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5 December
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 21:33    Onderwerp: 5 December Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

December 5

1915 Siege of British-occupied Kut, Mesopotamia begins


On this day in 1915, Turkish and German forces launch an attack on the British-occupied town of Kut al-Amara on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.

Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops had enjoyed early success in their invasion of Mesopotamia. Forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, reached and occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut al-Amara, by late September 1915. From there, they attempted to move up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, but were rebuffed by Turkish troops at Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak) in late November. Despite outnumbering the Turks two-to-one, Townshend’s troops, made up partially of soldiers dispatched from India, were forced to retreat to Kut, where on December 5 Turkish and German troops began a siege that would last for the next five months.

Nixon had envisioned Kut as a base for his troops to invade further into the region and eventually provide a pivot point for an ambitious strategy where the Russians would enter the region through Azerbaijan and Persia and join the Allied forces to envelop the enemy. Unfortunately for the British troops, problems with illness among the British officers and sinking morale due to wet weather and dwindling supplies plagued Townshend’s forces, who tried four times without success to confront and surround their Turkish opponents only to suffer heavy casualties.

Kut fell on April 29, 1916, and Townshend was forced to give up the fight, along with his remaining 10,000 men. That day marked the largest single surrender of troops in British history up until that time.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 22:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Heel toepasselijk op vijf december.
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Roma



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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 22:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

5 december 1915
Het Bulgaarse leger bezet de Servische vestingstad Monastir.
Bron: Kroniek van de 20ste eeuw
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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

5 december 1916

Mackensen stuurt een brief naar de Roemenen in Boekarest met de vraag of men bereid is een belegering te ondergaan. De brief komt ongeopend terug.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 22:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

[quote="Henri"]5 december 1917

Quote:

Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 5. Dezember.
Sinaifront: Die Kampfhandlungen beschränkten sich auf mittelstarkes Artilleriefeuer an verschiedenen Stellen der Front. Die schon gemeldeten Kämpfe am Betur-el-Foca waren sehr erbittert. Der Feind erlitt schwere blutige Verluste. Drei Offiziere und 45 Mann wurden als Gefangene eingebracht.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2006 0:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Abgewiesene französische Angriffe - 1200 Russen gefangen
Großes Hauptquartier, 5. Dezember, vormittags.
In Flandern und südlich von Metz wurden gestern französische Angriffe abgewiesen. Bei La Bassée im Argonnenwald und in der Gegend südwestlich Altkirch machten unsere Truppen Fortschritte.
Bei den Kämpfen östlich der masurischen Seen ist die Lage günstig; kleinere Unternehmungen brachten dort 1200 Gefangene.
In Polen verlaufen unsere Operationen regelrecht.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Erfolgreiche Kampfe in Westgalizien -
Unentschiedene Lage in Serbien
Wien, 5. Dezember.
Vom südlichen Kriegsschauplatz wird amtlich gemeldet:
Die Kämpfe westlich und südwestlich Arandjelowatz dauern äußerst hartnäckig an. Bisher ist noch keine endgültige Entscheidung gefallen. Gestern wurden über 600 Mann zu Gefangenen gemacht.
Mittags wird unterm 5. d. M. verlautbart:
In den Karpathen ereignete sich auch gestern nichts von Bedeutung. In Westgalizien entwickelten sich bei Tymbark kleinere, für unsere Waffen erfolgreiche Kämpfe. Die Lage in Südpolen ist unverändert. Die Schlacht in Nordpolen dauert fort.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 1)





Präsident Poincaré über den Frieden
Paris, 5. Dezember. (Priv.-Tel.)
Präsident Poincaré empfing den neuen Gesandten der Vereinigten Staaten Sharp. Dieser überbrachte dem Präsidenten sein Beglaubigungsschreiben mit der Versicherung, daß der Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten große Bewunderung für das französische Volk hege, und drückte den Wunsch aus, aus den Prüfungen der gegenwärtigen Stunde möchten bald die Wohltaten eines langen und dauernden Friedens hervorgehen Poincaré erwiderte, daß, wenn es allein von der französischen Regierung abhängig gewesen wäre, der Frieden niemals gestört worden wäre. Auf einen brutalen Angriff habe Frankreich mit Patriotismus und Tapferkeit geantwortet. Frankreich wolle jetzt bis ans Ende die ihm auferlegte Pflicht erfüllen, damit der künftige Frieden von langer Dauer sein könne. Um nicht trügerisch zu sein, müsse er durch Wiederherstellung der verletzten Rechte garantiert und gegen zukünftige Angriffe im voraus gesichert sein.





Das Eingreifen Portugals
Lissabon, 5. Dezember. (W. B.)
Der Ministerpräsident Machado stellte in beiden Häusern des Parlaments fest, daß vier Expeditionen zum Dienst in Afrika ausgerüstet worden seien. Gleichzeitig wurde eine Verordnung veröffentlicht, daß Vorkehrungen zur Mobilmachung einer Division getroffen werden, die bereit sein soll, nach einem beliebigen Kampfplatz abzugehen.





Aus der italienischen Kammer

Salandra
Giolitti

Rom, 5. Dezember. (W. B.)
Die Kammer setzte heute die Erörterung der Regierungserklärung fort. Bettolo beantragte und begründete folgende Tagesordnung:
"Da die Kammer anerkennt, daß die Neutralität Italiens mit vollem Recht und überlegtem Urteil proklamiert wurde, so hat sie das Vertrauen zur Regierung, daß diese im Bewußtsein ihrer schweren Verantwortung durch ihr Auftreten und die geeignetsten Mittel verstehen wird, die den höchsten Interessen der Nation entsprechende Handlungsweise zu erklären."
Bettolo drückte seine Genugtuung darüber aus, daß die von Italien proklamierte Neutralität auf keinen Fall ihren Grund habe in der Vorbereitung und Kraft der militärischen Organisation. (Lebhafter Beifall.) Salandra habe die wahren Gründe dafür angegeben, weshalb Italien an dem ungeheuren Krieg nicht teilnehmen kann. Bettolo faßte die Haltung Italiens folgendermaßen zusammen: Die Neutralität soll keine passive Entsagung bedeuten, sondern eine wachsame und gelassene Überwachung, die durch eine kräftige militärische Vorbereitung gestützt wird. Diese solle bereit sein, die höchsten Interessen der Nation zu verteidigen, falls sie bedroht oder mißverstanden werden sollten. (Beifall.) Bettolo betonte, daß Italien besonderes Bedürfnis empfinden müsse, an sich selbst zu denken, ohne auf die Schmeicheleien interessierter Lockungen zu hören, noch auf die gefährliche Suggestion verwickelter und abstrakter Begriffe, die den Sinn für die Wirklichkeit verlieren könnten. Bettolo sprach zum
Schluß sein Vertrauen aus, daß die Regierung ihre Aufgabe mit dem sicheren Bewußtsein der Interessen des Vaterlandes erfüllen werde.
Nachdem ein Sozialist für und ein anderer gegen die Regierung gesprochen hatte, ergriff der Ministerpräsident Salandra das Wort und drückte zunächst sein Bedauern über die wenig maßvollen Ausdrücke aus, die einzelne Redner bei Beurteilung des großen internationalen Konflikts und der Mächte, die daran beteiligt sind, gebraucht hätten. (Lebhafter Beifall.) Dann fuhr der Ministerpräsident fort: Italien erkennt die Verdienste und Vorzüge aller zivilisierten Völker an und weiß, daß alle am Fortschritt mitgearbeitet haben. Es lebe Italien, das sei unser Ruf. (Die Abgeordneten erheben sich. Anhaltender Beifall. Wiederholter Ruf: "Es lebe Italien!") Man hat gesagt, daß meine Erklärungen rätselhaft waren; mir dagegen scheinen sie sehr klar gewesen zu sein, und ich glaube, daß die große Mehrheit des Landes, die in diesem Augenblick von uns vertreten wird, und nicht (zur äußersten Linken gewandt) von Ihnen, mit mir einverstanden ist. (Sehr lebhafter Beifall, der von der äußersten Linken unterbrochen wird.) Was ich gesagt habe, wird von jedermann verstanden, und ich darf kein Wort hinzufügen. Sie sollen meine Erklärungen beurteilen; aber ich kann keine ausführlicheren Erklärungen geben, denn das würde gegen das Staatsinteresse sein. (Sehr lebhafter Beifall.) Wenn Sie glauben, daß diese Art, die Pflichten der Regierung zu beurteilen, dem Staatsinteresse entspricht, dann werden Sie unsere politische Richtlinie billigen. Anderen falls werden Sie unsere Pflichten kennen. (Sehr gut. Bravo.) Was die militärische Vorbereitung anbelangt, so erkläre ich, daß Heer und Flotte Italiens für jede Eventualität bereit sind. (Sehr lebhafte Zustimmung. Beifall.) Wir haben ebenso wie unsere Vorgänger die schwere Verantwortung für das Wohl des Landes übernommen. Sie werden, sobald Ihnen die Dokumente vorgelegt werden, diese Verantwortung beurteilen können. Aber nicht heute. (Zustimmung.) Das Land stimmt mit der Regierung überein, seine Interessen schützen zu wollen, und sie werden geschützt werden. Ich kann nicht über diese Erklärungen hinausgehen. (Lebhafter Beifall.) Die Kammer muß sagen, ob sie Vertrauen zur Regierung hat. In diesem Augenblick kann man über nichts anderes verhandeln. Ich erkläre, daß ich die Tagesordnung Bettolos annehme, besonders, weil sie der Regierung volle Handlungsfreiheit zuerkennt. Salandra schloß mit den Worten: Wir kennen die furchtbare Verantwortung, die auf uns ruht. Wir kennen sie und fühlen sie; aber ohne volle Handlungsfreiheit unter Zustimmung der Kammer können weder wir noch irgend eine Regierung das Land in diesem Augenblick leiten. (Beifall.) Dies ist die Bedeutung der Tagesordnung Bettolo, die ich die Kammer anzunehmen bitte. (Sehr lebhafte Zustimmung und anhaltender lebhafter Beifall.)

Eine Erklärung Giolittis

Im weiteren Verlaufe der Sitzung ergriff auch der frühere Ministerpräsident Giolitti, dessen Erklärungen von dem Hause mit gespannter Aufmerksamkeit angehört wurden, das Wort. Er führte aus, daß es vor allem von Wichtigkeit sei, daß die Loyalität Italiens über jeder Diskussion stehe. So erinnere er bezüglich des Rechtes Italiens, die Neutralität zu erklären, daran, daß schon im Jahre 1913 Österreich an eine Aktion gegen Serbien dachte, ehe es ihr den Charakter einer Defensivaktion geben wollte. Er aber habe mit dem verstorbenen Minister des Äußern die Ansicht geteilt, daß dabei der Bedürfnisfall nicht gegeben sei, und diese Ansicht habe die freundschaftlichen Beziehungen zwischen den verbündeten Mächten nicht gestört. Als Italien seine Neutralität proklamierte, habe es also vollkommen loyal gehandelt und nur sein gutes Recht ausgeübt (Sehr lebhafter Beifall.) Er billige vollkommen die von der Regierung abgegebenen Erklärungen einer wachsamen und bewaffneten Neutralität, die von allen Italienern solange loyal beachtet werden müßte, als nicht der Augenblick eintrete, der es zur Pflicht mache, ins Feld zu eilen, um die höchsten Interessen Italiens zu wahren. (Beifall.) Der Redner ermahnte weiter die Italiener, eine klare und reservierte Haltung zu beobachten. Die höchsten und vitalsten Interessen des Landes erforderten von jedermann, besonders aber von politischen Persönlichkeiten und von der Presse die größte Zurückhaltung. (Zustimmung.) Er werde seine Stimme für die Regierung abgeben, von der er wünsche, daß sie in ihrem Vorgehen verharren möge, um sich, wie im gegenwärtigen Augenblick, die volle Anerkennung des Landes zu verdienen. (Lebhafter Beifall.)
Hierauf wurde zur Abstimmung geschritten. Die von der Regierung genehmigte Tagesordnung Bettolo wurde in namentlicher Abstimmung mit 413 gegen 49 Stimmen angenommen.




