the benefit of one id the benefit of all, and the neglect of one is the neglect of all. The suspension of one man's dividends is the suspension of another man's pay envelope.

Men do not make laws. They do but discover them. Laws must be justified by something more than the will of the majority. They must rest on the eternal foundation of righteousness. That state is most fortunate in its form of government which has the aptest instruments for the discovery of laws. The latest, most modern, and nearest perfect system that statesmanship has devised is representative government. Its weakness is the weakness of us imperfect human beings who administer it. Its strength is that even such administration secures to the people more blessings than any other system ever produced.

No nation has discarded it and retained liberty. Representative government must be preserved. Courts are established, not to determine the popularity of a cause, but to adjudicate and enforce rights. No litigant should be required to submit his case to the hazard and expense of a political campaign. No judge should be required to seek or receive political rewards. The courts of Massachusetts are known and honored wherever men love justice. Let their glory suffer no diminution at our hands. The electorate and judiciary cannot combine. A hearing means a hearing. When the trial of causes goes outside the court room, Anglo Saxon constitutional government ends. The people cannot look to legislation generally for success. Industry, thrift, character, are not conferred by act or re solve.

Government cannot relieve from toil. It can provide no substitute for the rewards of service. It can, of course, care for the defective and recognize distinguished merit. The normal must care for themselves. Self government means self support. Man is born into the universe with a personality that is his own. He has a right that is founded upon the constitution of the universe to have property that is his own. Ultimately, property rights and personal rights are the same thing. The one cannot be preserved if the other be violated. Each man is entitled to his rights and the rewards of his service be they never so large or never so small.

History reveals no civilized people among whom there were not a highly educated class, and large aggregations of wealth, represented usually by the clergy and the nobility. Inspiration has always come from above. Diffusion of learning has come down from the university to the common school, the kindergarten is last. No one would now expect to aid the common school by abolishing higher education. It may be that the diffusion of wealth works in an analogous way. As the little red schoolhouse is builded in the college, it may be that the fostering and protection of large aggregations of wealth are the only foundation on which to build the prosperity of the whole people. Large profits mean large pay rolls. But profits must be the result of service performed. In no land are there so many and such large aggregations of wealth as here; in no land do they perform larger service; in no land will the work of a day bring so large a reward in material and spiritual welfare.

Have faith in Massachusetts. In some unimportant detail some other States may surpass her, but in the general results, there is no place on earth where the people secure, in a larger measure, the blessings of organized government, and nowhere can those functions more properly be termed self government. Do the day's work. If it be to protect the rights of the weak, whoever objects, do it. If it be to help a powerful corporation better to serve the people, whatever the opposition, do that. Expect to be called a stand patter, but don't be a stand patter. Expect to be called a demagogue, but don't be a demagogue. Don't hesitate to be as revolutionary as science. Don't hesitate to be as reactionary as the multiplication table. Don't expect to build up the weak by pulling down the strong. Don't hurry to legislate. Give administration a chance to catch up with legislation. We need a broader, firmer, deeper faith in the people; A faith that men desire to do right, that the Commonwealth is founded upon a righteousness which will endure, a reconstructed faith that the final approval of the people is given not to demagogues, slavishly pandering to their selfishness, merchandising with the clamor of the hour, but to statesmen, ministering to their welfare, representing their deep, silent, abiding convictions.

Statutes must appeal to more than material welfare. Wages won't satisfy, be they never so large. Nor houses; nor lands; nor coupons, though they fall thick as the leaves of autumn.

Man has a spiritual nature. Touch it, and it must respond as the magnet responds to the pole. To that, not to selfishness, let the laws of the Commonwealth appeal. Recognize the immortal worth and dignity of man. Let the laws of Massachusetts proclaim to her humblest citizen, performing the most menial task, the recognition of his manhood, the recognition that all men are peers, the humblest with the most exalted, the recognition that all work is glorified. Such is the path to equality before the law. Such is the foundation of liberty under the law. Such is the sublime revelation of man's relation to man, Democracy!

http://www.calvin-coolidge.org/html/_have_faith_in_massachusetts__.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 13:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British History in-depth: Panama Canal Gallery


The official inaugural voyage on the Canal, made by the 'Ancon' in 1914.

The official inaugural voyage on the Canal, made by the 'Ancon' in 1914

The first complete Panama Canal passage by a self-propelled, ocean-going vessel took place on 7 January 1914 - when the Alexandre La Valley, an old French crane boat, made that first trip.

Plans had originally been made for a grand celebration to mark the official opening of the Panama Canal on 15 August 1914, but the onset of World War One forced the cancellation of the planned festivities. The grand opening ended up as a modest affair, with the Canal cement boat, Ancon, piloted by Captain John Constantine, making the first official trip.

