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8 December
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2005 6:51    Onderwerp: 8 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 8

1914 The Battle of the Falkland Islands


A month after German naval forces led by Admiral Maximilian von Spee inflicted the Royal Navy’s first defeat in a century by sinking two British cruisers with all hands off the southern coast of Chile, Spee’s squadron attempts to raid the Falkland Islands, located in the southern Atlantic Ocean, only to be thwarted by the British navy. Under the command of Admiral Doveton Sturdee, the British seamen sought vengeance on behalf of their defeated fellows.

Spee could have given the Falklands a wide berth, but he brought his fleet close to British squadrons anchored in Cape Pembroke in the Falkland Islands, confident he could outdistance the slow British Dreadnoughts, or big battleships, he saw in the port. Instead, the German light cruisers, damaged by the long voyage and heavy use, soon found themselves pursued by two swift battle cruisers, Inflexible and Invincible, designed by Britain’s famous First Sea Lord, Jackie Fisher, to combine speed and maneuverability with heavy hitting power.

Inflexible opened fire on the German ships from 16,500 yards, careful to stay outside the range of the German guns. Spee’s flagship, Scharnhorst was sunk first, with the admiral aboard; his two sons, on the Gneisenau and Nürnberg, also went down with their ships. All told, Germany lost four warships and more than 2,000 sailors in the Falkland Islands, compared with only 10 British deaths.

Historians have referred to the Battle of the Falkland Islands as the most decisive naval battle of World War I. It gave the Allies a huge, much-needed surge of confidence on the seas, especially important because other areas of the war—the Western Front, Gallipoli—were not proceeding as hoped. The battle also represents one of the last important instances of old-style naval warfare, between ships and sailors and their guns alone, without the aid or interference of airplanes, submarines, or underwater minefields.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2005 8:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 december 1915

Publicatie In Flanders Fields in Punch



Bron: World War One Battlefields

John McCrae, Author of In Flanders Fields

A native of Guelph, Ontario, and a veteran of the South African War (1899-1902), John McCrae began the First World War as a surgeon attached to the 1st Brigade, Canadian Field Artillery, 1st Canadian Division. After undergoing a baptism by fire at Neuve Chapelle, France, in March 1915, the Canadians moved to Flanders in mid-April, taking up position in the salient around the Belgian town of Ypres.

On April 22-23, in their first major battle, they distinguished themselves by holding out against the first German gas attack of the war while others around them fled. John McCrae was the officer in charge of a medical aid post in a dugout cut into the bank of the Yser canal, a few miles to the northeast of Ypres. Here, on May 2, McCrae's good friend, 22-year old Lieutenant Alexis Helmer of Ottawa, was blown apart by enemy artillery fire. With the parts of Helmer's body collected in a blanket, McCrae himself read the funeral service.

The next day, McCrae, who had been publishing poetry for many years, completed In Flanders Fields. Eyewitness accounts vary in detail, but agree that he worked on the poem while sitting on the back step of an ambulance near his medical aid post. In the field around him crosses marked the graves of dead soldiers, including those of Helmer and other Canadians killed the previous day. Accounts also agree that poppies grew in the area at the time and McCrae's own notes refer to birds singing despite the noise of battle.

John McCrae set the poem aside to concentrate on caring for the wounded at Ypres. He took it up again that fall after leaving the Ypres salient to serve in the relatively quieter circumstances of No. 3 Canadian General Hospital at Boulogne. When at last he had worked it to a satisfactory state he sent it to the British publication the Spectator, only to see his work rejected. He resubmitted it to Punch magazine, which published it anonymously, in its issue of December 8, 1915.

In Flanders Fields immediately gained popularity amongst the soldiers in the trenches as an evocative summation of their view of the war. This feeling grew as the war continued until, in the words of one writer, its images became "an eternal motif, part of the collective memory of the war." Its author, whose identity soon became known, continued to serve as a medical officer until, overcome by fatigue and stress, he died of pneumonia at Wimereux, France on January 28, 1918.

Bron: WarMuseum.ca
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2005 13:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

7. Leo PARENT , student te Vonêche , aldaar geboren op 13 november 1895 ,werd aangehouden wegens hulp aan de Fransen en de Engelsen , " Met eenen kruiwagen bracht hij hun levensmiddelen " , ook zijn ouders werden aangehouden en kregen " drij jaar gevang " Leo Parent werd terechtgesteld op 20 jarige leeftijd op 8 december 1915 op het fort V te Edegem
(bron http://www.praats.be/schietbaangent.htm)




Groetjes,

Kristof
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2005 13:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 December 1914

Western Front

Long-distance bombardment of Fumes by the Germans.

Southern Front

Austrians completely defeated south of Belgrade (Battle of Rudnik Ridges).

Naval and Overseas Operations

South Africa: Collapse of rebellion; 1,200 rebels surrender.

Battle of Falkland Islands, Admiral Sturdee sinks most of German squadron.

Political, etc.

Great Britain: Trial of Ahlers for high-treason commenced.
Original Material © Michael Duffy 2000-05, SafeSurf Rated
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2005 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 december 1915
Gallipoli

De evacuatie van Suvla Bay en Anzac Cove worden in gang gezet. Al deze zaken moeten in de nacht gebeuren om de 80.000 man, 5.000 paarden en ezellen, 2.000 voertuigen en 200 stuks geschut veilig te kunnen laten vertrekken. Bevelhebbers schatten de verliezen voordat de evacuatie is voltooid deze 25.000 slachtoffers zal eisen. Eerst gaan de zieken en gewonden en de gevangenen. Als laatste stapje voor stapje de infanteristen.

8 december 1916
Athene

Geallieerde schepen beginnen aan de op 2 december aangekondigde blokkade van Griekenland.

8 december 1917
Palestina

Na enkele dagen rust om de veroverde delen grond zeker te stellen en verterkingen te ontvangen beginnen de troepen van Allanby de aanval op de Turken in de heuvels rondom Jeruzalem. Sir Philip Chetwoode's XXe korps voorop.

Bron: Almanac of World War I
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 16:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of the Falkland Islands

The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a British naval victory over the Imperial German Navy on 8 December 1914 during the First World War in the South Atlantic. The British, after a defeat at the Battle of Coronel on 1 November, sent a large force to track down and destroy the victorious German cruiser squadron.

Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee, commanding the German squadron of two armoured cruisers, SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau, three light cruisers, Nürnberg, Dresden and Leipzig, and three auxiliaries attempted to raid the British supply base at Stanley on the Falkland Isles. A larger British squadron of two battlecruisers, HMS Invincible and HMS Inflexible, three armoured cruisers, HMS Carnarvon, HMS Cornwall and HMS Kent, and two light cruisers, HMS Bristol and HMS Glasgow, had arrived in the port only the day before.

Visibility was at its maximum, the sea was placid with a gentle breeze from the north west, the sun bright, the sky clear. The advance cruisers of the German squadron had been detected early on, and by nine o'clock that morning the British battlecruisers and cruisers were in hot pursuit of the five German vessels, these having taken flight in line abreast to the south-east. All except Dresden and the auxiliary Seydlitz were hunted down and sunk.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Falkland_Islands
Order of Battle, Battle of the Falklands, 8 December 1914:
http://www.navweaps.com/index_oob/OOB_WWI/OOB_WWI_Falklands.htm
Zie ook http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_falklands.html
Zie ook http://www.nmm.ac.uk/explore/collections/by-type/archive-and-library/item-of-the-month/previous/the-battle-of-the-falkland-islands-1914
Zie ook


Track Chart of Battles off the Falkland Isles, 8th December 1914, by an anonymous maker, drawn in 1914. Repro ID: F5655. ©National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 16:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

(Diary)By George H. J. Hanks, S. B. A. (Sick Berth Attendant)

This document is the memoir of my Grandfather, George H. J. Hanks, who was a Sick Bay Attendant (S. B. A.) on board the H.M.S. Carnarvon during the First World War.