1915

Der Einzug der Deutschen und Bulgaren in Monastir - Bulgarischer Sieg über die Serben südwestlich Prizren
Großes Hauptquartier, 5. Dezember.
Westlicher und östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Keine besonderen Ereignisse.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
In erfolgreichen Kämpfen bei Plevlje und im Gebirge nordöstlich von Ipek wurden mehrere hundert Gefangene gemacht.
Bulgarische Truppen haben südwestlich von Prizren den zurückgehenden Feind gestellt, geschlagen und ihm über 100 Geschütze und große Mengen Kriegsgerät, darunter 200 Kraftwagen, abgenommen.
Im Jamagebirge (östlich von Debra) und halbwegs Krcova-Ohrida wurden serbische Nachhuten geworfen.
In Monastir sind deutsche und bulgarische Abteilungen eingerückt und von den Behörden wie der Bevölkerung freudig begrüßt worden.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der Vormarsch in Montenegro
Wien, 5. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Stellenweise Geschützkampf.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Gestern beschränkten sich die Italiener an der Isonzofront auf Geschützfeuer von wechselnder Stärke; nur bei Oslavija versuchten sie bei Tag und Nacht vereinzelte Angriffe, die alle abgewiesen wurden. An der Tiroler Front entwickelte die feindliche Artillerie eine lebhaftere Tätigkeit gegen den befestigten Raum von Lardaro.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Bei Celebic kam es neuerlich zu einem größeren Gefecht. Die Montenegriner wurden durch eine von Foca aus eingreifende Gruppe an die Grenze zurückgeworfen. Südlich von Plevlje wiesen unsere Truppen heftige montenegrinische Gegenangriffe ab. Unter dem in Plevlje erbeuteten Kriegsmaterial befinden sich eine Million Infanteriepatronen und 100 Artilleriemunitionsverschläge. Südlich von Novipazar wurden gestern abermals 600 Gefangene eingebracht.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)



1916

Die Bahn Bukarest - Targoviste überschritten
Großes Hauptquartier, 5. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
Im Frühnebel stießen nach kurzer, starker Artilleriewirkung englische Abteilungen östlich der Straße Albert-Warlencourt vor; sie wurden durch Feuer zurückgewiesen. Bei nachmittags sich bessernder Sicht wurde der Geschützkampf an der ganzen Somme-Front stärker und blieb auch während der Nacht lebhafter als in der letzten Zeit.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Südlich der Bahn Tarnopol-Krasne stießen bei Augustowka vergeblich russische Abteilungen gegen ein ihnen jüngst entrissenes Grabenstück vor.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Josef:
Während erneute Angriffe der Russen am Capul, nordöstlich von Dorna Watra, im Putna-, Trotosul- und Uz-Tale ohne jeden Erfolg blieben , haben deutsche und österreichisch- ungarische Truppen in den Vortagen verlorene, für uns wichtige Höhenstellungen im Sturm zurückgewonnen. Aus diesen zum Teil sehr erbitterten Kämpfen blieben am Werch Debry (südlich des Tatarenpasses) über 100 Mann und 5 Maschinengewehre, am Monte Nemira (nördlich des Oitoz-Tales) 350 Gefangene mit 8 Maschinengewehren in unserer Hand.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Verfolgung, den Widerstand feindlicher Nachhuten brechend, hat die 9. Armee die Bahn Bukarest-Targovista-Pistrosita ostwärts überschritten. Die Donauarmee folgte nach ihrem am unteren Argesul gegen starke, zahlenmäßige Überlegenheit erfochtenen Siege, an dem insbesondere die 217. Infanteriedivision rühmlichsten Anteil hatte, dem weichenden Feinde bis an den Abschnitt, mit dem linken Flügel kämpfend darüber hinaus. Der Ostflügel wies in der Donauniederung russisch-rumänische Angriffe blutig ab. Die gestern gemeldete Gefangenenzahl vom 3. Dezember erhöht sich auf 12500; bei der 9 Armee sind noch 2000, bei der Donauarmee 2500 Mann, letztere 22 Infanterie- und 6 Artillerieregimentern angehörend, hinzugekommen.
Mazedonische Front:
Östlich der Cerna haben sich neue Gefechte entwickelt; serbische Vorstöße bei Bahovo und Nonte an der Moglena-Front sind gescheitert.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Neue Fortschritte in Richtung Bukarest und Ploesti
Berlin, 5. Dezember, abends. (Amtlich)
In Ost und West nichts Besonderes.
In Rumänien Fortschritte Richtung Bukarest und Ploesti.
An mazedonischer Front Artilleriekampf. 1)





U-Boot-Angriff gegen Funchal (Madeira) -
Ein französisches Kanonenboot versenkt
Lissabon, 5. Dezember. (Havas.)
Am Montagmorgen drangen deutsche Unterseeboote in den Hafen von Funchal ein und griffen einen französischen Dampfer mit Kriegsmaterial und ein englisches Kauffahrteischiff an. Ein französisches Kanonenboot wurde versenkt. Die Landbatterien eröffneten das Feuer, worauf die Unterseeboote flohen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 5. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Die in den letzten Tagen errungenen Erfolge wurden ausgebaut. Die Donauarmee schlug mit ihrem rechten Flügel russische Angriffe ab und drang südwestlich von Bukarest über den Argesul hinaus. Die nordwestlich der Hauptstadt Rumäniens vorgehenden österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Kräfte sind über die Bahn Bukarest-Targoviste vorgerückt. Feindliche Nachhuten wurden, wo sie sich stellten, geworfen. Die Zahl der am 3. Dezember eingebrachten Gefangenen beträgt mehr als 12000; am untern Argesul wurden auf verhältnismäßig engem Gefechtsfeld allein Soldaten von 28 Regimentern eingebracht.
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
Die österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Truppen des Generals v. Arz haben im Grenzgebiet westlich und nordwestlich von Ocna den Russen durch Gegenstoß alle örtlichen Erfolge wieder entrissen, die sie in den letzten Tagen an einzelnen Stellen errungen hatten. Ebenso warfen Bataillone des Generalobersten v. Köveß den Feind in erbittertem Kampf aus den kürzlich an ihn verlorenen Gräben auf dem Werch Debry. Bei diesen Unternehmungen wurden 550 Mann, 13 Maschinengewehre und 4 Minenwerfer eingebracht. Russische Angriffe nordwestlich von Sosmezö, südöstlich von Tölgyes und bei Dorna Watra wurden unter großen feindlichen Verlusten abgeschlagen.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Außer einem rasch abgewiesenen russischen Vorstoß bei Augustowka in Ostgalizien nichts von Belang.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Trotz Regen und Nebel blieb das Geschützfeuer im Karstabschnitt auf gleicher Stärke.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See
Linienschiffsleutnant Banfield hat am 3. Dezember, nachmittags, über dem Karstplateau im Luftkampf mit italienischen Caproni-Landflugzeugen einen derselben abgeschossen. Die 4 Insassen, hiervon 1 schwer und 2 leicht verletzt, wurden gefangen genommen.

Flottenkommando. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 5. Dezember.
Mazedonische Front:
In der Gegend von Bitolia Gefechte zwischen Patrouillen. Im Cernabogen Ruhe. Östlich von der Cerna lebhaftes Artilleriefeuer. Im Moglenicatal schwache feindliche Angriffe bei Bahovo und Monte, die scheiterten. Zu beiden Seiten des Wardar schwaches Artilleriefeuer. Am Fuße der Belasitza Planina Ruhe. An der Struma Gefechte zwischen Patrouillen und schwache Artillerietätigkeit.
Rumänische Front:
In der Walachei haben die verbündeten Truppen die rumänischen Truppen am Arges geschlagen Längs der Donau und bei Tutrakau Infanterie- und Maschinengewehrfeuer. Bei Cernavoda Artilleriefeuer. In der Dobrudscha Artilleriefeuer mit Unterbrechung und Gefechte zwischen Patrouillen. Der Feind verschanzt sich und zieht Drahtnetze.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 5. Dezember.
Amtlicher Heeresbericht.
Ein englischer Doppeldecker wurde durch unser Feuer an der syrischen Küste bei Remle abgeschossen; Führer und Beobachter wurden gefangen genommen. Wir verhinderten Landungsversuche des Feindes bei Akaba, sowie einen von ihm unternommenen Versuch, an der Küste des Golfes von Akaba die französische Flagge zu hissen. Die Fahne wurde von uns erbeutet. Unser Vormarsch in der Richtung von Yenbu auf Hedschas schreitet fort.
Die Zahl der Gefangenen und die von unseren Truppen, die an der großen Schlacht am Argesul nördlich der Donau teilnahmen, gemachte Beute beläuft sich auf 60 Offiziere, 3600 Mann und 3 vollkommen ausgerüstete Feldbatterien.





Rücktritt Asquiths

Asquith

London, 5. Dezember. (Reuter-Meldung.)
Der König hat das Rücktrittsgesuch des Premierministers Asquith angenommen.




1917

Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen auch mit rumänischen Truppen
Großes Hauptquartier, 5. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
An der flandrischen Front vielfach lebhafte Artillerietätigkeit.
Zwischen Inchy und Bourlon war das Feuer am Nachmittage erheblich gesteigert. Feindliche Vorstöße südlich von Moeuvres scheiterten; wir machten einige Gefangene.
Englische Grabenstücke bei und südlich von Marcoing wurden vom Feinde gesäubert.
Südlich von St. Quentin verstärkter Artillerie- und Minenkampf.
Heeresgruppen Deutscher Kronprinz und Herzog Albrecht:
In zahlreichen Abschnitten führte rege beiderseitige Erkundungstätigkeit zu heftigen Nahkämpfen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
An der Front des Erzherzogs Joseph und der Heeresgruppe Mackensen dehnen sich die Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen auch auf die rumänischen Truppen aus.
Mazedonische Front:
Starke feindliche Abteilungen, die an dem Westufer des Ochridasees und nordöstlich vom Dojransee vorstießen, wurden abgewiesen.
Italienische Front:
Truppen des Feldmarschalls Conrad haben in den Sieben Gemeinden den Italienern einige Höhenstellungen entrissen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Zustimmende Antwort an die rumänischen Befehlshaber
Wien, 5. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Verhandlungen beim Feldmarschall Prinzen Leopold von Bayern werden fortgesetzt. Der Oberbefehlshaber der zwischen dem Dnjestr und dem Schwarzen Meere stehenden russischen und rumänischen Truppen ist gestern nachmittag an den Generalobersten Erzherzog Joseph und an den Generalfeldmarschall v. Mackensen mit dem Vorschlag herangetreten, Besprechungen über einen Waffenstillstand einzuleiten. Unsere Heerführer haben zustimmend geantwortet. Die Abordnungen begeben sich an den Verhandlungsort.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Auf der Hochfläche der Sieben Gemeinden haben Truppen des Feldmarschalls Conrad einige Höhenstellungen genommen.

Der Chef des Generalstabes. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 5. Dezember.
Sinaifront: Die Kampfhandlungen beschränkten sich auf mittelstarkes Artilleriefeuer an verschiedenen Stellen der Front. Die schon gemeldeten Kämpfe am Betur-el-Foca waren sehr erbittert. Der Feind erlitt schwere blutige Verluste. Drei Offiziere und 45 Mann wurden als Gefangene eingebracht.

www.stahlgewitter.com
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The Christmas Truce of 1914

5 December 1914 - II Corps HQ [General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien] issued an instruction to commanders of all Divisions: "It is during this period that the greatest danger to the morale of troops exists. Experience of this and of every other war proves undoubtedly that troops in trenches in close proximity to the enemy slide very easily, if permitted to do so, into a "live and let live" theory of life...officers and men sink into a military lethargy from which it is difficult to arouse them when the moment for great sacrifices again arises...the attitude of our troops can be readily understood and to a certain extent commands sympathy...such an attitude is however most dangerous for it discourages initiative in commanders and destroys the offensive spirit in all ranks...the Corps Commander therefore directs Divisional Commanders to impress on subordinate commanders the absolute necessity of encouraging offensive spirit...friendly intercourse with the enemy, unofficial armistices, however tempting and amusing they may be, are absolutely prohibited"

http://www.1914-1918.net/truce.htm
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'The New Russian Broom'



Cartoon from 'Le Rire' magazine on 5th December 1914, a painting by Marcel Amable O.L. Capy.

http://www.1st-art-gallery.com/Marcel-Amable-O.L.-Capy/'the-New-Russian-Broom',-Cartoon-From-'le-Rire'-Magazine-On-5th-December-1914.html
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Utrechts Nieuwsblad (05-12-1914)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1914/1205
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Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal

Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal (1879-5 December 1914) was the ruling Maharaja and Chogyal of Sikkim for a brief period in 1914, from 10 February to 5 December. He was the eldest son and heir of Maharaja Sri Panch Sir Thutob Namgyal, and was educated at St. Paul's School, Darjeeling and at Pembroke College, Oxford. A polyglot, he was learned in Chinese, English, Hindi, Lepcha, Nepali and Tibetan. Following an attack of jaundice, Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal died of heart failure on 5 December 1914, aged 35. He was succeeded by his younger brother, Tashi Namgyal.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidkeong_Tulku_Namgyal
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City Battalion marching to Redmires Camp, 5th December 1914



http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/popups/city13.htm
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Edmond Segers (1892-1987), Belgische Leger, 2de Divisie

Na onze tijdelijke aflossing door de Fransen te Ramscapelle en te wulpen waar de Franse artillerie zich bevindt, blijven we enkele dagen met ons regiment in reserve te Nieuwpoort-Bad en te Oostduinkerke, om daarna uit te rusten tot het einde van de maand in De Panne en omstreken.