There were no international dignitaries to witness the historic event, although Colonel Goethals, the Canal's Chief Engineer from 1907, followed the ship up through the Canal, thanks to the Panamanian railroad.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/panama_gallery_09.shtml
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 13:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PUNCH, OR THE LONDON CHARIVARI, Vol. 146, January 7, 1914.



THE SPLENDID PAUPERS.

FIRST TURKISH OFFICIAL (presented with a photograph of the new Turkish Navy in lieu of six months' deferred pay). "SO, WE'VE GOT A DREADNOUGHT, HAVE WE?"

SECOND TURKISH OFFICIAL. "I DON'T KNOW WHO GETS THE DREAD, BUT I KNOW WE'VE GOT THE NOUGHT."


http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12294/12294-h/12294-h.htm
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 13:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Orthodox Christmas (7 January)

Orthodox churches in most countries celebrate Christmas according to the Julian calendar (“old style”), with Christmas Day falling on 7 January in the standard, Gregorian calendar. The Greek, Romanian and Bulgarian Orthodox churches, however, celebrate Christmas according to the Gregorian calendar.

http://www.hf.uio.no/ilos/english/research/projects/red-letter/rld-month/2010/1.january.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 13:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Eustace Jotham



Eustace Jotham VC (28 November 1883 – 7 January 1915) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Born in Kidderminster 28 November 1883, Jotham attended Bromsgrove School from 1899. In 1901, at the age of 18, he left to attend the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. He was commissioned into the Prince of Wales's (North Staffordshire) Regiment as a second lieutenant on 22 April 1903[1] and joined the 2nd battalion, embarking for a tour of duty in India.

In 1903 Jotham sailed to India with the North Staffords and served with them until 1905. Under the Indian Army regulations for admission paragraph 13 British army officers could transfer to the Indian army. Jotham transferred to the Indian Army on 23 June 1905 (backdated to his commissioning date in 1903) and promoted to lieutenant in the 102nd Prince of Wales's Own Grenadiers on 22 July 1905. By 1908 he had joined the 51st Sikhs and is listed in the records as a 'double company officer'. He was promoted captain on 22 April 1912.

During operations in the Tochi Valley area of the North West Frontier in 1914–1915 he was attached to the North Waziristan Militia and on 7 January 1915 was killed in action. His bravery during these operations earned him a posthumous Victoria Cross.

Citation: For most conspicuous bravery on 7th January, 1915, at Spina Khaisora (Tochi Valley).
During operations against the Khostwal tribesmen, Captain Jotham, who was commanding a party of about a dozen of the North Waziristan Militia, was attacked in a nullah and almost surrounded by an overwhelming force of some 1,500 tribesmen. He gave the order to retire, and could have himself escaped, but most gallantly sacrificed his own life by attempting to effect the rescue of one of his men who had lost his horse
.
—The London Gazette, 23 July 1915

He was buried in the Miranshar Cemetery, North Waziristan, and is commemorated on the Delhi Memorial (India Gate).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eustace_Jotham
Zie ook http://www.fylde.demon.co.uk/jotham.htm
Afbeelding: http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchdetail.cfm?trg=1&strucID=781186&imageID=1623144&total=25&num=0&parent_id=779524&word=&s=&notword=&d=&c=&f=&k=0&sScope=&sLevel=&sLabel=&lword=&lfield=&imgs=20&pos=8&snum=&e=w via http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypldigital/dgkeysearchresult.cfm?parent_id=779524&word=
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Vlaamse Beweging in 1915

Na de reeks artikelen van november en december 1914 in de Vlaamsche Gazet, is er tot nu toe geen enkel ondertekend kranteartikel van Van Ostaijen uit 1915 gesignaleerd.

In het 49ste nummer van 7 januari 1915 kondigde de Vlaamsche Gazet aan dat de naam van deze krant gewijzigd zou worden in Het Vlaamsche Nieuws. Op 14 januari verscheen het eerste nummer onder de nieuwe naam, dat echter ook opnieuw als nr. 1 van de eerste jaargang genummerd was. Het werd het ‘orgaan der vooruitstrevende Vlaamsche liberalen’ genoemd en vermeldde als voornaamste medewerkers: ‘Lode Baekelmans, Jan Bruylants, Mr. Arth. Cornette, Vict. de Meyere, Ant. Moortgat, Ary Delen e.a.’ De enige wijziging t.o.v. het eerste nummer van de Vlaamsche Gazet was dat ook hier de namen van Ben Linnig en Paul van Ostaijen ontbraken en vervangen waren door de aanduiding ‘e.a.’.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/borg006paul01_01/borg006paul01_01_0023.php
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Armenians Fight For Russia, Reno Evening Gazette, London, 7 January 1915



http://www.turkishcoalition.org/issues_ar_archive.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gent, 7 januari 1915