The Battle of the Falkland Islands

Action quarters being sounded the "Kent" now proceeds to the mouth of the harbour to watch the enemy's movements. Naturally we all expected her to get a few shots into but not one shot was fired, which proved that the German's had received the greatest shock of their lives. They had not expected a couple of Battle-Cruisers. By 9.20 A.M. every ship was clear of the harbour & then the chase commenced. The smoke of the German squadron could just be seen on the horizon. ("Midshipman" also comments that all the deckhands could see at this stage of the pursuit were just five plumes of smoke rising over the horizon. Midshipman, p. 542.) The 'Glasgow' was well ahead of us just keeping the enemy in sight, H.M.S. Kent was second, 'Carnarvon' third, followed by the Battle Cruisers 'Invincible' & 'Inflexible' & they were brought up in the rear by the 'Cornwall'; the 'Bristol' & Macedonia were left by the entrance to the harbour. We the 'Carnarvon' were however quickly passed by the Battle Cruisers & a fine sight they made. They passed us as though we were stopped - our speed was 16 knots, accounted for by the fact that all boilers were not connected up. (The Carnarvon had been ordered to adjust its valves and engine machinery in order to get ready for a long journey. Spencer-Cooper, p. 85.) Water was being put over the decks in case of fire. Hoses were rigged & everything was made ready to deal with any contingency. The Glasgow & dreadnoughts owing to their superior speed were now well away. It was a stern chase as can easilybe judged & we were chasing until 1 pm before out leading ship opened fire to be precise 12.56 noon. The German squadron seeing that they were doomed, scattered, & their three smaller cruisers, 'Dresden', 'Nurnberg' &'Leipzic' [sic] were doing their level best to escape. They were fast disappearing out of sight. Our Vice Admiral [Sturdee] sends the Cornwall, [']Kent' & 'Glasgow' after them, whilst we the "Carnarvon" stopped with the Battle Cruisers to give battle to the big German ships the "Scharnhorst' & "Gneisenau". We first went to action stations about 9 A.M. - about 10 a.m. we fell out to wash if possible. The condition of the ship was far from pleasant, as all the coal was not quite stowed away, when we started to chase. At 1' o'clock after dinner as if nothing unusual was taken [sic] place - we were ordered to action stations again, (The crew of the Cornwall was. also ordered to wash off coal grime and, if possible, to eat, so they would not fight on an empty stomach. Spencer-Cooper, p. 92.) the Battle Cruisers having opened fire. The firing only continued for 15 mins., owing to the German's (sic) altering their course a few points to Starboard, to get out of range of the 12" gun's. About 2. p.m. firing again commenced in earnest on both sides. Our superior speed & gun's gave us a great advantage & it must be said that the German's fought very bravely in face of great odds. Their 8.2 guns having a range of 15.000 yards the projectiles were practically non-effective on reaching their destination. From 2 pm until 4. o'clock the battle was very furious, smoke nearly obscuring all the vessels - unfortunately all this time we were acting as observation ship.

About 3. p.m. a big sailing ship appears on the horizon & no doubt but what those on board her had a magnificent view of the battle just as it was at its zenith. (Apparently this was a French sailing ship that did not know that war had broken out. It left the scene of battle as quickly as possible. Richard Hough, The Pursuit of Admiral von Spee (London; George Allen and Unwin, Ltd, 1969), pp. 153-54.) At last we have a go about 3.45 p.m. the 'Scharnhorst' is observed to be in a bad way so we receive the signal to close in & engage her, but by the time we manage to get within range, she is fast disappearing. We manage to get off one salvo, before she gives her final plunge & sinks with (including Admiral Von Spee) all hands. The 'Gneisenau' is still going strong so the Battle Cruisers concentrate their fire on her, & we follow in their wake once again. The "Gneisenau is very game, fighting splendidly up to the last. Gradually our superior guns tell & she is worn down. We let rip with our guns about 530 p.m. for about 15 mins the three English ships engage her & she eventually by her slackening fire, gives us the impression that she is running short of ammunition, for at 5.45 she ceases firing & we also cease fire, expecting her to haul down her flag. her flag did come down, it must have been shot down, for it was hoisted again & she again opens fire to be followed by us. After a game but hopeless fight, she turns turtle & takes a plunge into the deep Atlantic. We come now to what was the worst part of it, the awful sights during the work of the rescue. The weather was very cold 45' degrees & miserable and a choppy sea was running. The water was covered with bobbing heads & dead bodies. Boats were lowered as soon as possible from the three ships (Admiral Sturdee apparently thought that the Carnarvon's rescue efforts were tardy, angrily signalling to it twice to lower its boats immediately. Keith Yates, Graf Spee's Raiders. Challenge to the Royal Navy 1914-1915 (Annapolis, Maryland; Naval Institute Press, 1995), p. 212. However, there may have been extenuating factors. Spencer-Cooper explained that it was difficult to lower rescue boats after an action: "as the boats are turned inboard, resting on their crutches, and are kept partially filled with water in case a shell might strike them and cause a fire. This water must first be drained out, then the weight of the ship is hoisted on to the slips to enable it to be swung outboard, which is not easy if the ship has been hit near the water-line, causing a list. Finally, several of the boats are certain to be riddled with shell splinters." Spencer-Cooper, p. 104) - men were going down on all sides owing to the intense coldness of the water. Bodies were passing the ship, some nude, while others had on their uniforms. We rescued 40 but 8 failed to show signs of animation & during the night were passed overboard. The weather soon became rough & one of our whaler's went to the bottom alongside the ship, but not one of our fellows were lost. What pitiable sights we witnessed whilst the survivors were being taken aboard. They were all carried swiftly to the sick-bay - artificial respiration carried out & of course well attended to & made prisoners of war. We then got under way & parted Company with the Battle Cruisers, which returned to the Falklands whilst we proceeded North in search of the armed liner 'Orama' which had to escort six colliers from Abrolhos Rocks to the Falklands. Next morning we came across the 'Orama' minus the colliers which had been lost during a mist & rough weather. we also heard by wireless of the success of the "Kent', 'Glasgow'& 'Cornwall'. The colliers eventually found their way to the falklands (sic). The Commander in Chief (Vice Admiral Sturdee) made the following signal to all ships. The German Cruisen "Scharnhorst", "Gneisenau", "Nurnberg" & "Liepzic" have been sunk by a British Squadron.

The German prisoners were now quite well again except two who had received injuries & were in the Sick-Bay. A couple of them could speak broken English & from them we learnt that they had intended to bombard (Falkland Islands) which would have been an easy thing as the only protection the islands had was a mine-field & H.M.S. 'Canopus'. Their desires were unfortunately for them not fulfilled. The next day Friday 11thDec. we were still tossing about in a fierce gale, but at 6. p.m we reached the shelter of the Falkland Islands where we found the remainder of the Squadron. The 'Cornwall' had a list to port apparently to enable her holes to be patched up. We could also see some of the damage to the Battle-Cruisers. On Sunday 13th, we filled up with provision[s] & the German prisoners left the ship going to the 'Macedonia" an armed liner in which they went to England. The Admiralty grant of winter clothing was served out to us.

The following signal was sent to us.

- The Rear Admiral, Captain & Officers & all concerned, South Atlantic & South Pacific Stations, - The Commander in Chief wishes to congratulate all the ships of the squadron on the success in their main encounter with the Enemy's Squadron, & to thank the Rear Admiral, Officers & men for their individual assistance in attaining this great result. The zeal & steadiness under fire of all hands was very noticeable- Therefore all concerned can feel that they have performed a National service on the 8th December 1914 off the Falkland Islands. The victory will not be complete until the remaining ship is accounted for & directly the squadron has coaled a further search will be made. Signed. Commander in Chief,

Vice Admiral Sturdee.





Taken from Ships log.

8 -12 -14- Completed with coal. left Port Stanley.

Carried out action against Scharnhorst & Gneisenau.

Expenditure 7.5 Common Shell 85.

" 6" " 60

Shell ranges 14,000 to 7,000

Speed of ship 20 knots. Enemy 22 kts to 12 kts.

Hits on "Scharnhorst 2, on Gneisenau 4 on armour remainder not seen. Fired both sides during action. Motion slight at first Then moderate forward end[.] much smoke interference from Battle Cruisers. also cordite smoke from our own gun's.

The bursting of 12" shell around enemy interfered considerably with spotting fall of shot only burst of shell striking on armoured Cruisers could be seen. (A 12" shell weighed 840 pounds and threw up a column of water 150 feet high. Spencer-Cooper, p. 95). P.M. Watch at night defence stations.

http://www.vlib.us/medical/hanks/diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 16:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maximilian von Spee



Vice Admiral Maximilian Graf von Spee (22 June 1861 – 8 December 1914) was a German admiral. Although he was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, the counts von Spee belonged to the prominent families of the Rhenish nobility. He joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. In 1887–88 he commanded the Kamerun ports, in German West Africa. Before World War I he held a number of senior positions relating to weapons development, before being appointed Chief of Staff of the North Sea Command in 1908, rising to Rear Admiral on 27 January 1910. (...)

On 8 December 1914, Spee's force attempted a raid on the coaling station at Stanley in the Falkland Islands, unaware that the previous month the British had sent two modern fast battlecruisers HMS Inflexible and HMS Invincible to protect the islands and avenge the defeat at Coronel, and there were also five cruisers, HMS Carnarvon, HMS Cornwall, HMS Kent, HMS Bristol and HMS Glasgow, at the Stanley naval base. In the ensuing Battle of the Falkland Islands, Spee's flagship, Scharnhorst, together with Gneisenau, Nürnberg and SMS Leipzig were all lost, together with some 2,200 German sailors, including Spee himself and his two sons*. The admiral went down with his flagship. Only SMS Dresden managed to escape (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilian_von_Spee

* Lt. Otto von Spee, age 24, served aboard Nürnberg; Lt. (j.g.) Heinrich von Spee, age 21, served on Gneisenau
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The New York Times, December 8, 1914

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D04EEDF1438E633A2575BC0A9649D946596D6CF&oref=slogin
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Woodrow Wilson, 8 December 1914, An Annual Message to Congress.