In het begin van december zijn we te Bulscamp, waar we op het kerkhof naast de kerk oefenen tussen de kruizen.

Wegens het groot getal zieken, die aan buikloop lijden, wordt – na een persoonlijke tussenkomst van Koning Albert – ons een achttal dagen supplementaire rust gegund, alvorens de Fransen wederom af te lossen achter de overstroming te Ramscapelle.

Ik voel mezelf zeer vermoeid en zonder eetlust.
Te Ramscapelle toegekomen ril ik van de koorts en kan onmogelijk met mijn makker op patrouille gaan (om de half onder water staande hoeven te onderzoeken) in de overstroming. In afwachting dat de regimentsdokter mij kan onderzoeken, blijf ik de ganse nacht in een klein “abri” liggen, waar het water onderdoor sijpelt.

Op 5 december 1914 bevindt ons bataillon zich, na zijn eerste wacht, in de tweede lijn te Wulpen.
De regimentsdokter die mij daar onderzoekt stuurt mij naar het station van Adinkerke, waar hoofddokter Lepage vaststelt dat ik aan tyfus lijd. Dezelfde nacht moet ik met de zieken – en gekwetstentrein naar Calais vertrekken.

Ik word op een brancard vastgeriemd en in de trein geschoven, en slaap onmiddellijk in van vermoeienis. Slechts een ogenblik word ik in de trein wakker, en open ik even de ogen, zodat ik vaststel dat ik naast een te Ramscapelle gewonde Senegalees lig.

Lees verder op http://wo2forum.nl/viewtopic.php?f=32&t=16365&start=0
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Giolitti's Justification of Italian Neutrality

Ex-Premier of Italy, Giovanni Giolitti, gave the following speech before the Italian Parliament, meant to justify Italy's neutrality. Signor Giolitti became Italian Premier, for the fifth time, on June 15, 1920.

During the Balkan war, on the 9th of August, about a year before the present war broke out, during my absence from Rome, I received from my hon. colleague, Signor di San Giuliano, the following telegram:

Austria has communicated to us and to Germany her intention of taking action against Serbia, and defines such action as defensive, hoping to bring into operation the casus foederis of the Triple Alliance, which, on the contrary, I believe to be inapplicable. [Sensation.]

I am endeavoring to arrange for a combined effort with Germany to prevent such action on the part of Austria, but it may become necessary to state clearly that we do not consider such action, if it should be taken, as defensive, and that, therefore, we do not consider that the casus foederis arises. Please telegraph to me at Rome if you approve.

I replied:

If Austria intervenes against Serbia, it is clear that a casus foederis cannot be established. It is a step which she is taking on her own account, since there is no question of defence, inasmuch as no one is thinking of attacking her. It is necessary that a declaration to this effect should be made to Austria in the most formal manner, and we must hope for action on the part of Germany to dissuade Austria from this most perilous adventure. [Hear, hear!]

This course was taken, and our interpretation was upheld and recognised as proper, since our action in no way disturbed our relations with the two Allied Powers. The declaration of neutrality made by the present Government conforms therefore in all respects to the procedures of Italian policy, and conforms also to an interpretation of the Treaty of Alliance which has been already accepted by the Allies.

I wish to recall this, because I think it is right that in the eyes of all Europe it should appear that Italy has remained completely loyal to the observances of her pledges. [Loud applause.]

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Giolitti%27s_Justification_of_Italian_Neutrality
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The Shackleton Legend



On 5 December, 1914, Sir Ernest Shackleton and his team of 27 explorers set sail for the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The mission was to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent, coast to coast via the South Pole. On 17 January, within sight of land, their expedition vessel the Endurance became frozen fast in ice floes. In May, the Antarctic sun set for the last time before winter. When spring arrived, the breaking of the ice and subsequent movement of giant ice floes splintered the ship’s hull. (...)

http://www.elysiumepic.ogsociety.org/shackleton.php
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'Visiting the Battlefields of the Marne in December 1914' by MIldred Aldrich
from her book 'On the Edge of the War-Zone', 1917
An American Lady Makes a Trip to the Battlefield and Graves


December 5, 1914

Yesterday Amélie and I took advantage of it to make a pilgrimage across the Marne, to decorate the graves on the battlefield at Chambry. Crowds went out on All Soul's Day, but I never like doing anything, even making a pilgrimage, in a crowd.

You can realize how near it is, and what an easy trip it will be in normal times, when I tell you that we left Esbly for Meaux at half past one--only ten minutes by train--and were back in the station at Meaux at quarter to four, and had visited Monthyon, Villeroy, Neufmontier, Penchard, Chauconin, Barcy, Chambry, and Vareddes.

The authorities are not very anxious to have people go out there. Yet nothing to prevent is really done. It only takes a little diplomacy. If I had gone to ask for a passport, nine chances out of ten it would have been refused me. I happened to know that the wife of the big livery-stable man at Meaux, an energetic--and, incidentally, a handsome--woman, who took over- the business when her husband joined his regiment, had a couple of automobiles, and would furnish me with all the necessary papers. They are not taxi-cabs, but handsome touring-cars. Her chauffeur carries the proper papers. It seemed to me a very loose arrangement, from a military point of view, even although I was assured that she did not send out anyone she did not know. However, I decided to take advantage of it.

While we were waiting at the garage for the car to be got out, and the chauffeur to change his coat, I had a chance to talk with a man who had not left Meaux during the battle, and I learned that there were several important families who had remained with the Archbishop and aided him to organize matters for saving the city, if possible, and protect the property of those who had fled, and that the measures which those sixty citizens, with Archbishop Marbeau at their head, took for the safety of the poor, the care for the wounded and dead, is already one of the proudest documents in the annals of the historic town.

But never mind all these things, which the guides will recite for you, I imagine, when you come over to make the grand tour of Fighting France, for on these plains about Meaux you will have to start your pilgrimage.

I confess that my heart beat a little too rapidly when, as we ran out of Meaux, and took the route départmentale of Senlis, a soldier stepped to the middle of the road and held up his gun--baionette au canon.

We stopped.

Were we after all going to be turned back? I had the guilty knowledge that there was no reason why we should not be. I tried to look magnificently unconcerned as I leaned forward to smile at the soldier. I might have spared myself the effort. He never even glanced inside the car. The examination of the papers was the most cursory thing imaginable--a mere formality. The chauffeur simply held his stamped paper towards the guard. The guard merely glanced at it, lifted his gun, motioned us to proceed--and we proceeded.

It may amuse you to know that we never even showed the paper again. We did meet two gendarmes on bicycles, but they nodded and passed us without stopping.

The air was soft, like an early autumn day, rather than December as you know it. There was a haze in the air, but behind it the sun shone. You know what that French haze is, and what it does to the world, and how, through it, one gets the sort of landscape painters love. With how many of our pilgrimages together it is associated! We have looked through it at the walls of Provins, when the lindens were rosy with the first rising of the sap; we have looked through it at the circular panorama from the top of the ruined tower of Montlhéry; we have looked through it across Jean Jacques Rousseau's country, from the lofty terrace of Montmorency, and from the platform in front of the prison of Philippe Auguste's unhappy Danish wife, at Etampes, across the valley of the Juine; and from how many other beautiful spots, not to forget the view up the Seine from the terrace of the Tuileries.

Sometime, I hope, we shall see these plains of the Marne together. When we do, I trust it will be on just such another atmospheric day as yesterday.

As our road wound up the hill over the big paving-stones characteristic of the environs of all the old towns of France, everything looked so peaceful, so pretty, so normal, that it was hard to realize that we were moving towards the front, and were only about three miles from the point where the German invasion was turned back almost three months ago to a day, and it was the more difficult to realize as we have not heard the cannon for days.

A little way out of Meaux, we took a road to the west for Chauconin, the nearest place to us which was bombarded, and from a point in the road I looked back across the valley of the Marne, and I saw a very pretty white town, with red roofs, lying on the hillside. I asked the chauffeur :

"What village is that over there?"

He glanced around and replied: "Quincy."

It was my town. I ought not to have been surprised. Of course I knew that if I could see Chauconin so clearly from my garden, why, Chauconin could see me. Only, I had not thought of it.

Amélie and I looked back with great interest. It did look so pretty, and it is not pretty at all--the least pretty village on this side of the hill. "Distance" does, indeed, "lend enchantment." When you come to see me I shall show you Quincy from the other side of the Marne, and never take you into its streets. Then you'll always remember it as a fairy town.

It was not until we were entering into Chauconin that we saw the first signs of war. The approach through the fields, already ploughed, and planted with winter grain, looked the very last thing to be associated with war. Once inside the little village--we always speak of it as "le petit Chauconin "--we found destruction enough. One whole street of houses was literally gutted. The walls stand, but the roofs are off and doors and windows gone, while the shells seem burned out. The destruction of the big farms seems to have been pretty complete. There they stood, long walls of rubble and plaster, breeched; ends of farm buildings gone; and many only a heap of rubbish. The surprising thing to me was to see here a house destroyed, and, almost beside it, one not even touched. That seemed to prove that the struggle here was not a long one, and that a comparatively small number of shells had reached it.

Neufmortier was in about the same condition. It was a sad sight, but not at all ugly. Ruins seem to "go" with the French atmosphere and background. It all looked quite natural, and I had to make an effort to shake myself into a becoming frame of mind. If you had been with me I should have asked you to pinch me, and remind me that "all this is not yet ancient history," and that a little sentimentality would have become me. But Amélie would never have understood me.

It was not until we were driving east again to approach Penchard that a full realization of it came to me. Penchard crowns the hill just in the centre of the line which I see from the garden. It was one of the towns bombarded on the evening of September 5, and, so far as I can guess, the destruction was done by the French guns which drove the Germans out that night.

They say the Germans slept there the night of September 4, and were driven out the next day by the French soixante-quinze, which trotted through Chauconin into Penchard by the road we had just come over.

I enclose you a carte postale of a battery passing behind the apse of the village church, just as a guarantee of good faith.

But all signs of the horrors of those days have been obliterated. Penchard is the town in which the Germans exercised their taste for wilful nastiness, of which I wrote you weeks ago. It is a pretty little village, beautifully situated, commanding the slopes to the Marne on one side, and the wide plains of Barcy and Chambry on the other. It is prosperous looking, the home of sturdy farmers and the small rentiers. It has an air of humble thrift, with now and then a pretty garden, and here and there suggestions of a certain degree of greater prosperity, an air which, in France, often conceals unexpected wealth.

You need not look the places up unless you have a big map. No guide-book ever honored them.

From Penchard we ran a little out to the west at the foot of the hill, on top of which stand the white walls of Montyon, from which, on September 5, we had seen the first smoke of battle.

I am sure that I wrote some weeks ago how puzzled I was when I read Joffre's famous ordre du jour, at the beginning of the Marne offensive, to find that it was dated September 6, whereas we had seen the battle begin on the 5th. Here I found what I presume to be the explanation, which proves that the offensive along the rest of the line on the 6th had been a continuation simply of what we saw that Saturday afternoon.

At the foot of the hill crowned by the walls of Montyon lies Villeroy--today the objective point for patriotic pilgrimages. There, on the 5th of September, the 276th Regiment was preparing its soup for lunch, when, suddenly, from the trees on the heights, German shells fell amongst them, and food was forgotten, while the French at St. Soupplet on the other side of the hill, as well as those at Villeroy, suddenly found themselves in the thick of a fight--the battle we saw.

They told me at Villeroy that many of the men in the regiments engaged were from this region, and here the civilians dropped their work in the fields and snatched up guns which the dead or wounded soldiers let fall and entered the fight beside their uniformed neighbors. I give you that picturesque and likely detail for what it is worth.

At the foot of the hill between Montyon and Villeroy lies the tomb in which two hundred of the men who fell here are buried together. Among them is Charles Péguy, the poet, who wore a lieutenant's stripes, and was referred to by his companions on that day as "un glorieux fou dans sa bravoure." This long tomb, with its crosses and flags and flowers, was the scene on All Soul's Day of the commemorative ceremony in honor of the victory, and marks not only the beginning of the battle, but the beginning of its triumph.

From this point we drove back to the east, almost along the line of battle, to the hillside hamlet of Barcy, the saddest scene of desolation on this end of the great fight.