Merci, Paddy! http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.be/viewtopic.php?t=13814&start=50&sid=0ee7fee241431237b45d363cdba9c200
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Absinthe Prohibition in France 1915



DESCRIPTION: Less well know than Gantner's poster for the prohibition of absinthe in Switzerland, is this companion lithograph lamenting the final prohibition of absinthe in France 5 years later, by ministerial decree of 7th January 1915. In the centre, trampling the mortally wounded Green Fairy, is Raymond Poincairé, President of the French Republic, while in the background French troops are shown engaged in the first terrible battles of the Great War. The white ribbon at the bottom "Les Habitués d'..." is left blank, to allow the name of the bar or café that purchased the poster to be added.

This poster was discovered in 1970 on the premises of an old café - Le bar de l'Univers - Café Caramy in Brignoles, a small town on the route from Marseille to Cannes. In 1920 the building was condemned and walled up. 50 years later, when a new owner commenced renovations, the poster was found hanging behind a door.

http://www.feeverte.net/gallery/pages/Absinthe-Prohibition-in-France-1915-by-Gantner.html
Zie ook http://www.oxygenee.com/absinthe/posters3.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Jan 2011 14:33, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

France at War - Vauquois the Lost Village

The lost village of Vauquois in the Argonne (Le village disparu) is a testament to the enormity and ferocity of a unique underground struggle of the 1914-1918 war. There are other lost villages in France: Hurlus, Ripont and Tahure on the Champagne battlefields, and the villages of Verdun that were destroyed and left little evidence of where they once stood. Other areas were mined - the Somme, Vimy and the Argonne Forest - but it is only at Vauquois that you find surviving evidence of extreme mine warfare that continued below ground well after the village was obliterated, and when there was little hope of a breakthrough on the surface from the infantry of either side.

The Butte de Vauquois, where this tiny village once stood, is now just a mass of craters and tunnel entrances. But in 1914 this small hill 290 metres above sea level, with the Argonne massif to the west and Mort Homme to the east, was hotly contested by the Germans and French. It provided a superb observation point for road and rail traffic from the Islettes pass, and therefore, eventually, all movement to and from Verdun.

The Germans took the hill on 24th September 1914 and heavily fortified it. Between October of the same year and March 1915 the French 10th Division, under General Vaidant, mounted several counter-attacks. At first they were unsupported by artillery, using only bayonets in heroic charges. They also used, for the first and last time at Vauquois, a flame-thrower but a north wind blew it back upon their own infantry. Eventually they overcame German resistance and established themselves on the south side of the hill, with the Germans occupying the north side supported by artillery in the woods of Cheppy and Montfaucon on a 6 km front. This is where both sides stayed for the next three years, mining towards each other with increasing ferocity.

The first German miners, 30th Pioneer Battalion, arrived on 7th January 1915 and the French, who were also beginning to mine, blew their first charge on 3rd February. Initially the French had to dig vertically as their position was on a gentler slope than the Germans. They climbed up and down these first tunnels by rope and with some humour, akin to their Tommy allies, named their tunnels after stations on the Paris Metro. During this early stage small mines were used as an adjunct to infantry attacks but by March 1915 the mines increased in size to 50-1,500 kg of explosive, in tunnels at a depth of 5-15 metres.

Lees verder op http://www.worldwar1.com/france/vacquois.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

W Beach at Cape Helles, Gallipoli, 7 January 1916



W Beach (Lancashire Landing) at Cape Helles, Gallipoli, 7 January 1916, just prior to the final evacuation of British forces during the Battle of Gallipoli. The explosion of a Turkish shell in the water, fired from the Asian shore of the Dardanelles, can be seen.
Photographer: Lt. Ernest Brooks
Imperial War Museum catalogue number Q 13692.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:W_Beach_Helles_Gallipoli.jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events of the Gallipoli Campaign

7 January 1916 - Turkish forces at Helles launched a major attack on the remaining 19,000 British troops. The attack was preceded by a furious artillery bombardment but many Turkish soldiers, realising that the British were leaving the peninsula, refused to leave their trenches. The attack failed.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Mojkovac

The Battle of Mojkovac (Montenegrin: Бој на Мојковцу, Boj na Mojkovcu) was a famous World War I battle fought between 6 January and 7 January 1916 near Mojkovac, Montenegro, between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro. It ended with a Montenegrin victory.

(...) The fighting culminated on 6 and 7 January 1916 (on Orthodox Christmas; also known as 'Bloody Christmas'). Although outnumbered, led by Serdar Janko Vukotić (and with Krsto Zrnov Popović as second in command) the Montenegrin army defeated a numerically superior enemy. The Montenegrins inflicted heavy casualties on the Austro-Hungarian forces and temporarily halted their advancement, giving the Serbian Army enough time to reach the Albanian mountains and retreat.