"A powerful Navy we have always regarded as our proper and natural means of defense; and it has always been of defense that we have thought, never of aggression or of conquest. But who shall tell us now what sort of Navy to build? We shall take leave to be strong upon the seas, in the future as in the past; and there will be no thought of offense or provocation in that. Our ships are our natural bulwarks."

http://www.history.navy.mil/trivia/trivia02.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Het Leven, geillustreerd, 9e jaargang, No. 49, dinsdag 8 december 1914







http://forum.stelling-amsterdam.nl/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=706&p=1750
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

8 December 1915 - Lord Kitchener sent General Birdwood the following telegram:

Cabinet has decided to evacuate positions at Suvla and Anzac. Helles will be retained for the present.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/december-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mex camp

The CO of the Composite Regiment was drawn from the Yeomanry with Major Pelham of the 11th Hussars given the post. Second in command was an Australian, Major Tom Daly from the 9th LHR, the erstwhile commander of the 3rd LH Bde Details camp at Heliopolis. Working quickly, Pelham and Daly put together a force of about 535 men. The medical staff was drawn entirely from the 3rd Light Horse Field Ambulance. When the nominal roll was submitted to Wallace, in true bureaucratic style, Cairo staff informed Daly that the Regiment was over-strength by 30 men, who needed to be dropped from the roll. The emergency was not so great as to overlook legal niceties. To keep the indents on rations legal, 30 men were sent back to the various details camps.

When the personnel in the regiment was sorted out, it was moved from Cairo to Alexandria by rail. When they arrived at Mex camp in Alexandria, the men were issued with swords and rifle buckets in addition to all their other light horse issued gear. This altered the nature of the force from light horse to heavy cavalry. It was the first time Australian forces were issued with swords during the Great War. When all the appropriate stores were issued, the men were prepared for action through one week’s intensive training. Part of the syllabus involved the use of swords, a novelty to the Australians.

It was at Mex that the first casualties were suffered. Twenty men from the Composite Regiment went ill through an epidemic of mumps. This left only 485 men in the Regiment, a time when Daly would have reflected that the other 30 men sent back to the camps would have been quite useful at that moment.
Orders were issued that Matruh was to be established as the base for all the Composite Regiment’s operations. Since a large Senussi force periodically cut the road from El Daaba to Matruh and only a regiment of armed men would be able to deal with any attack. In response, all surplus baggage was to be shipped to Matruh. The men horses were entrained to the railhead at El Daaba with instructions to march to Matruh. The first squadron left El Daaba on Wednesday, 8 December 1915 and began their long and slow march.

Because of the poor water supply, the trip from El Daaba to Matruh could not cope with any more than 200 horses in a day. Consequently, the Composite Regiment had to be broken into smaller formations and proceed in the stages at Squadron strength. The journey was some 135 kilometres in distance which could be only completed in 30 – 40 kilometre stages. Along the way Indian troops established and maintained outposts to keep the route open. The squadron protecting the Regimental Headquarters also acted as the escort for the Divisional Train. The march went smoothly and all men arrived at Matruh between 11 and 12 December 1915.

http://1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=58170
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

“In Flanders Field” by John McCrae...

...remains one of the most moving and easily remembered WWI poems ever written. The poppies at many ceremonies and at other graveside cemeteries have touched the hearts of millions. Poppies are the official symbolic emblem, used for the ‘Least We Forget’ theme for remembrance services among ANZAC Day parades and for similar purposes by other western armies. Lines like ‘We are the Dead. Short days ago/ We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, ’ are beautifully penned.
After seventeen days treating injured men in the Ypres salient, surgeon Major McCrae, was particularly affected by the death of a ‘young friend and former student, Lieut. Alexis Helmer’. Helmer was ‘buried later that day in the little cemetery outside McCrae's dressing station, and McCrae had performed the funeral ceremony in the absence of the chaplain.’ McCrae scribbled fifteen lines of verse in a notebook the next day, describing the scene at Helmer's grave.
‘Dissatisfied with it, McCrae tossed the poem away, but a fellow officer retrieved it and sent it to newspapers in England. The Spectator, in London, rejected it, but Punch published it on 8 December 1915.’ The poems survival has helped to inspire and teach generations the meaning of sacrifice and the importance of remembrance.

http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/in-flanders-field/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Poverty Bay Herald, Volume XLII, Issue 13861, 8 December 1915





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=PBH19151208.2.64.10
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HOUSEHOLD BATTALION HISTORY - 1916 to 1918
by Squadron Corporal Major C W. Frearson Esq

The Somme Valley (8th December 1916 to mid February 1917)

Most of the men had merely 99 days service when The Household Battalion manned trenches for the first time on 8th December 1916 at Sailly Sailliesel, east of Combles and Morval in the Somme Valley. The Somme battles had petered out five days earlier but German artillery still rumbled and the sticky, red, Somme red mud was just as deep. Over forty men had to be dug out and there were cases of total exhaustion during the period December - January, after which The Household Battalion moved to other trenches at Bouchavesne and went into the 'rest area' of Arras in mid February.

http://www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Douglas's last letter home, 8 December 1916

Douglas’s last letter to his mother tells of ‘a very successful Sale of Work’ in aid of wounded soldiers. He was killed two days later when flying over the Thames Estuary. His funeral was held on 13 December and he was buried at Eastminster Cemetery, Sheerness in Kent.



R. N. Seaplane Base
Westgate-on-Sea
Kent
8 December 1916

Dear Mother

Please find enclosed cheque for £3 towards Sale of Work. Hope you got on well. We had a very successful sale. £178 –17 – 0 so far and a few pounds to come in yet. The Doll’s House (for which I had 12 tickets) brought us in about £45 & went to a little girl from Margate who was almost small enough to get inside.

I won the prize for [the] Gentleman’s shooting competition which was pretty good considering that I was up against Army & Navy Instructors.

I had six bulls out of six shots at 25 y[ar]ds. All inside a 1 in[ch] circle & so had the Army Instructor Sergeant-Major but I made mine on my first target & he had to take two targets to make his.

Glad to hear of Reggie’s appointment.
Much love
Douglas

http://www.scottisharchivesforschools.org/aslits/u3sou2.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 'Buckingham Palace plot', 1916

Edwin Montagu, Minister of Munitions and confidant of both Asquith and Lloyd George lamented that the the two great men of England were being slowly but surely pushed apart during the winter of 1916.

By the first week of December, Lloyd George had replaced his long-standing colleague as head of the wartime coalition government, amidst accusations that Asquith had fallen victim to his lieutenant's opportunism.

The exact nature of the ousting is surrounded in mystery and historians continue to dispute the detailed course of events in the immediate days prior to Asquith's forced resignation. What is certain is that relations between the two men had come under increasing strain during the course of the war, each having very different ideas about the way the campaign should be conducted.

Following military disasters such as the Battle of the Somme, Lloyd George became increasingly critical of Asquith's failure to wrestle control of defence strategy from his military commanders and his failure to adapt the machinery of Government to the needs of war. The nature of the Dardanelles Committee and the War Committee that eventually replaced it was of particular concern. Their large size and lack of executive powers meant that speedy decisions were not possible, as the final say in any matter continued to rest with the full Cabinet.

Relations between the two men had come under further pressure during the spring of 1916, when Asquith bowed to Cabinet pressure and failed to implement the settlement that Lloyd George had reached with the Irish Nationalists over Home Rule.

Succeeding the deceased Kitchener as Minister of War in June 1915, Lloyd George became increasingly critical of his chief and began moving further away from other Liberal colleagues on key issues such as conscription, which drew him closer to his Conservative coalition partners.

In the summer of 1916 the Admiralty came under specific attack for its failure to obtain a victory over the Germans at the Battle of Jutland. Asquith refused to bow to pressure to dismiss Balfour as Lord of the Admiralty despite concern at the lack of progress being made by Britain's submarine campaign and in July, the Coalition was almost defeated on a series of minor issues, leading to press speculation about the Government's downfall.

On 8 November, Lloyd George finally lost his patience and decided that immediate action was needed following the Nigeria debate, when a number of Conservative backbenchers rebelled against the Government. Lloyd George decided that responsibility for the day to day running of the war should be wrestled from the Cabinet and given to a newly created three-man war cabinet, which he himself would chair. Deciding that the Conservative leader, Bonar Law and Unionist chief, Edward Carson should make up the numbers, Lloyd George recruited the press baron, Sir Max Aitken (later Lord Beaverbrook) to arrange negotiations on his behalf.

Bonar Law originally rejected the idea as an opportunistic attempt by Lloyd George to pursue his own agenda, but on 20 November the three men met for the first time and decided to present Asquith with the plan. It is clear that Asquith too had his reservations about Lloyd George's motives. 'There is one construction and one only that could be put on the new arrangement - that it has been engineered by him with the purpose, not perhaps at the moment but as soon as a fitting pretext could be found, of his displacing me', he wrote to Bonar Law on 26 November, rejecting the scheme.