It was a humble little village, grouped around a dear old church, with a graceful square tower supporting a spire. The little church faced a small square, from which the principal street runs down the hill to the open country across which the French "push" advanced. No house on this street escaped. Some of them are absolutely destroyed. The church is a mere shell. Its tower is pierced with huge holes. Its bell lies, a wreck, on the floor beneath its tower. The roof has fallen in, a heaped-up mass of débris in the nave beneath. Its windows are gone, and there are gaping wounds in its side walls. Oddly enough, the Chemin de la Croix is intact, and some of the peasants look on that as a miracle, in spite of the fact that the High Altar is buried under a mass of tiles and plaster.

The doors being gone, one could look in, over the temporary barrier, to the wreck inside, and by putting a donation into the contribution box for the restauration fund it was possible to enter--at one's own risk--by a side door. It was hardly worth while, as one could see no more than was visible from the doorways, and it looked as if at any minute the whole edifice would crumble. However, Amélie wanted to go inside, and so we did.

We entered through the mairie, which is at one side, into a small courtyard, where the school children were playing under the propped-up walls as gaily as if there had never been a bombardment.

The mairie had fared little better than the church, and the schoolroom, which has its home in it, had a temporary roofing, the upper part being wrecked.

The best idea that I got of the destruction was, however, from a house almost opposite the church. It was only a shell, its walls alone standing. As its windows and doors had been blown out, we could look in from the street to the interior of what had evidently been a comfortable country house. It was now like an uncovered box, in the centre of which there was a conical shaped heap of ashes as high as the top of the fireplace. We could see where the stairs had been, but its entire contents had been burned down to a heap of ashes--burned as thoroughly as wood in a fireplace. I could not have believed in such absolute destruction if I had not seen it.

While we were gazing at the wreck I noticed an old woman leaning against the wall and watching us. Out of her weather-beaten, time-furrowed old face looked a pair of dark eyes, red-rimmed and blurred with much weeping. She was rubbing her distorted old hands together nervously as she watched us. It was inevitable that I should get into conversation with her, and discover that this wreck had been, for years, her home, that she had lived there all alone, and that everything she had in the world--her furniture, her clothing, and her savings--had been burned in the house.

You can hardly understand that unless you know these people. They keep their savings hidden. It is the well-known old story of the French stocking which paid the war indemnity of 1870. They have no confidence in banks. The State is the only one they will lend to, and the fact is one of the secrets of French success.

If you knew these people as I do, you would understand that an old woman of that peasant type, ignorant of the meaning of war, would hardly be likely to leave her house, no matter how many times she was ordered out, until shells began to fall about her. Even then, as she was rather deaf, she probably did not realize what was happening, and went into the street in such fear that she left everything behind her.

From Barcy we drove out into the plain, and took the direction of Chambry, following the line of the great and decisive fight of September 6 and 7.

We rolled slowly across the beautiful undulating country of grain and beet fields. We had not gone far when, right at the edge of the road, we came upon an isolated mound, with a rude cross at its head, and a tiny tricolore at its foot--the first French grave on the plain.

We motioned the chauffeur to stop, and we went on, on foot.

First the graves were scattered, for the boys lie buried just where they fell--cradled in the bosom of the mother country that nourished them, and for whose safety they laid down their lives. As we advanced they became more numerous, until we reached a point where, as far as we could see, in every direction, floated the little tricolore flags, like fine flowers in the landscape. They made tiny spots against the far-off horizon line, and groups like beds of flowers in the foreground, and we knew that, behind the skyline, there were more.

Here and there was a haystack with one grave beside it, and again there would be one, usually partly burned, almost encircled with the tiny flags which said: "Here sleep the heroes."

It was a disturbing and a thrilling sight. I give you my word, as I stood there, I envied them. It seemed to me a fine thing to lie out there in the open, in the soil of the fields their simple death has made holy, the duty well done, the dread over, each one just where he fell defending his mother-land, enshrined forever in the loving memory of the land he had saved, in graves to be watered for years, not only by the tears of those near and dear to them, but by those of the heirs to their glory--the children of the coming generation of free France.

You may know a finer way to go. I do not. Surely, since Death is, it is better than dying of old age between clean sheets. Near the end of the route we came to the little walled cemetery of Chambry, the scene of one of the most desperate struggles of the 6th and 7th of September. You know what the humble village burying-grounds are like. Its wall is about six feet high, of plaster and stone, with an entrance on the road to the village. To the west and northwest the walls are on the top of a bank, high above the crossroads. I do not know the position of the pursuing French army. The chauffeur who drove us could not enlighten us. As near as I could guess, from the condition of the walls, I imagine that the French artillery must have been in the direction of Penchard, on the wooded hills.

The walls are pierced with gun holes, about three feet apart, and those on the west and southwest are breeched by cannon and shell-fire. Here, after the position had been several times stormed by artillery, the Zouaves made one of the most brilliant bayonet charges of the day, dashing up the steep banks and through the breeched walls. Opposite the gate is another steep bank where can still be seen the improvised gun positions of the French when they pushed the retreat across the plain.

The cemetery is filled with new graves against the wall, for many of the officers are buried here--nearly all of the regiment of Zouaves, which was almost wiped out in the charge before the position was finally carried,--it was taken and lost several times.

From here we turned east again towards Vareddes, along a fine road lined with enormous old trees, one of the handsomest roads of the department. Many of these huge trees have been snapped off by shells as neatly as if they were mere twigs. Along the road, here and there, were isolated graves.

Vareddes had a tragic experience. The population was shockingly abused by the Germans. Its aged priest and many other old men were carried away, and many were shot, and the town badiy damaged.

We had intended to go through Vareddes to the heights beyond, where the heroes of the 133d, 246th, 289th, and of the regiment which began the battle at Villeroy--the 276th--are buried. But the weather had changed, and a cold drizzle began to fall, and I saw no use in going on in a closed car, so we turned back to Meaux.

It was still light when we reached Meaux, so we gave a look at the old mills--and put up a paean of praise that they were not damaged beyond repair--on our way to the station.

As we came back to Esbly I strained my eyes to look across to the hill on which my house stands,--I could just see it as we crawled across the bridge at the Iles-lès-Villenoy,--and felt again the miracle of the battle which swept so near to us.

In my innermost heart I had a queer sensation of the absurdity of my relation to life. Fate so often shakes its fist in my face, only to withhold the blow within a millimetre of my nose. Perhaps I am being schooled to meet it yet.

I brought back one fixed impression--how quickly Time had laid its healing hand on this one battlefield. I don't know what will be the effect out there where the terrible trench war is going on. But here, where the fighting turned, never to return--at least we believe it never will--it has left no ugly traces. The fields are cleaned, the roads are repaired. Rain has fallen on ruins and washed off all the marks of smoke. Even on the road to Vareddes the thrifty French have already carried away and fagotted the wrecked trees, and already the huge, broken trunks are being uprooted, cut into proper length, and piled neatly by the roadside to be seasoned before being carted away. There was nothing raw about the scene anywhere. The villages were sad, because so silent and empty.

I had done my best to get a tragic impression. I had not got it. I had brought back instead an impression heroic, uplifting, altogether inspiring.

By the time you come over, and I lead you out on that pilgrimage, it will be even more beautiful. But, alas, I am afraid that day is a long way off.

http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/After_Marne/Marne_Aldrich_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 16:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Roger Casement

5th December 1914 - Addresses Irish prisoners-of-war in an attempt to raise a 'rebel brigade'. He gets only three recruits.

Interessant mens. Lees verder op http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/britain_wwone/casement_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 16:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gavrilo Princip's trial on 5 December 1914



http://www.answers.com/topic/gavrilo-princip
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Daily Sketch 5th December 1914: "Massage for our wounded soldiers: Tommy has the best of everything."



http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/womeninuniform/almeric_paget_intro.htm
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Slag bij Łódź

De Slag bij Łódź was een veldslag aan het oostfront in de Eerste Wereldoorlog. De slag vond plaats van 11 november tot 6 december 1914 en werd uitgevochten tussen het Keizerrijk Rusland en het Duitse Keizerrijk.



http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_%C5%81%C3%B3d%C5%BA
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Published in the Reporter on 5th December 1914



A TERRITORIAL'S DEATH - Bardsley Lad Who Was the Youngest in the Battalion.

News has been received in Ashton of the death through dysentery in Egypt of Pte. 1845 FRED FINUCANE, one of the Ashton Territorials who was attached to "B" Company.

Pte. FREDERICK THORLEY FINUCANE was probably the youngest in the battalion being only fifteen years of age, but standing 5ft 8 inches tall. Born of a military family, he enlisted with his fathers written authority in March, and after going into camp at Bury, sailed with his battalion to Egypt. His heart and soul were in his work, and in his letters home he was always cheerful and happy. Only last week he had mentioned the Pyramids and other sights, and also that he had been on night manoeuvres. Several parcels are now on their way to him from home, he having been very popular among his various friends, as much for his pluck as a youngster as his quiet, unassuming ways. It came as a terrible shock to all who knew him, when his parents, who live at The Brow, Bardsley, received a telegram on Monday announcing his death. The blow has been a heavy one, both to them and to his brother, also a Territorial, to whom he was devotedly attached. They are now anxiously awaiting further news, and in the meantime try to console themselves with the thought that he never flinched from duty, and when the call came he stepped forward and offered to take his share in battling for his King and country. He has answered the "last roll call". During the week many friends have called to offer their sympathy to the deeply grieved parents, and they were much touched by such expressions of feeling in their great trouble. It was always a source of pride to him to know his grandfather, who is living in Manchester, was in the Army 15 months before Lord Roberts, and his father has an autograph letter from "Bob" thanking him for birthday congratulations on his 80th birthday, they having first met in India in 1851. The Bardsley Defence Corps will attend the morning service at Bardsley Church on Sunday, and the village band is also expected to be present in honour of the late Private Finucane. (FREDERICK THORLEY FINUCANE, son of Theodore and Emily Finucane, is buried in the Cairo War Memorial Cemetery).

http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1914page3.htm
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George wilson VC

War-Office, 5th December, 1914.
His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Soldier, for conspicuous bravery whilst serving with the Expeditionary Force: —
No. 9553 Private George Wilson, 2nd Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry. For most conspicuous gallantry on the 14th of September near Verneuil, in attacking a hostile Machine Gun, accompanied by only one man. When the latter was killed, he went on alone, shot the Officer and six Men working the Gun, which he captured.

http://www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/28998/supplements/10411

PRIVATE GEORGE WILSON, WHO CARRIED OFF A MAXIM GUN

WAR is no respecter of persons. Fame and death on the battlefield come to rich and poor alike. The most illiterate private stands as great a chance of distinguishing himself as does the aristocratic and cultured officer. This has often been demonstrated during the present conflict, as the pages of our book will amply show. One of the many humble heroes in the ranks is Private George Wilson, who has made for himself a name that will not be forgotten. He is a Scotsman, and his native country is very proud of the fact that he is 'of the people.' He is to every Scot what Sergeant O'Leary, V.C., is to the Irish—the type of national valour. Ask any native of Scotland, who is their most representative V.C. hero, and he will at once say 'Geordie' Wilson. This does not mean that Wilson's deed surpassed all others, but that it caught and held the public imagination.

Private Wilson was selling newspapers in the streets of Edinburgh up to within forty-eight hours of the declaration of war. He is twenty-nine years of age, well set-up and fair, and a typical Highland soldier. He joined the Army ten years ago, his regiment being the famous Highland Light Infantry. He served part of his time at the historic Edinburgh Castle, under the shadow of which is now his home. After serving three years with the Colours, Wilson went into the Reserve, and had just completed seven years as a reservist when he was called back to his regiment. During part of the period he was in the Reserve, Wilson worked in the coal-pits at Niddrie.

Then he again took up the selling of newspapers, an occupation he had followed before enlisting at the age of seventeen. Many an evening paper has he sold to the soldiers outside the Castle, and few who saw him at this time could have foreseen that a few years later all Scotland would be ringing with his amazing exploit in France in the greatest war in history.

There are many stories told about 'Geordie' by the newsboys of Edinburgh, who were delighted when "one of us did for eight Germans," as one of them put it on hearing the news. Wilson was always a 'good pal,' always willing to give a helping hand. He once stopped a runaway horse in the Lawnmarket, Edinburgh, and his sister, on hearing of this brave act, said he ought to have the V.C., little dreaming that he would one day write to her from France to announce that he had actually been recommended for the great prize.

A very serious illness he went through is still remembered by his chums. They thought at the time that he would not leave the hospital alive. He pulled through, however, and lived to make Scotland proud of him. It is said that Wilson remarked to a friend before leaving for the Front that he would not return to Scotland if he did not bring back the Victoria Cross.

In a letter to his sister, he wrote:

"I am recommended for bravery for capturing a machine-gun and going into the German firing-line and shooting an officer and six men, and turning their gun on them, and carrying in a mate of the King's Royal Rifles who was riddled with bullets." This was his own modest way of describing his great deeds. In another letter to his sister, Wilson, who is one of a family of eight orphans, wrote: "If it's God's will I will return quite safe and sound back to bonnie Scotland beside my ain folk . . . I am both meek and humble, God's my only Saviour." The latter letter reveals the modest, noble fellow as possessing the typical Scottish virtues—love for Country and family, and deep religious feeling.