The victory didn't last very long. The Austrians continued their offensive and by January 25, the army of Montenegro laid down its weapons.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mojkovac_battle.png
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Snowball marches

During World War I, recruitment marches or snowball marches to Sydney were a feature of volunteer recruiting drives for the Australian Imperial Force in rural New South Wales, Australia. Between October 1915 and February 1916, nine marches were held starting from various points in the state; the most notable was the first march from Gilgandra, known as the Cooee march. There was also a similar march in south-eastern Queensland. In 1918, in an effort to promote recruitment, another march was staged, but this was less spontaneous and the marchers in fact traveled by train.

The marches were called "snowball marches" in the hope that like a snowball rolling down a hill will pick up more snow, gaining more mass and surface area, and picking up even more snow as it rolls along, the marchers would also collect more marchers as they progressed to the recruiting depot.

Marches in 1915 and 1916

Kangaroo March - Eighty eight potential soldiers left Wagga Wagga on 1 December 1915. They marched via Harefield, Junee, Illabo, Bethungra, Cootamundra and Wallendbeen. At Wallendbeen on December 9, the Governor-General addressed the marchers. After Wallendbeen, they marched via Nubba to Murrumburrah and the next day they were at Harden. They then marched through Galong, Binalong and Bowning to Yass. From Wagga Wagga to Yass was a total of 132 miles, the march travelled at an average of 8.8 miles per day. As with other marches, the men were fed and feted by the local population; at Murrumburrah, for instance, donations included 114 puddings and 9 sheep to be baked gratis by the local bakers, 200 loaves of bread, 850 potatoes and 30 dozen eggs. They marched to Campbelltown via Goulburn. The Kangaroo recruits travelled from Campbelltown into Sydney by train arriving on 7 January 1916 with somewhere between 210 and 230 recruits. It had been decided that this recruitment drive would finish at Campbelltown so that a country contingent could be created. There were reports of rowdy and drunken behaviour along the route by the marchers. The best known recruit from this march was John Ryan who won the Victoria Cross.


Kangaroo March near Wallendbeen, New South Wales.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowball_marches
Zie ook http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-recruits/recruiting_marches.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 06 Jan 2011 14:50, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

RECRUITING IN JAMAICA FOR THE BRITISH WEST INDIES REGIMENT (1915 TO 1919).

(...) About this time a large number of recruiting meetings were held in various parts of the country. At these meetings patriotic speeches were made by local gentlemen and members of the Legislature, while the ser-vices of Sir Wm. H.. Manning, Brigadier General Blackden, Mr. Wm. Wilson and Miss Annie Douglas were in constant demand. Suitable recrujts were readily obtained and as transports were available, the men were accepted at Up-Park immediately on enlistment and few delays occurred. The second Contingent sailed on the 7th of January, 1916. (...)

http://www.jamaicanfamilysearch.com/Samples2/who19_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

EDWARD THOMAS - poet of the First World War

All of Edward Thomas's war poetry was written in England whilst he was in training to go to France. We therefore see in his poetry the impact of the First World War on his mind rather than his response to the experiences of battle. Rain is deeply melancholic.

RAIN

Rain, midnight rain, nothing but the wild rain
On this bleak hut, and solitude, and me
Remembering again that I shall die
And neither hear the rain nor give it thanks
For washing me cleaner than I have been
Since I was born into this solitude.
Blessed are the dead that the rain rains upon:
But here I pray that none whom once I loved
Is dying tonight or lying still awake
Solitary, listening to the rain,
Either in pain or thus in sympathy
Helpless among the living and the dead,
Like a cold water among broken reeds,
Myriads of broken reeds all still and stiff,
Like me who have no love which this wild rain
Has not dissolved except the love of death,
If love it be for what is perfect and
Cannot, the tempest tells me,
disappoint.

7 January, 1916
.

Note The hut referred to in line two is an army hut.

http://www.warpoetry.co.uk/thomas2.html
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The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1916

7th January 1916 - I had a long conversation with Count Fredericks at his house this evening. He is much upset and annoyed to find that there are intrigues going on here to make difficulties between us and the Russians, and wanted to hear if I could throw any light on the matter.

I told him there was not the slightest foundation for any such stories, and that the tales of reported moves on our part towards the Germans were laughable if they were not so mischievous.

He then spoke about the question of playing our National Anthem when compliments were being paid to the Allied representatives, owing to its similarity to the German anthem. I explained that Rule, Britannia, which has hitherto been played here on these occasions, is not our National Anthem. (This matter is referred to elsewhere in a conversation with the Emperor.)