Nonetheless, Asquith had apparently been shaken by Lloyd George's plotting and following a suggestion from Lord Robert Cecil, the Liberal leader decided to regain the initiative, informing the King that he planned to establish a separate civil committee in conjunction to the existing war committee. The new forum would consider domestic matters and those relating to wartime organisation.

Despite the Cabinet's acceptance of the plan, Lloyd George remained unimpressed, claiming that the proposals would merely add yet another layer of bureaucracy to the decision-making process. On 1 December he penned Asquith a five-point memorandum, warning that he would resign if the Prime Minister rejected the establishment of a three-man committee under his leadership and based upon the membership that he had proposed.

With Lloyd George's encouragement, the press began to speculate that the War Secretary would soon relinquish his post, taking Bonar Law with him. Such rumours antagonised Bonar Law's Conservative colleagues, who feared that they were being used by Lloyd George as a pawn in his own opportunistic game. Anxious to maintain the upper hand, Bonar Law confronted Asquith on Sunday 3 December, warning him what the consequences would be if he continued to reject Lloyd George's demands.

The Prime Minister soon realised that he would have to capitulate if he were to remain in power and his treacherous Liberal deputy was summoned immediately to Downing Street. No one knows for certain exactly what took place during the private meeting that subsequently took place between the two men; no other person was present and thus no formal record of the discussion exists. What is clear is that both men left the meeting satisfied that they had come to some kind of agreement. Lloyd George later wrote in his war memoirs that the two men had discussed the whole situation in the friendliest spirit, and ultimately came to a complete understanding.

It does appear that the two men agreed to re-structure the Government and establish a small war council, under Lloyd George's leadership. Although the pair had failed to tackle the delicate and difficult question of personnel, both men were satisfied that they had reached an agreement that was acceptable to both sides. Later that night, Asquith issued a statement to the press outlining his intentions, confident that his premiership was no longer under threat.

However, the next morning Asquith was horrified to awake to a Times article which indicated that Lloyd George would be assuming complete control over the war effort and implied that the Prime Minister had essentially been sidelined by his colleague. He immediately wrote to Lloyd George, to clarify their agreement and emphasise that he should retain responsibility for the conduct of the war. Lloyd George immediately wrote back, telling Asquith that he fully accepted in letter and in spirit, the Prime Minister's suggestion, subject of course to personnel.

Yet, all was not well and by the Monday evening, Asquith had renaged on the agreement, telling Lloyd George that as Prime Minister, he himself should retain the Chairmanship of the proposed war council. The following morning, Tuesday 5 December 1916, Lloyd George submitted his resignation, accusing Asquith of going back on his word. He was joined by Bonar Law and Carson.

The King called the leaders to Buckingham Palace, in an unsuccessful attempt to hold the existing Coalition together under Bonar Law's leadership. Asquith's refusal to agree to the scheme condemned him and a number of his supporters to the backbenches, leaving his shadowy rival, Lloyd George to finally assume the Premiership on 7 December.

Historians have subsequently debated the reasons for Asquith's change of heart. J M McEwen has suggested that events were the result of an unfortunate misunderstanding between the two men over the terms of the war council. It is implied that history could have been very different had the two Liberal colleagues been able to work through their differences.

Other historians such as Trevor Wilson reject such a theory, claiming that it was highly unlikely that Lloyd George and Asquith would ever be able to agree on the membership of the committee. The inclusion of Carson would have been a particularly bitter pill for Asquith to swallow, given the Ulsterman's open hostility towards him.

Rather, it is suggested that Asquith stepped back from the agreement after feeling humiliated by the tone of the Times article on 4 December and believing its contents to have been inspired by Lloyd George. Some also assert that Asquith was visited by a delegation of Conservatives, who were disgruntled with Lloyd George's plans on the Sunday evening. It is thought that the '3Cs' (Robert Cecil, Austen Chamberlain and Lord Curzon) may have persuaded the Prime Minister that he had the Cabinet support necessary to resist Lloyd George's demands.

Nonetheless, whatever the reasons underlying Asquith's actions, his decision was fatal. Lloyd George's accession to the premiership exacerbated existing ill-feelings between the two men and produced a devastating chasm within the Liberal Party, as Lloyd George's Liberal supporters remained alongside him in the Coalition government, whilst Asquith's loyal followers left to join their leader in opposition. Wilson writes that 'as participants left the major party meeting, which took place at the Reform Club on the 8th December 1916, and went their separate ways, the old Liberal party was dispersing forever'.

http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/item_single.php?item_id=54&item=history
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian soldiers voting at the conscription referendum, Belgium, 8 December 1917.



http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/messines/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Halifax disaster

On 8 December 1917, over 50 people gathered at the City Club in downtown Halifax, including Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden.7 They coordinated relief work and formed 12 committees. The Medical Relief Committee was responsible for setting up emergency medical stations, assessing needs, allocating medical supplies and coordinating medical relief efforts. There were 2500 patients overloading the local hospitals, and eight temporary hospitals were set up at local schools and clubs.


Emergency relief hospital in the YMCA, Halifax, Nova Scotia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955605/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 17:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kafka’s diary

From Kafka’s diary, 8 December, 1917: ‘Sorrow and joy, guilt and innocence, like two hands indissolubly clasped together; one would have to cut through flesh, blood and bones to part them.’

http://blogs.crikey.com.au/literaryminded/2009/12/06/brethren-is-one-of-my-favourite-words-but-that-has-nothing-to-do-with-peril-my-best-books-of-2009-kafkas-diary-or-an-overland-blog-guest-post/
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French Government Citation on the Battle of Belleau Wood, 8 December 1918

Comprising two related actions, firstly at Chateau-Thierry from 3-4 June and then at Belleau Wood itself from 6-26 June, the Battle of Belleau Wood saw the recapture by U.S. forces of the wood on the Metz-Paris road taken at the end of May by German Seventh Army forces arriving at the Marne River around Chateau-Thierry and held by four divisions as part of the German Aisne offensive.

Chateau-Thierry formed the tip of the German advance towards Paris, some 50 miles south-west. Defended by U.S. Second and Third Divisions dispatched at the behest of the French by AEF Commander-in-Chief John J. Pershing, the Americans launched a counter-attack on 3-4 June with the assistance of the French Tenth Colonial Division; together they succeeded in pushing the Germans back across the Marne.

Buoyed by success at Cantigny and now at Chateau-Thierry, General Bundy's Second Division forces followed up success at Chateau-Thierry two days later with the difficult exercise of capturing Belleau Wood. Casualties proved very heavy.

Stubbornly defended by the Germans, the wood was first taken by the Marines (and Third Infantry Brigade), then ceded back to the Germans - and again taken by the U.S. forces a total of six times before the Germans were finally expelled.

Reproduced below is the text of an official French citation honouring the U.S. effort at Belleau Wood, issued on 8 December 1918.

French Government Citation in Honour of 4th American Brigade, 8 December 1918

Issued December 8, 1918, in honour of the 4th American Brigade, fighting at Belleau Wood. This brigade consisted of two regiments of Marines, and a Machine-Gun battalion from the "Regulars" of the U.S.A.

During these operations [of early June], thanks to the brilliant courage, vigour, dash, and tenacity of its men, who refused to be disheartened by fatigue or losses; thanks to the activity and energy of the officers, and thanks to the personal action of Brig. Gen. Harbord, the efforts of the brigade were crowned with success, realizing after twelve days of incessant struggle an important advance over the most difficult of terrain and the capture of two support points of the highest importance, Bouresches village and the fortified wood of Belleau.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. VI, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/belleau_frenchcitation.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edith Elizabeth Appleton Diaries - Volume 4 (21 June to 27 December 1918)

Sunday 8th [1918]This morning reminded me of 1914 the morning we arrived at Ostend. I woke –
found the train still – not a sound of any kind to be heard – then soon the clang of Church
bells! & I knew we were at a big town. We are lying in a siding & our engine has left us. So
perhaps we shall be able to get out & look at the place – Tournai. It looks a very big important
place & from the number of railing lines & telegraph lines must be a big junction. Days when
there are no patients on we live like millionaires – stay in bed until our batman calls us with
tea – breakfast not soon than 9 o’c. – breakfast leisurely - & then go out to see the place!
This morning was glorious – Sunny & clear.
Church bells sounded joyful - a train load of Tommies past us - on their way to Blighty &
everything seemed happy. I felt inclined for church so out the two of us went to see about
service & after a bit heard a band & guessed it was church parade - they came our way & we
followed them to the Garrison Church which is the Cinema at the other times.
The church was packed - there must have been nearly 1,000 men. The music was a good brass
band - the Padre a fine fellow. Everything went with a swing as services up the line usually do.
One thing impressed me - done I think, more by accident than intention. In the responses
before the Venite the music & congregation could not get together in “As it was in the
beginning is now and” etc. (& only a few sang it) - but when it came to the last one “The Lord’s
name be praised” the clarionettes & all the band were full blast & the men sang it at the tops
of their voices. It fitted the day & the sunshine & the war being over well. They wanted us to sit
in front with the officers but we couldn’t face it & went to the gallery - we were the only two
women there. The result was that many of the men screwing their heads round to have a look
at us. After service the troops all assembled in the Square in front of the Cathedral & marched
off headed by a fine band. They looked splendid.
Next we did a little sight seeing. Climbed to the top of the Belfry tower - I will send you a
picture of it - from where we had a fine view for miles around. Tournai is gay with flags -
chiefly huge Belgian national flag. The King & the Prince of Wales & Prince Albert were here
yesterday & had a great welcome & acclamation from the people. An R.E. officer showed us all
we saw - the Belfry & all the bridges that had been blown up by the Bosche a few days before
he left, & King Henry VIII tower - I will also show you a picture of that. The Germans had
machine guns on the roof when they were here.
It is a round tower with a flat roof - a wonderfully
strongly built affair - about twice as big as a
gasometer - same shape. We went on to the top of
it.
Too tired to write more tonight. E.