A man of his regiment once referred to Private George Wilson as a ' rough diamond.' The description is the highest compliment that can be paid to him—he has shown himself to be a soldier to the finger-tips, daring, impetuous, and absolutely fearless. His blunt speech is another characteristic, as will be seen later; he does not stand upon useless ceremony or consider convention when there is stern work to do. One account of his V.C. deed states that Wilson went into the wood to capture the German gun after being expressly forbidden by his officer to do so. This is exactly the thing he would do, knowing the permission was denied out of consideration for his own safety.

After the battle of the Marne, the Germans retreated in hot haste to the River Aisne, pursued by the Allied armies. Before each side settled down to trench warfare it fought for positions, and the British advanced and retreated. During one of the retreats the Highland Light Infantry, supported by the King's Royal Rifles, acted as rearguard, and with wonderful doggedness contested every inch of ground.

On September 14, 1914, the Highland Light Infantry reached Verneuil, and hastily dug themselves in. The pressure of the enemy was, however, very severe, and to relieve the situation a party of sixteen men, under the leadership of Sir Archibald Gibson Craig, charged the Germans, only to be swept away by the fire of a machine-gun in a wood. This gun commanded the trenches, and matters began to assume a very serious aspect.

Meantime Wilson, who was in the trenches, had been using his powers of observation. His sharp eyes detected the enemy moving among the trees in the wood already referred to. He at once informed his officer that he could see at least two Germans. The officer could not credit this, but, as Wilson persisted in his statement, he levelled his field-glasses and at the same moment was struck down with a mortal wound.

The men who were standing around were deeply affected, for the dead officer was greatly beloved. Wilson set his teeth, and, taking careful aim at the enemy in the wood, he fired and one of the Germans fell. Wilson raised his rifle a second time, a second shot rang out, and the other German fell. This success excited the hero to further action and he sprang forward to seek more targets. His companions, more cautious, cried to him to come back. "It's no use; there's a machine-gun there!" was their warning.

Wilson was in no mood to study prudence. He dashed forward, his bayonet fixed to his rifle, his finger at the trigger. On he went, heedless of the risk he was running, until he came to a hollow. In this sheltered position he saw eight Germans all armed, and in their midst two British soldiers whom they had taken prisoner. Not in the least daunted he shouted: "Come on men! Charge!"

He had calculated that the Germans would think that he was the advance-guard of a body of Highland soldiers, and, true enough, the enemy flung up their hands, while the two prisoners found themselves at liberty. Thus one man by his amazing audacity had captured eight Germans and set free two of his comrades. By this time his cautious companions had ventured out, and Wilson shouted to them to assist with the prisoners.

Wilson now acted impetuously for the third time that day. Not content with the heroic exploits already accomplished he wanted more. His companions were amazed to see him dash off. Again they called to him to stop. This time he paused for a second to shout, "What is it?" They cried, "Look!"

Wilson turned and saw a sight calculated to unnerve the bravest soldier. The Maxim gun in the wood had commenced once again to deal out death. His comrades were falling in large numbers. As his companions were dashing to cover, Wilson asked if they could not seize the gun. Being told that this was impossible, Wilson reflected for a moment, then turning to a private of the King's Royal Rifles who was nearest to him, coolly remarked: "Mon, I'm angry wi' yon gun—and I'm gaun to stop it!"

Having said this he made for the wood. To reach the gun he had to crawl and dodge amid a perfect hurricane of bullets which was being directed on to the British position. The rifleman to whom Wilson had spoken followed, and shortly overtook him. Very soon the two men were discovered and the rifleman fell badly wounded.

Wilson now proceeded alone and managed to dodge the bullets by dashing from haystack to haystack. All the while he was inwardly raging. He remarks that the sight of the brave man on the grass spurred him on. He was determined to reach the gun and put it out of action, if for no other reason than to avenge the poor rifleman. He did not pause to reflect that some might have characterized the undertaking as dare-devilry; all he thought about was how to silence the murderous gun.

He reached another haystack, leveled his rifle, took careful aim, and the German behind the Maxim fell dead. Wilson's shooting that day was unerring. Another German took the place of the dead man and started a stream of bullets. Wilson exposed himself to make sure of his aim; his rifle clicked, and a second operator fell. A third man started to fire the gun, only to meet the fate that had befallen his predecessors. A fourth and a fifth and a sixth German fell. Wilson's shooting has been described as uncanny, and to its deadly accuracy the hero owed his life. Had he missed once, the operator at the Maxim would no doubt have speedily riddled him with bullets.

Wilson waited for a few minutes after the sixth man fell. Then having come to the conclusion that the gun's entire crew had been killed, he crept forward to secure his prize. A German officer rose in his path. Wilson remained cool at this alarming development. The German fired point-blank, but luckily missed, and Wilson quickly bayoneted him. This was the narrowest of Wilson's many escapes, for the officer's bullet had all but grazed his head.

With the Maxim in his possession, Wilson's troubles, far from being over, started afresh. He had gained the prize for which he had risked his life, but was not to be allowed to retain it undisputed. Wilson observed a large number of Germans approaching. Instead of losing heart and beating a speedy retreat, the brave Scottish hero instantly slewed the gun round and opened fire. He worked the gun as skillfully as he had handled his rifle, mowing down hundreds of the enemy. He was fired at by the German artillery as well as by the infantrymen, and as the place became unpleasantly warm, Wilson decided it was time to advance to the rear. He estimates, however, that he fired 750 bullets, and accounted for about 300 of the enemy before he was forced to desist.

The Scottish lion reached the British lines unscathed, notwithstanding the shells that continually burst around him. Then the terrible strain he had endured told on his strength and he fainted. On recovering, his first words were, had the gun been brought in? Being told that it had not been fetched, he said nothing, but staggered up, and again went out to face the shells. He soon returned carrying the Maxim gun on his shoulders.

"There's the gun, sir!" he said, saluting his officer.

Even this did not satisfy him and he must needs go to fetch the ammunition, which he succeeded in bringing back. It really seemed as though he was bent on tempting Fate. Having successfully accomplished his purpose, and, incidentally, achieved the greatest individual feat of bravery in the war up to that day, Wilson remembered the comrade who had started off with him, and without a word to anybody of his intentions, faced the shrapnel yet again. He found his pal still living, though riddled with seventeen bullets, and dragged him to the trench, where he died the next day. "Thank God you got the gun," were the poor fellow's last words to Wilson.

Later in the campaign Wilson was an inmate of one of the hospitals in France. One day there was some slight commotion in the ward. Presently Private George Wilson became aware that something unusual was happening. A little procession was approaching his cot. In the centre was one with a kindly face, wearing a full-dress field uniform. The officer was, somehow, familiar—where had he seen him before? Then he remembered—it was His Majesty, King George. He recognized him from photographs he had seen. The King was on a visit to his brave troops in France. He came to Wilson's side, and, pinning the Victoria Cross on the hero's breast, remarked warmly that he had done the bravest deed ever accomplished on the battlefield.

"If there's such a thing as two V.C.'s," His Majesty is reported to have said, "you have earned them. You're not a very big man, but you have a very big heart."

That January day there was no happier man in the British Army than Private George Wilson, the ex-newsvendor of Edinburgh.


WILSON MOWING DOWN THE GERMANS WITH THEIR OWN GUN

Leuke site! http://www.mainlesson.com/display.php?author=leask&book=heroes&story=wilson
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 17:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ik smokkel...

Oprichting van de Dienst der Draadloze Telegrafie, later Marineverbindingsdienst (5 december 1904)

Reeds enkele jaren nadat de draadloze telegrafie haar intrede heeft gedaan, wordt zij op de eerste schepen geïnstalleerd. Tevens begint men matrozen en officieren op te leiden die in dit vakgebied gespecialiseerd zijn. Daarnaast blijft het seinen nog lang bestaan.

Invoering morse - In 1907 wordt zowel voor het seinen als voor de draadloze telegrafie het morsestelsel ingevoerd. In de jaren ’20 doet de kortegolfverbinding zijn intrede tussen Nederland, Indië en schepen op zee en wordt radiotelegrafie geïntroduceerd bij de Marine Luchtvaart Dienst.

Naamswijziging - De naam van de dienst wordt in 1919 gewijzigd in Marine Radiodienst. In 1938 wordt de naam weer veranderd in Radio- en Verbindingsdienst der Marine.

Intrede telex en telefonie - Vanaf de Tweede Wereldoorlog doen telex en telefonie hun intrede. In 1946 komt een splitsing tot stand tussen de gebruikers en de onderhoudsinstantie van de radio: de Marineverbindingsdienst en de Radiodienst.

http://www.defensie.nl/nimh/geschiedenis/tijdbalk/1814-1914/oprichting_van_de_dienst_der_draadloze_telegrafie_later_marineverbindingsdienst_(5_december_1904)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

General Birdwood, APEX, Gallipoli in WW1, 5 December 1915



http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-vn3314360
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

(BOA.DAHİLİYE ŞİFRE KALEMİ Nu:57/293)

Babiali
Ministry of the Interior
Office of the Directorate of Public Security
General: ........
Private: 91
Ciphered telegram to the Province of Mosul
It has been observed that, in the 16 October 1915 dated, 684 edition of “Zuhur Newspaper”, printed in Bagdad, has published a telegram regarding the removal of the Nestorians sent from your Most High Province to the Province of Bagdad and henceforth … the need not to give the opportunity for publication of official correspondence and telegrams of this sort has been communicated to them and the matter has been given serious consideration.

Date 5 December 1915 Minister



http://www.atour.com/~aahgn/news/20040306b.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French Naval Operations, Engagements and Ship Losses in the Adriatic in World War One
by Erwin Sieche

(...) On 5 December 1915 the French sub FRÉSNEL (Jouen) ran aground at the Bojana estuary [Usce Bojane] due to bad navigation, is detected by the A.-H. destroyer WARASDINER and destroyed by gunfire. (...)

http://www.gwpda.org/naval/fadri.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"The Sailing List." New York Times, 5 December 1915

THE SAILING LIST - Official Roster of the Pilgrims in Mr. Ford's Party

The official list of the members of the Ford Peace Pilgrimage, issued after the Oscar II sailed yesterday, contained one hundred and forty-eight names. Four or five other persons sailed at the last moment it was said, and were registered by purser. The list as given out contains the name of Dr. Wilfred Grenfell. It was announced on Friday night that he would not sail, and he was not seen on board yesterday by reporters, who inquired for him. Joseph Medill Patterson's name did not appear on the final list nor did the names of Dr. and Mrs. David Starr Jordan. Dr. S. M. Pease, whose name is on the list, it was reported, gave up the trip at the last moment. The invitation he accepted was not tendered by Mr. Ford, but by an unauthorized person, who considered the deception of Dr. Pease a good joke.