On leaving I emphasised again the falsity of any idea of differences between our respective countries, and if bad feeling existed it must be in Russia and not at home. He then asked me to be on the watch for mischief of the kind, which I assured him I would, but it most probably existed in Petrograd, to which place I was but a rare visitor.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 14:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Rumanian Campaign, 26 Novemebr 1916 - 7 January 1917



http://www.patriotfiles.com/forum/showthread.php?p=434979
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Thomas Mottershead

Thomas Mottershead VC, DCM (17 January 1892 – 12 January 1917) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. (...)



On 7 January 1917 near Ploegsteert Wood, Belgium, Sergeant Mottershead was on patrol in FE-2d (serial number A39) with observer Lt. W E Gower when he was engaged in combat by two Albatros D.III of Jasta 8. Lt Gower managed to hit one and put it out of the action, the second Albatross however, flown by German 'ace' Leutnant Walter Göttsch (20 victories), hit Mottershead's aircraft, with the petrol tank pierced and the machine was set on fire. Enveloped in flames which his observer was unable to subdue with a handheld fire extinguisher, the Sergeant was badly burned but nevertheless managed to take his aircraft back to the Allied lines and made a successful forced landing. The undercarriage collapsed on touching the ground however, throwing the observer clear but pinning Thomas in his cockpit. He was subsequently rescued but died of his burns five days later.

Mottershead was awarded the only V.C. ever awarded to a non-commissioned RFC officer during the First World War.

Citation: "For most conspicuous bravery, endurance and skill, when attacked at an altitude of 9,000 feet; the petrol tank was pierced and the machine set on fire. Enveloped in flames, which his Observer, Lt. Gower was unable to subdue, this very gallant soldier succeeded in bringing his aeroplane back to our lines, and though he made a successful landing, the machine collapsed on touching the ground, pinning him beneath wreckage from which he was subsequently rescued. Though suffering extreme torture from burns, Sgt. Mottershead showed the most conspicuous presence of mind in the careful selection of a landing place, and his wonderful endurance and fortitude undoubtedly saved the life of his Observer. He has since succumbed to his injuries."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Mottershead
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

V. I. Lenin: The Story of One Short Period in the Life of One Socialist Party

Jan. 7, 1917. Meeting of the Swiss Socialist Party Executive. Centrist leader R. Grimm unites with social-patriot leaders to postpone indefinitely the party congress (originally appointed for Feb. 11, 1917 to discuss the war issue).

Nobs, Platten, Name and others protest and vote against.

Postponement rouses the greatest indignation among class-conscious workers.

Jan. 9. 1917. Publication of majority and minority resolutions.[1] Clear statement against fatherland defence totally lacking in majority draft (Affolter and Schmid were against this), but §3 does contain this demand: “Party parliamentary deputies shall be under obligation to reject, stating their principled grounds, all war demands and credits.” That should be especially noted!

Jan. 23, 1917. The Zurich Volksrecht puts the case for a referendum[2]. Sharply, but quite correctly, it characterises the postponement as a victory of Grütlianism over socialism.

Leaders infuriated by referendum proposal. Grimm in the Berner Tagwacht, Jacques Schmid (Olten) in the Neue Freie Zeitung,[3] F. Schneider in the Basler Vorwärts,"[4] and, besides these “Centrists”, social-patriot Hither in the St. Gallen Volksstimme—all heap abuse and threats on the referendum initiators.

R. Grimm stands at the head of this unholy crusade, making a special effort to intimidate the “youth organisation” and promising to come out against it at the next party congress.

Hundreds and hundreds of workers in German and French Switzerland eagerly sign referendum papers. Name wires Münzenberg that one cantonal secretariat will, in all probability, support referendum.

Jan. 22, 1917. The Berner Tagwacht and Volksrecht carry a statement by National Council member Gustav Müller. He presents the party a veritable ultimatum, stating on behalf of his group (he writes: “our group”) that he will resign from the National Council because he cannot accept “the principle of rejecting war credits”.

Jan. 26, 1917. In his fourth Volksrecht article, Greulich presents the same ultimatum to the party, saying that he will “naturally” resign if the party congress approves paragraph 3 of the majority resolution.[5]

Jan. 27, 1917. E. Nobs says in an editorial comment (“On the Referendum”) that under no circumstances can he endorse the referendum motivation.[6]

Platten is silent.

Jan. 31, 1917. The Secretariat decides to convene the party congress on June 2 and 3, 1917 (it will be remembered that the Secretariat had earlier decided to convene it on Feb. 11, 1917, but the decision was repealed by the Party Executive!).

Feb. 1, 1917. Part of the Zimmerwald Conference meets at Olten, attended by representatives of organisations invited to the conference of Entente socialists (March 1917).

Radek, Zinoviev, Münzenberg, one member of the Internationale (the Spartacus group in Germany, of which Karl Liebknecht was a member) publicly castigate R. Grimm, stating that his alliance with the social-patriots against the Swiss socialist workers makes him a “political corpse”.