http://www.edithappleton.org.uk/Vol4/PDF/1918_12December.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 18:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Doughboy Watch on the Rhine

The heavily laden soldiers
assembled at the Trier
train station early on the
morning of 8 December 1918, and
when the train pulled out at 0900
it was headed east toward Coblenz
on the Rhine. Normally, any infantryman
prefers riding to walking,
and this must have been especially
true for these men, who had just
endured a dozen days of strenuous
road marching from Commercy,
France. But these were not normal
times, and for the doughboys of the
2d Battalion, 39th Infantry, this ride
was different; it marked the beginning
of perhaps the most unusual
mission they would ever perform.
Under the terms of the 11 November
1918 Armistice, the retreating German
Army was required to make a
phased withdrawal to and somewhat
beyond the Rhine within thirty-one
days.

Lees verder op http://www.history.army.mil/armyhistory/AH77(W).pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sultan Mehmed VI



Sultan Mehmed VI (1861-1926) served as the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1918 until his overthrow in 1922.

Born on 14 January 1861 Mehmed - original name Mehmed Vahideddin - was unlike the brother he succeeded as Sultan, Mehmed V, in that he was both intelligent and politically capable of ruling the Ottoman Empire of his own accord without the backing of the Young Turks.

Succeeding his brother on 3 July 1918 Mehmed VI presided over the terminal decline of the Ottoman Empire. Determined to assumed personal control over government and, crucially, to ensure the continued survival of the Ottoman dynasty, Mehmed co-operated with the Allies in suppressing all nationalist groups in the wake of the unconditional surrender and armistice of 30 October 1918.

In this he was fortunately unencumbered by the Young Turk administration with many of its leaders seeking exile on a German ship bound for Germany following Turkey's military defeat. Instead an Allied military administration was formed in Istanbul a month later on 8 December 1918. Parliament was dissolved on 21 December with the Sultan publicly affirming his determination to suppress nationalist ideologies of all colours.

The nationalists nevertheless remained active in Anatolia. After prolonged negotiations they secured the Sultan's agreement to hold elections late in 1919.

The results were predictable in returning a majority of nationalists to the new Parliament. Equally predictably the Allies took fright at the nationalist gains and extended their own military zone in Constantinople, simultaneously arresting and exiling nationalist leaders.

On 11 April 1920 Mehmed dissolved Parliament, causing the nationalists to establish a provisional government in Ankara. However it was the Sultan's signing of the Treaty of Sevres on 10 August 1920 that sparked the ire of the nationalists under the leadership of Kemal Pasha. Under the terms of the treaty the Ottoman Empire was reduced to little more than Turkey itself.

The treaty served only to notably boost the nationalists' popularity. With victory over the Greeks the nationalists held firm sway over Turkey and, on 1 November 1922, the Sultanate was formally abolished by the Grand National Assembly. Mehmed VI consequently fled to Malta aboard a British warship.

His subsequent attempts to re-establish himself as caliph in the Hejaz proved a failure. He died on 16 May 1926 in San Remo at the age of 65.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/mehmedvi.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 19:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant, 8 december 1919
Bron: Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Talaat Pasja

BERLIN, 8 december. (Part.) Het Berliner Ztg. am Mittag meldt dat Talaat Pasja, de gewezen Turksche grootvizier sinds enkele dagen te Berlijn vertoeft. Hij woont bij den gezantschapsraad van het gewezen Turksche gezantschap. Blad weet verder te vertellen, dat Talaat socialist is geworden. De eenige redding van Turkije zou naar zijn meening in de consequente toepassing van het socialisme bestaan. Talaat zou ook zijn betrekkingen weer hebben aangeknoopt met Karl Radek, die hij van Brest Litofsk kent, waar Talaat leider der Turksche delegatie was. Talaat gaat nu naar Rusland in gezelschap van Radek. Per vliegtuig gaan zij naar de Russische grens. Vandaar gaat Radek naar de conferentie van Dorpst en Talaat reist naar Moskou. Wat hij in Moskou gaat uitvoeren is een raadsel. Talaat staat op de lijst van Turken wier uitlevering de Entente verlangt en hij heeft in de uitroeiingspolitiek van de Armeniërs een groote rol gespeeld.

Indien dit verhaal niet waar is, is het goed gevonden.

http://www.agindepers.nl/kwestie/NRC-8-12-1919.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 19:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Curzon Line

Curzon Line The border between Soviet Russia and Poland established by the Paris Peace Conference on 8 December 1919, and later named after the British Foreign Secretary Curzon. According to the principle of national self-determination, it incorporated into Poland all those areas with a Polish majority.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Curzon_Line.aspx
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 19:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Evacuation - Williams Pier, North Beach, Gallipoli, December 1915



Why was this image chosen?

From the point of view of the British Empire and Dominion forces on Gallipoli no operation there was so successfully carried out as the evacuation of 8 to 20 December 1915. For that reason alone it deserves a panel to itself. The panel text concentrates on the reasons for the withdrawal and the simple facts of how many were successfully taken off the peninsula without the Turks becoming aware what was happening.

The feeling of the soldiers about leaving Gallipoli is well summed up in the prefatory quotation from a New Zealand soldier. Basically, many of the men were greatly saddened by having to leave behind the graves of their dead comrades. Bean tells us their reaction to the news of the evacuation:

For days after the breaking of the news there were never absent from the cemeteries men by themselves, or in twos and threes, erecting new crosses or tenderly ‘tidying-up’ the grave of a friend. This was by far the deepest regret of the troops. ‘I hope,’ said one of them to [General] Birdwood on the final day [19 December], pointing to a little cemetery, ‘I hope they won’t hear us marching down the deres [gullys]'.
[Charles Bean, The Story of Anzac, Vol II, Sydney, 1924, p.882]

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/4panels/opt8.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 19:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

In Flanders Fields, as it appeared in Punch, December 1915.



http://www.ww1battlefields.co.uk/flanders/essexfarm.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 20:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

British censorship

The British Army censored letters written home by its own troops, and the censors would submit reports on what they had learned from the letters they had read. In these reports, the censors would tend to stress the positive, as in this extract from a report of 8 December 1916, not long after the horrific Battle of the Somme.

Complaints of food are remarkably absent·On this account, the almost entire absence·of grousing as to food, is as unexpected as it is satisfactory. Expressions of satisfaction are frequent; those of complaint are conspicuously few.

Haig had obviously read this Censors' Report on British Army conditions in France, since he attached a note to it stating that he'd sent a copy to the King:

Attached reports by Censors give a genuine idea of the state of feeling of the British Soldier. I sent a copy to Colonel Wigram for the King as I think the paper so interesting

http://digital.nls.uk/experiencesofwar/general/propoganda/index-propoganda-2.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 20:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

John Burns

John Burns was appalled when David Lloyd George ousted Herbert Asquith as prime minister. He wrote about the events in his diary entry (8th December 1916)

The men who made the war were profuse in their praises of the man who kicked the P.M. out of his office and now degrades by his disloyal, dishonest and lying presence the greatest office in the State. The Gentlemen of England serve under the greatest cad in Europe.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/REburns.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Asquith and Grey at the Reform Club, December 1916

Speeches delivered by H H Asquith and Viscount Grey of Fallodon at the Reform Club, London on Friday 8 December 1916, following Asquith's resignation as Prime Minister.

Leesvoer op http://www.liberalhistory.org.uk/item_single.php?item_id=56&item=history
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The First World War Diary of Bdr Charles Bertram Spires

8th December 1917 - Registered two guns and moved to new quarters. Signal pit is now in an outhouse on a hill top. Can have a good fire and cook meals when we have anything to cook - food is not so good again. Fritz sent over a few 'lightweights' and of'course 'C' battery clicked again. Had steak and chips for supper. Rum up.

http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/tedspires/Diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Report of Montgomeryshire County Times 8 December 1917

"Two Guisfield Brothers - Cpl Jim Jones son of Mr and Mrs Jones, Blacksmithy, Guilsfield who died on the 6th of Nov 1917 was teaching in the National School Welshpool prior to joining the Royal Welch Fusiliers in November 1914. He went with his regiment to Gallipoli where he was wounded and returned to England. He went out to Egypt in Oct 1916 and was wounded in the Battle of Gazza on March 17th 1916. In a letter to his mother from his commanding officer it said he was a popular and useful NCO and one whose place he would find difficulty to fill.