The final list given out by the Scandinavian-American Line is as follows:

ADAMS, E. A., Iowa University, Iowa City, Iowa.
AKED, the Rev. CHARLES F., San Francisco.
ANDERSEN, Miss BLANCHE, Chicago.
BARRY, JOHN D., newspaper man and author, San Francisco.
BERNSTEIN, HERMAN, editor The Day, New York.
BETHEA, ANDREW J., Lieutenant Governor, Columbia S. C.
BIDWELL, DANIEL, New York.
BIELL, WILLIAM, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H.
BINGHAM, LLOYD M., theatrical manager, New York.
BLAKE, Miss KATHERINE D., suffragist and teacher, New York.
BLAIR, Miss LOTTIE MAE, student, Augusta, Ga.
BLOCK, MEYER D., New York
BOID, ARTHUR, Associated Film Sales Corporation, New York.
BOISSEVAIN, Mrs. INEZ MILHOLLAND, Suffragist, New York.
BOLAN, Miss MARION, Chicago Journal, Chicago.
BOYCE, BENJAMIN S., Indiana Daily Times, Indianapolis.
BRALEY, BERTON, Collier's Weekly, New York.
BRALEY, Mrs. BERTON, Collier's Weekly, New York.
BREWSTER, Miss KATRINA M., Vassar College, Poughkeepsie.
BULLETT, WILLIAM C., Public Ledger, Philadelphia.
CAMPBELL, NEAL, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.
CHENEY, EDWIN RALPH, Penn University, Philadelphia.
CLARK, Mrs. ADA MOSS, Palo Alto, Cal.
COHN, JACK, Universal Film Manufacturing Company, New York.
CONANT, WILLIS G., school Principal, Tarrytown.
CRISP, J. V. D., New York.
DAVIS, ELMER, New York Times, New York.
DAVIS, J. B., California
DAMBORG, Mrs. FAYETTE, Rolfe, Iowa.
DE GRAFF, Miss GRACE, President of League of Teachers' Federation, Portland, Ore
DUBOISE, Miss ROBERTA, Nashville, Tenn.
EBERLE, Miss LOUISE, New York
EDWARDS, NELSON, International News Service, New York.
ENGLISH, JOHN W., Boston Traveler, Boston.
EVANS, H. C., President Free Fraternal Press Association, Des Moines.
FELS, Mrs. JOSEPH, and companion, Single Taxer, Philadelphia.
FORD, HENRY, Dearborn, Mich.
FRANZEE, JOHN T., Wisconsin University, Madison Wisc.
GRAHAM, EDW. F., Leslie's Weekly, New York.
GRENFELL, WILFRED, New York.
GRENFELL, Mrs HELEN LORING, educator, Denver.
GUESSFORD, Miss ORA, Drake University, Des Moines.
HALL, Miss ELIZABETH, Barnard College, New York.
HANNA, Governor L. B., Bismarck, N. D.
HARTZELL, A. E., Morning and Evening Sun., New York
HARWOOD, S. DIX, Illinois University, Urbana, Illinois
HIRSCH, J. B., New York
HIXENBAUGH, C. A., Nebraska University, Lincoln Neb.
HOEKLEY, ALBERT H., Brooklyn Eagle, Brooklyn.
HOFFMAN, Miss HELEN, New York Press, New York.
HOLBROOK, Miss FLORENCE, Principal Forrestville School, Chicago.
HOLT, FREDERICK, Detroit.
HOLT, Mrs. FREDERICK, Charman Women's Peace Party, Detroit.
HOPKINS, Miss MARY ALDEN, magazine writer, New York.
HOSTETLER, T. A., President, Sunday School Association, Washington.
HUEBSCH, B.W., publisher, New York.
JONES, ELLIS O., Forest Hill, L. I.
JONES, J. E., Press Association, Washington.
JONES, Mrs J. E., Press Association, Washington.
JONES, Rev. JENKINS LLOYD, and wife, Chicago.
JOSLYN, LEE E., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.
KARR, BENJAMIN, Cleveland Leader, Cleveland.
KLIEFOTH, ALFRED W., Department Secretary Peace Society, Chicago.
LARUSSON, Mr., New York.
LATUS, Mrs. G. D., Pittsburgh Dispatch, Pittsburgh
LAWTON, Miss ALICE. New York.
LEAHY, PAUL S., New York.
LINDSEY, BEN B. and wife, Denver.
LLOYD, Mrs. WILLIAM BROSS, with maid and three children, Winnetka, Ill.
LOCHNER, LOUIS P. Chicago.
LOVE, DONALD, Oberlin.
LOWRY, HELEN B., Evening Post, New York.
MALMBERG, Mme. ATMO, journalist and lecturer, Finland.
MANDEL, ERNEST L., New York.
MARQUIS, DEAN S. S., Detroit Mich.
MAVERICK, LOUIS, civic reformer, San Antonio Texas.
MILLER, GEORGE E., Detroit Times, Washington
MILTON, GEORGE F., Chattanooga, Tenn.
MONTGOMERY, T. E., New York
MOORE, Miss SARA, Evening Mail, New York.
MORRIS, HENRY C., Chicago, Ill.
MOUTHAN, E. H. F., Williamstown, Mass.
MULLEN, Miss BLANCHE, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan.
McCLURE, S. S., editor Evening Mail, New York.
NEELY, R. S., New York.
NELSON, LARS P., merchant, Denver.
OLIPHANT, Mrs. THOMAS E., New York.
O'NEILL, JOSEPH JEFFERSON, The World, New York.
PARK, Mrs. ALICE, suffrage leader, Palo Alto, Cal.
PEASE, Dr. CHARLES, social reformer, New York.
PENN, Miss MARION, Purdue University.
PHELPS, CHARLES, Cushings, N. Y.
PLANTIFF, GASTON, manager, Ford Motor Company, New York
POCKMAN, THEODORE N., The Tribune, New York.
POTTER, EARL. Colorado Springs
REED, Miss MYRA, associate editor, McCall's, New York.
RIIS, EDWARD M., New York
ROBBINS, LEONARD H., Evening News, Newark N. J.
ROBINSON, Senator HELEN RING, Denver.
ROGERS, Miss LOU, cartoonist, New York
RYAN, Miss ELINOR E., Ohio Univeristy, Columbia, Ohio.
SCHUCHTERMANN, Miss CLARA, Oakland, Cal.
SCHULZ, ALEXANDER, Staats-Zeitung, New York.
SCHUMACHER, BORIS, Jewish Daily News, New York.
SCHWIMMER, Mme. ROSIKA. journalist and lecturer, Hungary.
SELTZER, THOMAS, The Call, New York.
SEMLER, E. S., Rolfe, Iowa.
SEMLER, Mrs. REBEKKA, Rolfe, Iowa.
SEWALL, Mrs. MAY WRIGHT, founder of Internation Council of Women, New York
SMIHEMAN, Mrs. NORA C., Secretary to Mme Schwimmer, New York.
SMOCK, MONROE T., New Plymouth, Idaho.
STANTON, JAMES R. W., Hudson Observer, Hobocken.
STEEP, THOMAS W., Associated Press, New York.
STEWART, CHARLES. P., United Press, New York.
STEWART, Mrs. CHARLES P., United Press, New York.
STRAUBE, BERNARD, Pittsburgh, Penn
SWAIN, MAXWELL, Brooklyn
SWAIN, Mrs MAXWELL, Brooklyn
TEICHNER, MIRIAM, The Globe and Detroit News, New York.
THOMAS, Mrs. WILLIAM I., Secretary Woman's Peace Party, Chicago
THOMPSON, CARL D., Director Publication Department, National Socialist Party, Chicag
TRUFFANT, SAM A., Jr., Tulane University, New Orleans
VAN LOON, HENDRICK W., Ithaca, N. Y.
WAGNER, WILLIAM. Seattle, Wash.
WEATHERLY, ARTHUR L., Secretary Nebraskan Peace Society, Lincoln Neb.
WALDO, M. R., Yale University, New Haven.
WALES, Miss JULIA GRACE, Professor of English, Madison Wisc
WATERS, Mrs. HARRIET BISHOP, New York
WATKINS, Mrs MARY W., Charlottesville, Va.
WATSON, Miss ELIZABETH, secretary to Mme. Schwimmer, New York.
WERBULL, NILS R. M., Denver, Col.
WERBULL, Mrs. GULLI, Denver, Col.
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http://www.brocku.ca/MeadProject/NYT/NYT_1915_12_05.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Author: Sinclaire, F. - Title: Science and religion

In: Fellowship: a monthly magazine of undogmatic religion and social and literary criticism. Imprint vol. 2, no. 5, December 1915

http://www.reasoninrevolt.net.au/pdf/a000369.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Friedrich Wilhelm von Lindeiner-Wildau

Friedrich Wilhelm von Lindeiner-Wildau as Kommandant of Stalag Luft III.Oberst Friedrich Wilhelm Gustav von Lindeiner-Wildau (12 December 1880 – 22 May 1963) was a German Staff Officer during World War I best known today as the Kommandant of Stalag Luft III during World War II, the setting for the movie The Great Escape. (...)

On 10 August 1914 he was assigned as the Commander of the Infanterie-Stabswache at the General Headquarters of the Kaiser in the Field. On 19 September he returned to his regiment as Commander of 11./1. Garde-Regiment zu Fuß where he was wounded during the First Battle of Ypres on 17 November 1914. Returning to duty on 13 April 1915 he assumed command of 5./1. Garde-Regiment zu Fuß and then II./1. Garde-Regiment zu Fuss on 27 May 1915. He was again wounded during the pursuit between the River Bug and Jasiolda on 29 August 1915. On returning to duty von Lindeiner-Wildau assumed command of F./1. GardeGarde-Regiment zu Fuß and was again severely wounded on 5 December 1915 in fighting around Roye-Noyon.

Helemaal lezen. Goed levensverhaal! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedrich_Wilhelm_von_Lindeiner-Wildau
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

H. H. Asquith

Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC, KC (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. (...)



Wartime - Asquith headed the Liberal government going into the war. Only two Cabinet Ministers (John Morley and John Burns) resigned. At first the dominant figures in the management of the war were Winston Churchill (First Lord of the Admiralty) and Field-Marshal Lord Kitchener, who had taken over the War Office from Asquith himself.

However following a Cabinet split on 25 May 1915, caused by the Shell Crisis (or sometimes dubbed 'The Great Shell Shortage') and the failed offensive at the 1915 Battle of Gallipoli, Asquith became head of a new coalition government, bringing senior figures from the Opposition into the Cabinet. At first the Coalition was seen as a political masterstroke, as the Conservative leader Bonar Law was given a relatively minor job (Secretary for the Colonies), whilst former Conservative leader A.J.Balfour was given the Admiralty, replacing Churchill. Kitchener, popular with the public, was stripped of his powers over munitions (given to a new ministry under Lloyd George) and strategy (given to the Generals Haig and Robertson, a move which stored up trouble for the future as they were now under little political control).

Critics increasingly complained about Asquith's lack of vigour over the conduct of the war. On Whit Monday 1916 Bonar Law travelled to Asquith's home — the Wharf, at Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire — to discuss the succession to the job of Secretary of State for War (Kitchener had just drowned on a trip to Russia — Asquith offered the job to Bonar Law, who declined as he had already agreed with Lloyd George that the latter should have the job). Women's Rights activists also turned against him when he adopted the 'Business as Usual' policy at the beginning of the war, while the introduction of conscription was unpopular with mainstream Liberals. Opponents partly blamed Asquith for a series of political and military disasters, including the 1916 Battle of the Somme, at which Asquith's son Raymond was killed, and the Easter Rising in Ireland (April 1916).

David Lloyd George, who had become Secretary of State for War but found himself frustrated by the reduced powers of that role, now campaigned with the support of the press baron Lord Northcliffe, to be made chairman of a small committee to manage the war. Asquith at first accepted, on condition that the committee reported to him daily and that he was allowed to attend if he chose, but then — furious at a "Times" editorial which made it clear that he was being sidelined — withdrew his consent unless he were allowed to chair the committee personally.

At this point Lloyd George resigned, and on 5 December 1916, no longer enjoying the support of the press or of leading Conservatives, Asquith himself resigned, declining to serve under any other Prime Minister (Balfour or Bonar Law having been mooted as potential new leaders of the coalition), possibly (although his motives are unclear) in the mistaken belief that nobody else would be able to form a government. After Bonar Law declined to form a government, citing Asquith's refusal to serve under him as a reason, Lloyd George became head of the coalition two days later — in accordance with his recent demands, heading a much smaller War Cabinet.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._H._Asquith#Wartime

The fall of Asquith as Prime Minister split the Liberal Party into two factions: those who supported him and those who supported the coalition government. Lloyd George's support from the Unionists was critical. In his War Memoirs [v 1 p 602], Lloyd George compared himself to Asquith:

“ There are certain indispensable qualities essential to the Chief Minister of the Crown in a great war. . . . Such a minister must have courage, composure, and judgment. All this Mr. Asquith possessed in a superlative degree. . . . But a war minister must also have vision, imagination and initiative — he must show untiring assiduity, must exercise constant oversight and supervision of every sphere of war activity, must possess driving force to energize this activity, must be in continuous consultation with experts, official and unofficial, as to the best means of utilising the resources of the country in conjunction with the Allies for the achievement of victory. If to this can be added a flair for conducting a great fight, then you have an ideal War Minister.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Lloyd_George#World_War
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

5 december 1916

[Krantenknipsel]:
Officiele mededelingen

(Duitse Melding.)

Berlijn, 4 december. - Uit het grote hoofdkwartier:

- Leger van generaal-veldmaarschalk Albrecht van Wurtemberg: In de Ieper- en Wijtschate-bocht gingen in aansluiting met mijn-ontploffingen, Engelse patroeljes tegen onze stellingen vooruit. Aan enkelen gelukte het, in de voorste graven te komen. Zij werden in handgemeen overweldigd of teruggedreven.


Wij hebben aleens niet horen schieten!