Press is silent about this conference.

Feb. 1, 1917. Platten publishes his first article on the war issue.[7] Attention should be drawn to the following two of his statements.

First, Platten writes, literally: “Of course, the absence was felt in the commission of the cool-headed, courageous and consistent Zimmerwald champion who would have insisted on pigeon-holing the war issue till the end of the war.”

No name was mentioned, but it should not be hard to guess against whom this blow was aimed.

Second, Platten makes this statement of principle:

“The war issue is not only a battle of opinions around this question, but is indicative also of a definite trend in the further development of the party; it is a struggle against opportunism within the party, and an act of opposition to the reformists and in favour of revolutionary class struggle.”

Feb. 3, 1917. A private meeting of Centrists (Grimm, Schneider, Rimathe and others) attended also by Nobs and Platten. Münzenberg and Dr. Bronski are invited but decline.

A decision is adopted to “amend” the majority resolution in a way that materially worsens it anti turns it into a “Centrist resolution”, especially because paragraph 3 is deleted and replaced by a deliberately indefinite and hazy expression.

Feb. 6, 1917. General meeting of Social-Democratic Party members in Zurich. Main item: committee elections.

Poor attendance, especially on the part of workers.

Platten suggests postponing the meeting. Social-patriots arid Nobs object. Proposal is defeated.

Elections are held. When it turns out that Dr. Bronski is elected, social-patriot Baumann announces on behalf of four committee members that he refuses to work with Dr. Bronski.

Platten suggests accepting this ultimatum (submitting to it), proposing (absolutely undemocratically and unlawfully) that the elections be declared invalid. That proposal is carried!!!

Feb. 9, 1917. Publication of a “new” majority resolution. The signatures: the “Centrists” Grimm, Rimathe, Schneider, Jacques Schmid, etc., also Nobs and Platten. The resolution has been greatly worsened and paragraph 3, as indicated above, deleted.[8]

The resolution does not even hint at combating opportunism and reformism, or at a firm decision to follow Karl Liebknecht’s tactics!

It is a typical Centrist resolution, in which “general”, supposedly “theoretical” disquisitions predominate, while practical demands are deliberately couched in such feeble and hazy language that, it can be hoped, not only Greulich and G. Muller, but even Baumann—Zurich will probably deign to withdraw their ultimatum and ... amnesty the party.

To sum up: the leaders of the Swiss party have solemnly buried Zimmerwaldism in the “marsh”.

Addition:

The St. Gallen Volksstimme of Jan. 25, 1917 (to which Huber—Rorschach frequently contributes):

“It suffices to oppose to this shamelessness [i.e., the referendum motivation] the fact that the postponement proposal (Jan. 7) was made by Comrade Grimm and energetically supported, among others, by Comrades Manz, Greulich, Muller, Affolter and Schmid.”

The Basler Vorwärts of Jan. 16, 1917 reports that the postponement proposal (Jan. 7) was tabled by the following comrades:

“Grimm, Rimathe, Studer, Munch, Lang—Zurich, Schneider—Basel, Keel—St. Gallen and Schnurrenberger” (!!? obviously a misprint for Schneeberger?).

The workers have every reason to be grateful to the two papers for listing these names!...

Notes
[1] Reference is to the majority and minority draft resolutions published in Volksrecht of January 9, 1917 (No. 7) under the beading “Anträge der Militärkommission” (“Proposals of the Commission on the War Issue”).
[2] Lenin here refers to the referendum on the convocation of an emergency congress of the Swiss Social-Democratic Party to discuss its attitude towards the war. The referendum was initiated by the Left forces following the party Executive’s decision to postpone the congress indefinitely.
On January 23, 1917, Volksrecht (No. 19) published in the “Party Life” column an appeal of the initiating group under the heading “Das Referendum gegen den Parteivorstandbeschluss ergriffen”) (“Referendum Against Executive’s Decision Begins”).
[3] Neue Freie Zeitung—a newspaper published in Olten by the Solothurn cantonal organisation the Swiss Social-Democratic Party from 1905 to 1920. Took a Centrist stand in the First World War.
[4] Basler Vorwärts—organ of the Basle organisation of the Swiss Social-Democratic Party, founded in 1898; followed a Centrist policy in the First World War.
[5] Reference is to H. Greulich’s article “Zur Landesverteidigung” (“Defence of the Fatherland Issue”) in Volksrecht, January 26, 1917 (No. 22). Lenin quotes §3 of the majority resolution at the beginning of this article.
[6] The editorial “Zum Referendum” (“On the Referendum”) appeared in the “Party Life” section of Volksrecht, January 27, 1917 (No. 23).
[7] This refers to Fritz Platten’s article “Die Militärfrage” (“The Military Question”), published as an editorial in Volksrecht, February 1, 1917 (No. 27), and continued in the paper’s issues of February 2, 5 and 6 (Nos. 28, 30 and 31).
[8] Lenin here alludes to “Abänderungsanträge zu der Resolution der Militärkommission” (“Amendments to the Majority Resolution on the War Issue”) published in Volksrecht, February 9, 1917 (No. 34).