Left of picture: Pte 304009 Edwin Jones, 25th P.O. Rifles, 5th Btn London Rifle Brigade killed in action 6 Sept 1916 aged 39.
And his brother on the right: L/Cpl James Jones. 1/7th Royal Welch Fusiliers died from wounds received in Palestine on 6 November 1917
Centre: Their cousin George.


http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/item/4825?CISOBOX=1&REC=5
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Quartermaster History Time Line

8 December 1917 - Establishment of Motor Transport Service, transferred to Services of Utilities within the Quartermaster Corps.

http://www.qmfound.com/quartermaster_time_line.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from 494 Sergeant Joseph Cecil Thompson to his brother upon arrival in Egypt in 1914 prior to Gallipoli action.

Quarantine hospital, Alexandria. Egypt. Dec. 8th 1914

Dear Len

Just a few lines to let you know how I am getting on, and what sort of place we have struck for a start. We have had very little to do on the ship and a long time to do it in. Old Lee has proved himself a real pig so far. He still thinks he has a lot of schoolchildren under him. I beleive [sic] he is getting shifted from over us, and a dammed good job if he is. I am sure none of the men will be sorry. The tucker was very bad after we left Ceylon, and the men started to complain to the officers. They took no notice till the men went to them last Tuesday, with some rotten fish that was served to them for breakfast. They told the men that it was quite good enough for them, so they took it straight up to the Doctor and he condemned it at once; and ordered more breakfast for them. The officers dine high and have ducks, fowl, turkey, fish and everything like a big hotel. I am pretty sure half of them will never come back if we see a bit of a scrap. While we were between Ceylon and Aden[?], some of the chaps got down the hold amongst the beer. They weren't found out for some time, and had seven cases finished before they were caught. Our chap got 25 days in ˜Klink over it, and that is all that was done to them. Another day they got a gimlet out of the Carpenter's room, and broke open the door of the beer room, on deck and took 40 gallons. They would not have been found out, only they forgot to plug the last cask up, and it ran out all over the deck. They never found out who it was, but they stopped all the beer for the rest of the trip. You will see in Dad's letter how they all broke ship here, and went into town. I do allright here, and always had plenty of tucker and extras on board. We used to get hot rolls from the baker in the morning and I used to make tea or cocoa and we used to have cocoa before we went to bed.
The band have a very easy time and we had no drill or practice for the last week. I wish you could be here and see all these old places that we have often read about. Nearly all the band fellows broke ship the second night and said they had the time of their lives in town. They have all gone to Cairo by train, and we will follw them when we have been discharged from the hospital. I have nothing at all wrong with me and am having a lousy[?]busy[?] Time. The niggers here are dirty Bu-----rs, and s---t and piss in the streets. I hope you are doing allright in the shop and have plenty of work. I saw in an Egyptian paper where Senator Pearce[?] gave out in Australia on Dec 4th that we had a narrow escape from the Emden. He said we were less than 100 miles away, when we we[re] within 25 miles. The Emden would have got some of us, as we had no protection at all behind. The Omrah was last in our divisions, so we would have stood a big chance of being first to go. Well I haven't much more to say. I told Dad that if Mum does not use my money, for him to use it in the shop. We might not be back for years yet, as we will train here for some months and then go to the front. Tell Mum to still use the same address, as it will find us anywhere we are. Remember me to Fred[?] Pliss[?]Oliver[?], and any other old pals. Excuse this paper as its just about my last sheet, till I get some more. Well I will close now wishing you the best of luck, from your aff[ectionate] Brother
Cecil

http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/gwa/document/9277?REC=9
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Dec 2010 21:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I

On occasions, Eyschen's principles got the better of him. On 13 October 1914, a Luxembourgian journalist named Karl Dardar was arrested by the German army for publishing anti-German stories. He was then taken to Koblenz, and tried and sentenced by court-martial to three months imprisonment. Eyschen was outraged that the Germans had kidnapped a Luxembourgian citizen and tried him for an extra-territorial offence, and Eyschen did nothing to hide his indignation. Eyschen told the German minister in Luxembourg that the action was a 'direct injury to the Grand Duchy's national sovereignty'. [Telegram from Eyschen to Buch (in German), 8 December 1914.]

http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/2886091
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Harry S. Truman to Bess Wallace, December 8, 1918.
(Truman Papers - Family, Business, and Personal Affairs Papers)

Verdun, France

December 8, 1918

Dearest Bess:

Back to slavery again, but it was a pleasure to get back because I found three letters here from you and some from home. Your name sure looks good on a letter head and I'm glad you sent me a copy of the stationary. Bill Bostian is certainly lucky to have forgotten his gloves but I'm afraid it has spoiled one of my pet superstitions for him, that is that it is unlucky to turn back when you start any where. I am very glad to learn of Frank's recovery and I sincerely hope that no one else has taken the "Flu." It has never struck our regiment although some of the others have been badly hit by it. We seem to have been a lucky outfit in more ways than one. You must have had one glorious celebration on the 11th and I'd have certainly liked to be present although we had a right good celebration ourselves of extreme quiet after 11 o'clock and it was greatly appreciated, that extreme quiet, I'll tell you.

I stopped in Paris again on my way back to the regiment and went to the opera, the real one, and heard Thais. It was beautifully put on and well sung. The building was worth the price of admission to look at. Major Gates and I went. The rest went to the Casino de Paris to see a gaiety show, which, they said, was very good. Paris has a thousand streets more or less and no two of 'em run in the same direction, nor do any of them have the same name from end to end. Nearly any old street in a small village sports a name for each end of it and in Paris they have from two to a dozen. It is always necessary to hire a bandit on a taxi to take you around or you'll never arrive. They're not such bandits after all, because I rode all afternoon with Major Gates and Colonel Elliott and it was only 15 francs, about $2.75 in honest-to-goodness money.

They made us sign a paper the day we returned stating whether we wanted to become regular army men with our same grades, go into the reservist army, or have a complete discharge from the army at once. I naturally took the last event. I don't expect to go into anything where I can't say what I please when I please. Anyhow the emergency is over and I am ready to be a producer instead of a leech. If they take me at my word, which I much doubt they'll do, I may want to see you in New York sure enough if you'll come. I am of the opinion we'll all go home and be discharged with our outfits next spring.

How I wish I could see you. Keep on writing. May you have a Joyous Christmas.

Yours always, Harry

https://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/trumanpapers/fbpa/index.php?documentVersion=both&documentid=HST-FBP_6-2_01&pagenumber=1
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter to Mrs. A. M. Kemery, December 8, 1918.

4-page handwritten letter with envelope; Kemery informed Mother that he received the Christmas box and the boxes of needed rations.

https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A7648
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Orizaba, December 8, 1918

Written at sea aboard the U.S.S. Orizaba, this newspaper contains brief humours articles about the ship, lists Officers on board and their duties, ship notes, and official Press Representatives on board traveling to the Peace Conference at Paris. Edited by Dr. P. G. Skillern.

http://credo.library.umass.edu/view/full/mums312-b012-i312
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Christian Literature Campaign of the Walther League - December 8, 1918

The Walther League was a Lutheran group formed to challenge Lutheran youth to better understand their faith. The Walther League hoped to work with the Lutheran Church Board of Army and Navy to raise $30,000 to send more hymnals, prayer books, testament, and printed sermons overseas. This document outlines the importance of sending Christian literature to the men overseas and how to raise the appropriate amount of money in order to do so.