Dit schijnbaar onbeduidend berichtje heb ik en veel mensen met mij deze morgen haastig overlopen om verder aan onze gewone bezigheden te gaan of wat te praten over weer en wind, zonder er verder acht op te geven. Toen ik deze namiddag, in Kortrijk zijnde, toevallig aan de ijzerweg1 moest blijven wachten omdat het bareel gesloten was, reden daar traagzaam voorbij en we zagen de gekwetsten gereekt in hun hangbedden liggen uitkijken door de brede ramen, de pleegzusters en heelmeesters hun werk doen... Ge kunt u niets aandoenlijkers uitdenken - het statig trage rijden van de trein, die lange rij gekwetsten uitgestrekt als lijken, en het bleke gelaat naar buiten gekeerd, nieuwsgierig uitkijkend. Op al die wezens ligt de ernst van het lijden en er is iets vreemds in die ogen die de dood aanschouwd hebben. En daar rollen die wagens met hun lijdende vracht in stilte verder. Wat een angst en leed, hoop en vertwijfeling voeren ze mede!... Wat een tegenstelling met die andere treinen waar de opgewonden manschappen in tegenovergestelde richting rijdend, hun overmoed uitschreeuwen terwijl ze gaan naar 't onbekende van waar er weinig terugkeren. In het gaan en het keren is er waarlijk veel verschil. Zo krijgen we hier nu en dan iets meer te zien van de oorlog dan een lakonische ambtelijke mededeling en het doet goed dat men bij zulk aanschouwen er weer eens dieper ingaat om de gruwel te voelen voor 't geen waaraan we anders onverschillig zouden worden, zelfs terwijl het gebeurt.

5 december 1916

Hier vlakbij de deur zijn de Huzaren en Pioniers aan 't oefenen met handgranaten - een deel, met een soort houten blokken, gooien naar elkaar, andere met waar schiettuig dat geweldige ontploffingen verwekt - heel het huis dreunt ervan. Op de barm in de natte klei zijn de soldaten loopgraven en onderaardse holen aan 't graven. Ware 't 2 jaar vroeger gebeurd, dan zou de hele bevolking vol onrust geweest zijn en 't ware als een zeker voorteken beschouwd dat hier zou gevochten worden, - nu is men zover gekomen dat geen mens er naar omziet. En nog veel ander dingen zijn we gewend geworden - ik denk aan het drukkend gevoel dat ontstond omdat de Hollandse grens versperd was en we ons ingesloten dachten als in muizenval - nu we elk op zijn dorp versperd zijn en de grenzen zodanig ingekrompen - ondergaan we zelfs die druk niet meer om geen weg te kunnen voor mogelijke vlucht bij ernstige gebeurtenissen. Daaraan denkt of daarvoor vreest niemand meer, want de angst en vrees hebben zich vastgezet op de verwachting van altijd nieuwe verordeningen die nooddruft beperken en vrijheid inkorten. Nu bv. staan we voor de opeising van al het koper, tin, enz. - en de oproeping van werkelozen...

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0028.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 19:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Woodrow Wilson - State of the Union 1916 - 5 December 1916

GENTLEMEN OF THE CONGRESS:

In fulfilling at this time the duty laid upon me by the Constitution of communicating to you from time to time information of the state of the Union and recommending to your consideration such legislative measures as may be judged necessary and expedient, I shall continue the practice, which I hope has been acceptable to you, of leaving to the reports of the several heads of the executive departments the elaboration of the detailed needs of the public service and confine myself to those matters of more general public policy with which it seems necessary and feasible to deal at the present session of the Congress.

I realize the limitations of time under which you will necessarily act at this session and shall make my suggestions as few as possible; but there were some things left undone at the last session which there will now be time to complete and which it seems necessary in the interest of the public to do at once.

In the first place, it seems to me imperatively necessary that the earliest possible consideration and action should be accorded the remaining measures of the program of settlement and regulation which I had occasion to recommend to you at the close of your last session in view of the public dangers disclosed by the unaccommodated difficulties which then existed, and which still unhappily continue to exist, between the railroads of the country and their locomotive engineers, conductors and trainmen.

I then recommended:

First, immediate provision for the enlargement and administrative reorganization of the Interstate Commerce Commission along the lines embodied in the bill recently passed by the House of Representatives and now awaiting action by the Senate; in order that the Commission may be enabled to deal with the many great and various duties now devolving upon it with a promptness and thoroughness which are, with its present constitution and means of action, practically impossible.

Second, the establishment of an eight-hour day as the legal basis alike of work and wages in the employment of all railway employes who are actually engaged in the work of operating trains in interstate transportation.

Third, the authorization of the appointment by the President of a small body of men to observe actual results in experience of the adoption of the eight-hour day in railway transportation alike for the men and for the railroads.

Fourth, explicit approval by the Congress of the consideration by the Interstate Commerce Commission of an increase of freight rates to meet such additional expenditures by the railroads as may have been rendered necessary by the adoption of the eight-hour day and which have not been offset by administrative readjustments and economies, should the facts disclosed justify the increase.

Fifth, an amendment of the existing Federal statute which provides for the mediation, conciliation and arbitration of such controversies as the present by adding to it a provision that, in case the methods of accommodation now provided for should fail, a full public investigation of the merits of every such dispute shall be instituted and completed before a strike or lockout may lawfully be attempted.

And, sixth, the lodgment in the hands of the Executive of the power, in case of military necessity, to take control of such portions and such rolling stock of the railways of the country as may be required for military use and to operate them for military purposes, with authority to draft into the military service of the United States such train crews and administrative officials as the circumstances require for their safe and efficient use.

The second and third of these recommendations the Congress immediately acted on: it established the eight-hour day as the legal basis of work and wages in train service and it authorized the appointment of a commission to observe and report upon the practical results, deeming these the measures most immediately needed; but it postponed action upon the other suggestions until an opportunity should be offered for a more deliberate consideration of them.

The fourth recommendation I do not deem it necessary to renew. The power of the Interstate Commerce Commission to grant an increase of rates on the ground referred to is indisputably clear and a recommendation by the Congress with regard to such a matter might seem to draw in question the scope of the commission's authority or its inclination to do justice when there is no reason to doubt either.

The other suggestions-the increase in the Interstate Commerce Commission's membership and in its facilities for performing its manifold duties; the provision for full public investigation and assessment of industrial disputes, and the grant to the Executive of the power to control and operate the railways when necessary in time of war or other like public necessity-I now very earnestly renew.

The necessity for such legislation is manifest and pressing. Those who have entrusted us with the responsibility and duty of serving and safeguarding them in such matters would find it hard, I believe, to excuse a failure to act upon these grave matters or any unnecessary postponement of action upon them.

Not only does the Interstate Commerce Commission now find it practically impossible, with its present membership and organization, to perform its great functions promptly and thoroughly, but it is not unlikely that it may presently be found advisable to add to its duties still others equally heavy and exacting. It must first be perfected as an administrative instrument.

The country cannot and should not consent to remain any longer exposed to profound industrial disturbances for lack of additional means of arbitration and conciliation which the Congress can easily and promptly supply.

And all will agree that there must be no doubt as to the power of the Executive to make immediate and uninterrupted use of the railroads for the concentration of the military forces of the nation wherever they are needed and whenever they are needed.

This is a program of regulation, prevention and administrative efficiency which argues its own case in the mere statement of it. With regard to one of its items, the increase in the efficiency of the Interstate Commerce Commission, the House of Representatives has already acted; its action needs only the concurrence of the Senate.

I would hesitate to recommend, and I dare say the Congress would hesitate to act upon the suggestion should I make it, that any man in any I occupation should be obliged by law to continue in an employment which he desired to leave.

To pass a law which forbade or prevented the individual workman to leave his work before receiving the approval of society in doing so would be to adopt a new principle into our jurisprudence, which I take it for granted we are not prepared to introduce.

But the proposal that the operation of the railways of the country shall not be stopped or interrupted by the concerted action of organized bodies of men until a public investigation shall have been instituted, which shall make the whole question at issue plain for the judgment of the opinion of the nation, is not to propose any such principle.

It is based upon the very different principle that the concerted action of powerful bodies of men shall not be permitted to stop the industrial processes of the nation, at any rate before the nation shall have had an opportunity to acquaint itself with the merits of the case as between employe and employer, time to form its opinion upon an impartial statement of the merits, and opportunity to consider all practicable means of conciliation or arbitration.

I can see nothing in that proposition but the justifiable safeguarding by society of the necessary processes of its very life. There is nothing arbitrary or unjust in it unless it be arbitrarily and unjustly done. It can and should be done with a full and scrupulous regard for the interests and liberties of all concerned as well as for the permanent interests of society itself.

Three matters of capital importance await the action of the Senate which have already been acted upon by the House of Representatives; the bill which seeks to extend greater freedom of combination to those engaged in promoting the foreign commerce of the country than is now thought by some to be legal under the terms of the laws against monopoly; the bill amending the present organic law of Porto Rico; and the bill proposing a more thorough and systematic regulation of the expenditure of money in elections, commonly called the Corrupt Practices Act.

I need not labor my advice that these measures be enacted into law. Their urgency lies in the manifest circumstances which render their adoption at this time not only opportune but necessary. Even delay would seriously jeopard the interests of the country and of the Government.

Immediate passage of the bill to regulate the expenditure of money in elections may seem to be less necessary than the immediate enactment of the other measures to which I refer, because at least two years will elapse before another election in which Federal offices are to be filled; but it would greatly relieve the public mind if this important matter were dealt with while the circumstances and the dangers to the public morals of the present method of obtaining and spending campaign funds stand clear under recent observation, and the methods of expenditure can be frankly studied in the light of present experience; and a delay would have the further very serious disadvantage of postponing action until another election was at hand and some special object connected with it might be thought to be in the mind of those who urged it. Action can be taken now with facts for guidance and without suspicion of partisan purpose.

I shall not argue at length the desirability of giving a freer hand in the matter of combined and concerted effort to those who shall undertake the essential enterprise of building up our export trade. That enterprise will presently, will immediately assume, has indeed already assumed a magnitude unprecedented in our experience. We have not the necessary instrumentalities for its prosecution; it is deemed to be doubtful whether they could be created upon an adequate scale under our present laws.

We should clear away all legal obstacles and create a basis of undoubted law for it which will give freedom without permitting unregulated license. The thing must be done now, because the opportunity is here and may escape us if we hesitate or delay.

The argument for the proposed amendments of the organic law of Porto Rico is brief and conclusive. The present laws governing the island and regulating the rights and privileges of its people are not just. We have created expectations of extended privilege which we have not satisfied. There is uneasiness among the people of the island and even a suspicious doubt with regard to our intentions concerning them which the adoption of the pending measure would happily remove. We do not doubt what we wish to do in any essential particular. We ought to do it at once.

At the last session of the Congress a bill was passed by the Senate which provides for the promotion of vocational and industrial education, which is of vital importance to the whole country because it concerns a matter, too long neglected, upon which the thorough industrial preparation of the country for the critical years of economic development immediately ahead of us in very large measure depends.

May I not urge its early and favorable consideration by the House of Representatives and its early enactment into law? It contains plans which affect all interests and all parts of the country, and I am sure that there is no legislation now pending before the Congress whose passage the country awaits with more thoughtful approval or greater impatience to see a great and admirable thing set in the way of being done.

There are other matters already advanced to the stage of conference between the two houses of which it is not necessary that I should speak. Some practicable basis of agreement concerning them will no doubt be found an action taken upon them.

Inasmuch as this is, gentlemen, probably the last occasion I shall have to address the Sixty-fourth Congress, I hope that you will permit me to say with what genuine pleasure and satisfaction I have co-operated with you in the many measures of constructive policy with which you have enriched the legislative annals of the country. It has been a privilege to labor in such company. I take the liberty of congratulating you upon the completion of a record of rare serviceableness and distinction.

http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/P/ww28/speeches/ww_1916.htm
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 20:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Germany at War, 1914-1918: Privation and Ferment on the Home Front - Auxiliary Service Law (December 1916)

The Auxiliary Service Law represented the most lasting outcome of the Hindenburg Program. The law required mandatory service for all able-bodied Germans during the war and curtailed the freedom of workers to change jobs. After a bitter parliamentary struggle, the state made significant concessions to the labor unions in the administration of the law. The passage of the law under these terms gestured to the burdens that the war brought to the home front.

The Auxiliary Service Law of December 5, 1916

§ 1. To the extent that he has not already been called into the armed services, every male German from the age of eighteen to sixty shall be obligated to participate in national Auxiliary Service for the duration of the war.

§ 2. All people shall [already] be considered to be rendering national Auxiliary Service if they are employed in government offices, official agencies, the war industry, agriculture and forestry, health care, organizations of any kind that are involved in the war economy, or in other occupations and trades that are directly or indirectly significant to waging war or economic regulation, as long as the number of these persons does not exceed the numbers required for the labor they perform. Those who are obligated to serve but who were engaged in agriculture or forestry before August 1, 1916, may not be removed from this occupation for purposes of transfer to another form of national service.

§ 3. The direction of the national Auxiliary Service shall be vested in the War Office, which has been established within the Prussian War Ministry.

Lees verder op http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=953
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 20:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE BARNBOW LASSES - The Great War Roll of Honour



It is often said that wars are either won at sea, in the air, or in the trenches; however this story relates to a ‘war of production’ – a war that was fought in the factories of Leeds by a brave band of Yorkshire women known as the The Barnbow Lasses.