http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/feb/29.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 15:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Bedfordshire Regiment in the Great War: 1917 War Diary

7-1-17. At 2.45am under cover of an intense barrage the Germans raided on the front held by the Bn. They managed to reach one of our posts and unfortunately 3 men were taken prisoner. From another post which was also attacked the Germans were driven off and for conspicuous gallantry at this post 2254 Cpl Beer [Henry BEER, MM] was awarded the Military Medal. Our casualties were : Capt. E.B. Smallwood [Eric Butler SMALLWOOD] killed. 3 O.R.'s died of wounds. 1 O.R. killed and 14 O.R.'s wounded. A draft of 57 O.R.'s from base joined the Bn.

http://www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/Hertsrgt/1stherts1917diary.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 15:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Parker & Mann

On the 7TH of January 1917 the Squadron had suffered its first casualty to enemy action. A little before midday Parker and his observer, Second Lieutenant Mann had left Chipilly in an R.E.8 on a photographic patrol, they had never returned, having been shot down half an hour after the pair had taken off, north west of Peronne. Mann had been taken prisoner, and had survived the war, whilst Parker had been killed in the crash; his remains were subsequently buried in Tincourt New British Cemetery.

http://www.scarboroughsmaritimeheritage.org.uk/greatwar/s7-arras-1917.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Final Days Of The Lafayette Escadrille

With the United States’ entry into the conflict in April 1917, the American military moved to absorb the Americans flying in the Service Aeronautique into the Army Air Service. At this time, over a hundred Americans were flying in various French squadrons beside the 14 in the Lafayette Escadrille.

In the summer of 1917, an invitation to join the American unit was sent to these airmen. However, bureaucratic confusion in the French War Ministry, and subsequent mismanagement by American officials seriously delayed the process. Around Christmas, the members of the Escadrille were formally discharged from French service, but their commissions in the American service had not arrived.

On 7 January 1918, the Americans entered American service and Lufbery was commissioned a major and made commander of the American 95th Pursuit Squadron. Bill Thaw also was made a major and given command of the 103 Pursuit Squadron.
Only one American, Ted Parsons, remained in French service and he flew with the famed SPA.3 of the Groupe des Cigognes, the most famous unit in the French Air Force.

On 18 February 1918, the Lafayette Escadrille was formally withdrawn from the French order of battle.

http://www.neam.org/lafescweb/conflict7.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Haig & the War Cabinet

On the 7th January 1918 Haig was summoned to a meeting of the War Cabinet to give his view of the military situation over the next six to twelve months, according to the IWM Official History, Haig did not express himself well; “Having notoriously great difficulty in explaining himself verbally........his reply left the impression that he thought they [the Germans] would not venture to attack.” However, two days later in a written reply he gave a very different view; “... the Central Powers may make a determined effort to force a decision on the Western Front.....Provision must be made to meet such an eventuality and to replace the losses which would certainly be incurred in withstanding a heavy and sustained attack”. As the Official History says; “The Prime Minister, not unnaturally, asked what could be thought of a man who now expressed an opinion totally different from that he had emitted two days before.” There was no love lost between Lloyd George and Haig.

http://www.john-dillon.co.uk/yorklancs/march_1918.html
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WACO DAILY TIMES HERALD, JANUARY 7, 1918

PATTERSON, ROY - Roy Patterson, a private in the Twenty-fourth aero squadron of the new aviation section of the signal corps at Camp MacArthur, died this morning in the base hospital at Camp MacArthur. His home was in Gilman City, Mo., and the body was shipped there this afternoon. His father is Thomas B. Patterson of Gilman City.

GLUDT, CARL W. - Carl W. Gludt, a member of the aero squadron at Camp MacArthur, died in the base hospital yesterday morning from bronchial pneumonia. His father lives in Battle Lake, Minn. and the body was shipped today to Battle Lake. His father's name is Amul Gludt. This is the first death here among the new aviation section of the signal corps.

http://www.usgennet.org/usa/tx/county/mclennan/obits/jan1918.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter of playwright George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) to Mrs. Patrick Campbell on the death of her son, killed in action in World War I.

London, 7 January 1918.