Hoop leesvoer vandaag. Get going! http://missourioverthere.org/explore/collections/graebner-theodore-collection/christian-literature-campaign-of-the-walther-league-december-8-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1-112 First Division War Diary Entry, December 8, 1917

December 8, 1917 [Gondrecourt], France

. . . 2. Shortage in forage still continues. Shortage in leggins, winter gloves or mittens, and shoes exists. Owing to hard work, continuous muddy roads and necessity for wearing very heavy socks (generally 2 pairs, one light and one heavy) the men require larger sizes in shoes than was found necessary in the warmer and drier climate where our troops usually operated before the war. Apparently, as a result of this change, it has been found impossible to secure a sufficient number of shoes of the sizes between 8_ and 12. The wearing of tight shoes has resulted in a number of men developing sore feet during the recent open warfare maneuvers. Many men only have one pair of shoes at the present time.

http://marshallfoundation.org/library/digital-archive/first-division-war-diary-entry-15/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Tacoma times, December 08, 1917

Page 2 - Doings of the Duffs (1914–1931) originally by Walter Allman (US). This cartoon seems to showcase anti-German sentiment.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Doings_of_the_Duffs_(December_8,_1917).jpg
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Detective William Woolsey

On December 8, 1917, Detective William Woolsey was standing on the 3rd Street viaduct talking to a
citizen when Frank Warren and Chub Hardin attempted to rob them.  Although Warren had stuck a
pistol in Detective Woolsey's abdomen, the detective still went for his gun and squeezed the trigger
before Warren realized what was happening.  Unfortunately, the detective's gun did not fire so the
detective pulled the trigger a second time.  So did Warren.  Both guns fired and both men fell to the
ground and died.  Chub Hardin was captured later, but because he was a juvenile, he received no harsh
punishment.

https://www.joplinmo.org/DocumentCenter/Home/View/304
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

PAPERS RELATING TO THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1917, SUPPLEMENT 2, THE WORLD WAR, VOLUME I: The Minister in Denmark ( Egan) to the Secretary of State

[Telegram]
Copenhagen, December 8, 1917, 2 p.m.
[Received December 10, 5.26 p.m.]

The German press has devoted little comment to the President’s speech compared with that made on his answer to the Pope. The debates in the Prussian Diet printed in full and the heated press discussion thereon occupy an overwhelming proportion of newspaper space. Vorwärts prints practically complete text while other papers more or less full résumés. Such important north German paper as Weser Zeitung has printed no comment whatever.

Hamburgischer Correspondent, 7th: Wilson’s speech has single purpose, to preserve America’s reputation. Publication Petrograd archives show that Entente pursuing selfish and predatory purpose, only America holds aloof, but such combination impossible and should Allies be able dictate peace, each would be paid according to political aims. Wilson must permit us to ask how he intends to prevent this as he pretends to desire. Our enemies never entered war for aims like Wilson’s and, if victorious, would never be satisfied with them, and Wilson would be empowered [sic] unless he wished to turn arms against Allies. Wilson in Buffalo told workers our advance in east was no longer peacefully commercial but military political. Is prevention of alleged control over Austria and Balkans a new American war aim? But main question remains, does Wilson want peace to-day or to-morrow? He answers tomorrow, but only if present German rulers are smashed, which will never happen, and bloodletting must continue indefinitely until Wilson perhaps finds himself fighting alone.

Hamburger Echo, 7th: His speech culminated in words, we wish to know nothing of peace till the German military power has been struck to earth. Whole speech as given by Reuter equally clumsy. Concerning “the noisily thoughtless and troublesome”: Contradicts completely assertion that whole nation agrees with his intentions, for which American people must learn Wilson’s and his clique’s true intentions. President’s arrogance and intentional unclearness evidenced by sentences beginning: “We are the spokesmen, etc.” Nothing in speech to prove Germany broke peace and as little to show what are aims to be won by weapons unless they are in Wilson’s declaration that first Germany’s masters must be struck down or Germany shut out from peaceful intercourse between peoples and, secondly, German people after their being conquered must choose representatives who can be trusted and who will submit to general judgement of nations as to future fundaments for laws and treaties. Scornful laughter is only answer to such war aims. Internal effect in America chief aim of speech. Zimmermann’s offer to Mexico and other acts of former German diplomacy gave him excellent chance for incitement against Germany. Continued defeats of Allies will weaken unhealthy influence of western capitalistic Republic which can be fully broken only if Germany destroys bad reputation resulting [Page 469]from our own fault and foreign slander, and by peace in the east setting limit to Europe’s self-mutilation from which America only profits.

Hamburger Nachrichten, 7th, says: One possibly sensible thought in Wilson’s speech when he calls no annexations, no indemnities, an unripe formula, but he speaks of peace grounded on generosity and justice and then wishes to bring credible representatives of German people to repentance for alleged “injustice of its rulers.” Wilson compelled to say rehearse [reverse?] of truth to people since American financiers, on [whom] whole absolutely depends, have speculated falsely in investing billions in Entente’s war venture, and wish to save what is possible by staking whole country and simultaneously to prepare against Japan. Wilson must attempt justify himself somewhat by talking about defeating autocracy and about peace based on generosity and justice.

Kieler Neueste, 8th, says: Brusqueness indicates Wilson’s policy. American gold sacks not yet full enough. What wonderful business for the Union’s trust magnates to profit by general European lack of material. Wilson says he can only regard war won when Germany represented in America by believable representatives who agree to peace founded on justice and repentance for “injustice” of its rulers. For all who can judge Wilson’s impertinencies merely sign of how low Allied stock is. Article indulges in particularly vitriolic attacks on President and America in general.

American Legation

https://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1917Supp02v01/d388
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Telegram to Benjamin Lipsner, December 8, 1917

Captain Benjamin B. Lipsner received this telegram from McCain, first name not provided, informing him that he has received a temporary appointment as Captain in the Signal Corps, Regular Army. The Western Union telegram is addressed to Lipsner at 119 St. Washington, D.C. The telegram is stamped PVT [Private] RUSH.

Doorklikken graag! https://www.si.edu/object/npm_1982.0157.696
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 8:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AS BIRDS FLYING, The Miracle of December 8th

(...) In August of 1914 the Great War broke out in Europe. General Edmund Allenby of the British Army began the war in command of a cavalry division on the Western Front. He was later promoted to command the 5th Corps of the British Expeditionary Forces in Europe. In October 1915 he took command of the Third Army, which in 1916 took part in the battle of the Somme.

The War in Palestine really began in 1915, with a Turkish offensive against the Suez Canal. It was beaten back, but in late 1916 and early 1917, when the British launched a counter offensive, they were severely repulsed by the Ottoman Turks. British Prime Minister Lloyd George commented at the time, “Nobody could have saved the Turks from complete collapse, but our General Staff.” In June 1917, General Allenby was ordered to leave his Third Army and take command of the British war effort in the Middle East.

Allenby was not excited about his new assignment. General Sir Beauvoir de Lisle saw Allenby at the Grosvenor Hotel in London before the latter left for Cairo. Allenby said to him, “The last man failed, and I do not see why I should succeed.” Sir Beauvoir, who was later to preach a sermon at St. Martin’s in the Fields about the capture of Jerusalem, consoled him with Bible prophecies of the deliverance of Jerusalem. He told General Allenby that the Bible said that Jerusalem would be delivered in that very year, 1917, and by Britain.

In 1886, Dr. Grattan Guinness had written a book titled “Light for the Last Days” in which he demonstrated from the Scriptures that Jerusalem would be delivered from Turkish rule in 1917. In 1898, Dr. H. Aldersmith, another eminent student of Bible prophecy, wrote a book called “Fullness of the Nations,” in which he said that Jerusalem would be delivered by Great Britain in 1917. In personal conversations, Dr. Aldersmith would say that he believed that Jerusalem would be delivered by some sort of flying machine, although the airplane had not yet been invented.

Before sailing to Cairo to take command, General Allenby was summoned to a meeting with Admiral Lord Fisher, the First Sea Lord. In one of the most extraordinary military conferences of war, recorded by Lord Fisher’s secretary, Allenby was told that he would be God’s instrument for the deliverance of Jerusalem in December 1917. Stunned by Lord Fisher’s words, he asked him to explain his deduction. Admiral Lord Fisher, First Sea Lord, then spent several hours in discussing the Bible with General Allenby, showing him the prophecies that related to the rise of Great Britain, and lastly the prophecies relating to the deliverance of Jerusalem in December 1917. Armed and strengthened by this knowledge, General Allenby sailed for the Middle East.

I won’t take the time to review the Palestinian campaign during the Great War, but God’s hand was clearly in evidence. Under Allenby’s command was the famous Thomas Edward Lawrence - Lawrence of Arabia. Many books and articles have been written about the exploits of T. E. Lawrence, and continue to be written. One of the great adventure stories of English literature is “The Seven Pillars of Wisdom” by Lawrence.

Allenby was a devout Christian. He often consulted the Bible for spiritual direction, and for historical and geographical military guidance for an army fighting in Palestine; and would frequently ask his staff officers to bow their heads with him and to pray for success in battle with few casualties. In his biography of Allenby, Field Marshall Wavell recounts a saying among the Arabs at the time, “When the waters of the Nile flow into Palestine, then will a prophet of the Lord deliver Jerusalem from the Turkish yoke.” Under Allenby the waters of the Nile did flow into Palestine via a pipeline laid by the Royal Engineers to supply the British forces. The Arabs called General Allenby “Allah en Nebi” which means prophet of God.

After many battles the British Army finally made its approach to Jerusalem. Allenby’s plan was to partially encircle Jerusalem, intentionally leaving a safe way of escape in hopes that the Turkish Army would withdraw, avoiding a siege of the Holy City.

When the British forces had come within striking distance of Jerusalem, and were coming under fire from Turkish batteries within the city, Allenby did not want to return fire because he believed that it was unworthy of Christian Britain to fire on the Holy City. He cabled Prime Minister Lloyd George for instructions. George replied that the Cabinet was leaving him free to do whatever he thought best. Not satisfied with such an answer, he cabled the King for guidance. King George V replied simply, “Pray about it.” Gathering his staff together, General Allenby followed the King’s counsel.