Never saw it or heard about it until your letter came. It is no use: I can't be sympathetic; these things simply make me furious. I want to swear. I do swear. Killed just because people are blasted fools. A chaplain too, to say nice things about it. It is not his business to say nice things about it, but to shout that the “voice of thy son's blood crieth unto God from the ground.” No, don't show me the letter. But I should very much like to have a nice talk with that dear Chaplain, that sweet sky-pilot, that… No use going on like this, Stella. Wait for a week, and then I shall be very clever and broadminded again and have forgotten all about this. I shall be quite as nice as the Chaplain. Oh, damn, damn, damn, damn, damn, damn, damn, damn, DAMN. And oh, dear, dear, dear, dear, dear, dearest!

G.B.S.

http://www.npr.org/programs/death/readings/essays/theroux.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7 January 1919: Bantu Women’s League protests against pass laws

The Bantu Women’s League (BWL) under its first president Charlotte Maxeke, undertook a passive resistance on 7 January 1919 against the application of pass laws to women. What precipitated the 1919 protest was the government’s threat to reintroduce pass laws for women which had been relaxed due to earlier protests. As a response to these developments, the Bantu Women’s League (BWL) was formed in 1918 as a branch of the ANC. Charlotte Maxeke was elected as its first president. That same year Maxeke led a women’s deputation from the BWL to the Prime Minister Louis Botha to argue against the imposition of passes.

The 1919 protest was not the first women’s public expression of discontent against the pass system. As early as 1913 protests against were launched in the the Orange Free State after the government introduced new legislation that requiring women to carry passes. The government was forced to withdraw the rule for a while.

The BWL continued to fight against the imposition of passes on black women and in 1922 they had achieved some success as the South African government conceded that women should not be obliged to carry passes. Despite these concessions, the government tightened the law in 1923 when it passed the Native (Black) Urban Areas Act No 21. Under this Act, the existing pass system was extended as the only black women allowed to live in urban areas were those who were domestic workers. Events of BWL precipitated the formation of the African National Congress (ANC) Women’s League in 1948.

References:
1.Rappaport H, (2001), Encyclopedia of women social reformers, Volume 1, (California ), p.432
2.Alistair Body – Evans, Women's Anti-Pass Law Campaigns in South Africa, from About.com, [online], Available at http://africanhistory.about.com [Accessed 19, October, 2010]
3.Limb P, (2010), The ANC’s Early Years – Nation, Class and Place in South Africa before 1940, (Pretoria), p.121.
4.Anon, South African History Online (SAHO), Charlotte Maxeke (nee Maney), [online], Available at www.sahistory.org, [Accessed: 19, October, 2010]


http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/chronology/thisday/1919-01-07ii.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Princetonian, Volume 40, Number 1, 7 January 1919

http://theprince.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/princeton?a=d&d=Princetonian19190107-01&e=-------en-Logical-50--1----summer+session+dodds-all---
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T. E. Lawrence to Edward Marsh

Carlton Hotel, London

7.1.18. [1919]

Dear Marsh,

This is owing, since I behaved like a lunatic yesterday. But I have been trying for three years to think like an Arab, and when I come back with a bump to British conventions, it is rather painful, and I keep on deciding to put an end to it. However, nothing happens.

After I did come, I enjoyed things exceedingly. It’s the process of coming that's awful.

With very many thanks,

Yours ever,

T E Lawrence

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1919-20/190107_marsh.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2011 20:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Berlin, 7 January 1919 - the first Spartacist uprising



On top of the Brandenburger Tor: government loyal troops (Freikorps), armed with machineguns and handgranates, ready to fight the Spartacists.

http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/revolution(2).html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2013 20:22    Onderwerp: On This Day - 7 January 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 7 January 1915


Western Front

French occupy Burnhaupt-le-Haut (Alsace).

Eastern Front

Heavy German attacks on lower Ravka repulsed.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_01_07.htm
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On This Day - 7 January 1916

Eastern Front

Russians storm Chartorysk.

Southern Front

Sir Ian Hamilton's despatch on Suvla Bay published.

Embarkation of French and English at Seddul-Bahr (Dardanelles) begins, after repulse of a Turkish attack.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

General Aylmer defeats Turks at Sheikh-Saad.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2013 20:25    Onderwerp: On This Day - 7 January 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 7 January 1917

Eastern Front

Russians gain more ground south of Lake Babit.

Russo-Romanian front broken north-west of Focsani.


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BerichtGeplaatst: 06 Jan 2013 20:26    Onderwerp: On This Day - 7 January 1918 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 7 January 1918

Western Front

Germans raid British post near Flesquieres (Cambrai). Another raid near Ypres repulsed.

French repulse enemy attempts at Bethincourt (Meuse).

Eastern Front

Trotsky and Russian peace delegates return to Brest-Litovsk and negotiations continue.

Naval and Overseas Operations

East Africa: British column from Fort Johnston engages enemy force and drives it northwards.


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