This takes us to the morning of Saturday December 8, 1917. The British chaplains that morning led the troops in prayer. The first lesson from Morning Prayer on that day was from Isaiah chapter 31. The very prophecy that was to be fulfilled on that day was found in that lesson: “For thus hath the LORD spoken unto me, Like as the lion and the young lion roaring on his prey, when a multitude of shepherds is called forth against him, he will not be afraid of their voice, nor abase himself for the noise of them: so shall the LORD of hosts come down to fight for mount Zion, and for the hill thereof. As birds flying, so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem; defending also He will deliver it; and passing over He will preserve it” (Is. 31:4-5). That day, December 8, 1917, was also the Feast of Hanukkah, commemorating an earlier deliverance of Jerusalem by Judah Maccabee two centuries before Christ.

In the reading from Isaiah, General Allenby saw the lion in the prophecy as representing Great Britain and the young lion as representing his ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand) troops. When Isaiah spoke prophetically of God defending, delivering and preserving Jerusalem “as birds flying,” Allenby knew exactly what that meant.

By this time the Royal Flying Corps had complete air supremacy over Palestine. That morning General Allenby ordered British planes to make reconnaissance flights over Jerusalem and to drop leaflets calling upon the Turkish garrison to surrender, but were directed not to strafe or bomb the Holy City. With all of the British air activity, panic broke out among the garrison who had no air support to speak of, and the Turkish officers could not get the situation under control. That night Izzet Bey the governor of Jerusalem smashed all of the equipment in the telegraph office, and wrote a letter of surrender. At 2:00 AM, on December 9th, the Turkish garrison began leaving through the Jaffa Gate. By 7:00 AM the last of the Turkish soldiers were passing through St. Stephen’s Gate making their way along the Jericho Road. Bey and a few frightened policemen came out of the city bearing a white flag and surrendered Jerusalem to General O’Shea of the 60th division. The Holy City had been delivered without a shot being fired. (...)

Tsja... geschreven door Fr. Victor E. Novak, rector of Holy Cross Parish in Omaha, Nebraska. Verder lezen mág... http://frnovak.blogspot.nl/2012/12/as-birds-flying-miracle-of-december-8th.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Tom Thomson's Last Spring (Follow me during the days of my last spring in 1917)

December 8,1916 Things to Worry About

I had another good day of painting. I started a new canvas of a sketch I did in October just after a wet and heavy snow. The snow sticking to the upper branches of birch saplings made quite a nice pattern. This canvas is a bit smaller – about 32 inches square. Since I’m not venturing out much, I’ll get this one done in a few days.

Jim MacDonald came by just before he went home. He invited me for dinner this Sunday. Jim lives up in Thornhill, it’s easy to get there with the TYRR (Toronto York and Radial Railway). I said I’d come up. I hadn’t seen Thoreau in a while and it would be nice to see him. Jim moved up to Thornhill with his family, but still kept space in the Studio here. But work is getting pretty meagre, and Dr. MacCallum convinced him to stay in the Studio (at a reduced rent). There’s not much appetite for art during the War so he’s having a tough time making ends meet. He got board money from the Lismers but they’ve moved to Halifax. He tried raising some crops in the summer, but that didn’t bring in much money either.

The last art job Jim got was painting a Mother Goose mural for the toy department at Simpsons. He finished it before the Christmas Parade on Saturday. For no charge, he’s doing the artwork for the Arts and Letters Club. That’s the deal he made with Dr. MacCallum – free artwork for reduced studio rent.

“Dr MacCallum or Dr Faustus?” We both laughed when the words popped out but we knew this was a joke not to be played with, so we kept on talking about other things. Mrs. MacDonald wants to move back downtown, she doesn’t like it up in Thornhill. Thoreau thinks it’s an adventure, he’s off exploring each day, worrying the Mrs., when he doesn’t come home right away.

Jim look through my canvases, and said they were good pieces, and I should start considering what to put in the Spring Exhibition. The exhibition is in early March and the hanging committee needs to finalize the list of art by the middle of February. I told him, I wasn’t sure I’d submit after the brouhaha last year, but I’d see how my canvases go before I make a decision.

I sent Jim off around 6. pm. I was thinking about going to an evening show at the Hippodrome (‘The Scoop’ was playing) but I decided to stay in and read instead. It’s risky going out, because if you’re alone people with start calling after you for your name to sign up. I saw the comic in the paper today – ‘Things to Worry About’ – I don’t need that worry tonight.

I haven’t yet checked for my mail. I may go up the Studio later tonight. I’ll have a drink with Bill and Curtis, if they’re still there. They’re always good for a few drinks and stories. I haven’t made my acquaintances with the new women tenants, so this evening may be the occasion to do so.

Tomorrow, I’ll make Thoreau a small gift. I’ll carve a minnow lure from wood. I have my fishing and carving gear with me. They’re always with me.

https://ttlastspring.com/2015/12/08/december-81916-things-to-worry-about-2/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 9:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Telegraph, December 8 1915

In today’s paper:
The Bishop of Salisbury finds himself the subject of a court case from a churchwarden forbidden from exercising his office after using offensive language against his rector – page 5. What he is alleged to have said to the rector was obviously not fit to be printed, as it is blanked out
- Admiral Tirpitz gets an iron statue of himself at Wilhemshaven, with room for 250,0000 nails to be pressed in it, but the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin is not impressed – page 7
- King George V gives the Church Army £25 to help build an army hut – page 7

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ww1-archive/12031719/Daily-Telegraph-December-8-1915.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Dec 2017 9:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

December 8, 1915: Manchester and Salford Women's Trades Union Council

Council and Meeting held December 8, 1915 at 7 pm.

Apologies of absence were received from Miss Gardner and Mrs. Findlay.

Present members : Miss Emily Cox (chair), Mrs. Cooke, Mrs. Withington, Miss Margaret Ashton, Miss Bailey, Mr. H. V. Herford, Mr. Watson.

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and passed.

Arising out of the minutes the chairman reported that the conference arranged between the Amalgamated Society of Corset Makers and Sewing Machinists and the Amalgamated Clothiers Operatives had been held, and that it was decided to hold a meeting of the members of the Corset Makers Union to discuss the question of amalgamation.

A letter was received from the Local Armaments Committee (Trade Union Section) stating that the members allowed had been reappointed which left no vacancy for the appointment of any representatives from the Women’s organisations.

A letter was read from Miss Moorhouse giving the dates of meetings of the Industrial Committee of the National U. W. Workers. Miss Moorhouse also asked that the Council should write and suggest to the Lord Mayor that Miss Margaret Ashton and Mrs. Jane Redford should be placed on the Special Joint Sub Committee of the Watch and Sanitary Committees appointed to enquire into the morality of the city. Miss Cox proposed and Mrs. Withington seconded and carried that a letter be sent to the Lord Mayor.

It was agreed to hold the Annual Meeting on the earliest possible date in February and that Miss I. O. Ford and Miss A. Tracy or Miss Squire, Factory Inspector be asked to speak.

A financial statement was given by the Treasurer.

A letter was read from the Women’s War Interest Committee asking for delegates to a conference to be held on December 18. It was decided to appoint Miss Cox and Miss Quaile.

A letter was read from the Women’s International League asking for representatives to a conference on “No Compulsion” to be held on December 9. Moved by Mrs. Withington seconded by Mr. H.V. Herford and carried nem con. that six delegates be sent. It was decided to appoint Miss Cox, Mrs Findlay, Miss Wallwork and the Secretary, and that two other members be asked to attend on behalf of the Council.

It was reported that the girls working at Messrs. Blair’s had obtained a war bonus of 2/-for girls over 21 years and a 1/- for girls under 21 years.

The Sub Committee minutes were read.

Many dinner hour meetings had been held in the Leather Trade with little result. Many of the women were working short time. The Tin Box Makers’ Union had been very active and dinner hour and evening meetings had been organised. At one firm (Wilson’s) the girls in the printing department had put in for an advance of wages, to bring the existing rates up to the Trade Board minimum.

The Clothiers had held a very successful meeting of women at St. Helens, resulting in the formation of a new branch.

Miss Quaile had been invited to give evidence before the Health of Munition Workers Committee. As she was in London she asked Mrs. A. Robinson to go in her place and Miss Ashton had accompanied her.

A conference had taken place in the Town Hall called by the Liquor Control Board. The Council had been asked to send representatives, Miss Cox, Mrs Findlay and Mrs. A. Robinson had attended.

Miss Cox and Miss Quaile had attended a conference called by the Women’s War Interests Committee on the question of women entering the trade of munition box making.

A report had been received that much discontent existed at Reynolds Underclothing Factory, a meeting was to be held.

Emily Cox January 12th 1916.

http://www.mswtuc.co.uk/content/december-8-1915
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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