The story also records the worst tragedy in the history of the City of Leeds - in terms of people killed – a story however that never made the news headlines of the day. It recalls a dreadful explosion that killed 35 Yorkshire women and girls at the Barnbow Munitions factory at Crossgates during the First World War.

The declaration of war with Germany in August 1914 created an unprecedented and urgent need for large volumes of arms and munitions. And although Leeds did not have much of an arms industry at that time, the canny City Fathers, together with established manufacturing companies, decided to build one from scratch and quickly created the Leeds Munitions Committee. Shells produced by the Leeds Forge Company at Armley would also be filled and armed within the boundaries of the city.

A governing board of directors comprising six local Leeds men was established and tasked with overseeing the construction of the First National Shell Filling Factory. They met in August 1915 and selected a site at Barnbow, between the Crossgates and Garforth areas of Leeds, to construct a factory the size of which was described as ‘a city within a city’.

Back in 1915 things were made to happen at a slightly faster rate than would happen in the England of today, as by August shell production had started in the new Armley factory, and within months this was producing more than 10,000 shells per week.

At the Barnbow site, railway workers laid tracks directly into the factory complex to transport raw materials into and finished goods out of the factory. Platforms over 800 feet long were added to the nearby railway station in order to bring the workers directly to the factory gates. Massive factory buildings were quickly constructed enabling shell filling operations to start in December 1915.

The frantic but well organised construction in the autumn of 1915 included the erection of overhead power lines to bring electricity to the site. This, together with a boiler house, provided power for the heating and lighting of the whole factory. A water main laid in just four weeks, would deliver 200,000 gallons of water daily. Rapid progress was also made on the infrastructure buildings including changing rooms, canteens, administration blocks, etc.

The Barnbow site would eventually extend to cover some 200 acres. There was however, a complete press blackout of the area due to security concerns.

In order to recruit the large work force required to operate such a facility, an employment bureau was opened at Wellesley Barracks in Leeds. With one third of the workforce eventually recruited from Leeds, other workers came from nearby Castleford, Wakefield, Harrogate and many from the outlying villages. A 24-hour three shift system was introduced that operated 6 days a week, and by October 1916 the work force numbered 16,000. As the war continued and the death rate on front increased, so the gradual replacement of male with female labour increased, until the Barnbow workforce comprised almost 93% women or girls.

At that time a typical munitions worker's earnings averaged £3.0s.0d, however when a bonus scheme was put into production, the output of shells trebled and the girls handling the explosives were often taking home between £10 – £12, very big money indeed.

All aspects of the operation appear to have been efficiently run with the latest electric payroll systems including calculating machines being introduced. Thirty-eight trains per day, known as Barnbow Specials, transported the workforce to and from the site and employees were provided with free permits for home-to-work journeys.

Working conditions on the other hand were barely tolerable. Workers employed in handling explosives had to strip to their underwear and wear buttonless smocks and caps. All had to wear rubber soled shoes, and hairpins, combs, cigarettes and matches were all strictly forbidden. Hours were long, conditions poor and holidays simply did not exist!

Food rationing was severe but because of the nature of their work the employees were allowed to drink as much milk and barley water as they wanted. Barnbow even had its own farm, complete with 120 cows producing 300 gallons of milk a day. Working with cordite, a propellant for the shells, for long periods caused the skin of the operatives to turn yellow, the cure for which was to drink plenty of milk.

It was just after 10pm on Tuesday 5th December 1916, when several hundred women and girls had just begun their night shift. Their tasks that fateful evening consisted as they normally did, of filling, fusing, finishing off and packing 4½ inch shells. Room 42 was mainly used for the filling, and between 150 and 170 girls worked there. Shells were brought to the room already loaded with high explosive and all that remained was the insertion of the fuse and the screwing down of the cap. A girl inserted the fuse by hand, screwed it down and then it was taken and placed into a machine that revolved the shell and screwed the fuse down tightly.

At 10.27pm a violent explosion rocked the very foundations of Room 42 killing 35 women outright, maiming and injuring dozens more. In some cases identification was only possible by the identity disks worn around the necks of the workers. The machine where the explosion had occurred was completely destroyed. Steam pipes had burst open and covered the floor with a cocktail of blood and water.


After the explosion

Despite the danger from further explosions other workers hurried into room 42 in order to help to bring the injured to safety. William Parker, a mechanic at the factory, was one particular hero of the hour and he was later presented with an inscribed silver watch for his bravery in bringing out about a dozen girls.

Within a few hours of the explosion, bodies having been taken out, other girls were volunteering to work in room 42. Production was stopped only briefly. Many of the injured girls were later taken for a period of convalescence to Weetwood Grange, which had been leased by Barnbow from the works Comfort Fund.

Due to the censorship of that time, no account of the accident was made public; however in a special order of the day issued from the British HQ in France, Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haigh paid tribute to the devotion and sacrifice of the munitions workers. The only clue to a tragedy having happened was in the many death notices in the Yorkshire Evening Post that stated, “killed by accident”.

It was not until six years after the war that the public were told the facts for the first time.

There were two further explosions at Barnbow, one in March 1917, killing two girl workers and another in May 1918, killing three men. A Roll of Honour of war dead, in the Colton Methodist Church, includes the name of the only Colton girl who died in the accident, a certain Ethel Jackson.

Barnbow was Britain’s premier shell factory between 1914 and 1918 and at the end of hostilities on 11 November 1918, production stopped for the first time. By that time a total of 566,000 tons of finished ammunition had been dispatched overseas.

http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/England-History/BarnbowLasses.htm
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The German "Peace Offer" (December 5, 1916)

Although their armies were locked in combat, the belligerent sides remained in almost constant diplomatic contact throughout the war. The most important prelude to the flurry of activity in 1917 was the Central Power’s public offer to negotiate in December 1916. Basking in the glow of victory in Romania, the offer was both ambiguous and arrogant in tone. It produced only skepticism in the allied camp, and its failure eased the way towards the German decision in favor of unrestricted submarine warfare.

Should our enemies refuse to enter peace negotiations – and we have to assume that this will be the case – the odium of continuing the war will fall on them. War-weariness [ . . . ] will then grow and generate new support for the elements that are pushing for peace. In Germany and among its Allies, too, the desire for peace has become keen. The rejection of our peace offer, the knowledge that the continuation of the struggle is inevitable thanks alone to our enemies, would be an effective means of spurring our people to utmost exertion and sacrifice for a victorious end to the war.

Source: Aus der „ausschließlich persönlichen, streng verträulichen Information“ des Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg an den preußischen Gesandten in Karlsruhe Karl von Eisendecher vom 5. Dezember 1916 über den Zweck des Friedensangebotes der Mittelmächte [From the “absolutely personal, confidential correspondence” from Chancellor von Bethmann Hollweg to the Prussian Ambassador in Karlsruhe, Karl von Eisendecher, of December 5, 1916, on the Purpose of the Peace Offer by the Central Powers]. Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts [Political Archive of the Foreign Office], Nachlaß Eisendecher, no. 1/8.
Reprinted in Willibald Gutsche, Herrschaftsmethoden des deutschen Imperialismus 1897/8 bis 1917 [The Ruling Methods of German Imperialism, 1897/8 to 1917]. East Berlin, 1977, pp. 272-73.


http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=985
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Vera Brittain, Letter, 5 December 1917



Lees verder op http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/brittain-vera-letter-5-december-1917-3
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Leon Trotsky on Russo-German Armistice Negotiations, 5 December 1917

Reproduced below is the text of Leon Trotsky's report on the progress of negotiations with Germany for a preliminary armistice in early December 1917.

Trotsky's negotiations were conducted exclusively with German Army officers; consequently his repeated demands that an armistice be widened to include all armies on all fronts was rebuffed with the claim that such a discussion was outside the realm of army officers. Their brief was solely to negotiate an armistice with Russia and no other country.

Leon Trotsky on Armistice Negotiations of 5 December 1917

The conference opened in the presence of representatives of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.

Field-Marshal von Hindenburg and Field-Marshal von Hotzendorf charged Prince Leopold of Bavaria with the negotiations, and he in his turn nominated his Chief of Staff, General Hoffmann. Other delegates received similar authority from their highest Commander in Chief. The enemy delegation was exclusively military.

Our delegates opened the conference with a declaration of our peace aims, in view of which an armistice was proposed. The enemy delegates replied that that was a question to be solved by politicians. They said they were soldiers, having powers only to negotiate conditions of an armistice, and could add nothing to the declaration of Foreign Ministers Czernin and von Kühlmann.

Our delegates, taking due note of this evasive declaration, proposed that they should immediately address all the countries involved in the war, including Germany and her allies, and all States not represented at the conference, with a proposal to take part in drawing up an armistice on all fronts.

The enemy delegates again replied evasively that they did not possess such powers. Our delegation then proposed that they ask their Government for such authority. This proposal was accepted, but no reply had been communicated to the Russian delegation up to 2 o'clock, December 5th.

Our representatives submitted a project for an armistice on all fronts, elaborated by our military experts. The principal points of this project were: First, an interdiction against sending forces on our fronts to the fronts of our allies, and, second, the retirement of German detachments from the islands around Moon Sound.

The enemy delegation submitted a project for an armistice on the front from the Baltic to the Black Sea. This proposal is now being examined by our military experts. Negotiations will be continued tomorrow morning.

The enemy delegation declared that our conditions for an armistice were unacceptable and expressed the opinion that such demands could be addressed only to a conquered country.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/trotsky_armistice.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1917)

5 december 1917 - “Louis Mercelis is overleden. ‘t Is spijtig nietwaar? Nog zooveel klein kinderen. Jos Van Dijck is hier nu onderwijzer geworden en Madame Emiel Van Dijck heeft eene klas te doen bij de Nonnen.” (Karel Versmissen aan Fons Olieslagers, Baarle-Nassau)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=190&Itemid=47
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Victor Monnier: William E. Rappard. Defenseur des libertés, serviteur de son pays et de La Communauté internationale

This work, prepared under the guidance of Professor Giovanni Busino and with a preface by Professor Olivier Reverdin, is a very detailed and vividly written biography of William E. Rappard. After describing Rappard's New York childhood in his family of Swiss origin and his studies in Geneva, Berlin, Munich, Harvard, Paris and Vienna, Victor Monnier tells us of his appointment to the chair of economic history at the University of Geneva in September 1913, on the eve of the First World War.

The author goes on to relate how William E. Rappard took part in a mission of five delegates sent to the United States by the Swiss government from August to November 1917 in order to give the Americans a better knowledge and understanding of Switzerland and to explain to them the extremely difficult situation in which the war had placed it, particularly from the economic point of view. During this mission, Rappard was granted a personal interview with President Wilson, who told him about his plan to promote the creation of a League of Nations with a view to establishing a new international order. As a result of this mission, the United States and Switzerland concluded an agreement on 5 December 1917 which included the provision of supplies for Switzerland.

http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jn3g.htm
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Maritieme kalender - Welke maritieme gebeurtenissen vonden plaats op welke dag of in welke maand?

5 december 1917 - Instelling van de commissie Idenburg door de Nederlandse regering, die een aanbeveling moet doen met betrekking tot de salarissen bij de Land- en Zeemacht. Dit naar aanleiding van het plan om tot herziening van de salarissen van rijksambtenaren in 1917 over te gaan. De soldijwet van 1913 zal echter, tot grote ontevredenheid van de bonden, niet worden herzien. Nadat de commissie haar eindrapport heeft ingediend zullen slechts kleine verbeteringen bij de marine worden doorgevoerd.Bron: R. Blom: 'Niet voor God en niet voor het Vaderland' (2004)

5 december 1917 - Matrozen van de torpedoboot Hr.Ms. 'Z 8' organiseren, uit ontvredenheid over de slechte kwaliteit van het brood, een eigen voedselactie, waarbij door hen bij de aanleverende bakkerij het bedorven brood onder druk wordt omgeruild.Bron: R. Blom: 'Niet voor God en niet voor het Vaderland' (2004)

http://www.hetscheepvaartmuseum.nl/collectie/maritieme-kalender?j=&m=12&d=5
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Wickliffe Preston Draper



Wickliffe Preston Draper, the son of George A. Draper, a wealthy textile machinery manufacturer, was born in Hopedale on 9th August, 1891. Draper graduated from Harvard University in 1913.

On the outbreak of the First World War Draper joined the British Army. Promoted to the rank of lieutenant he took part in the battles of Neuve-Chapelle, Messines Ridge, Somme and Ypres, where he was seriously wounded.

When the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, Draper transferred to the U.S. Army. He was injured on the Western Front and invalided home to Hopedale, where he gave a talk at the Draper Memorial Church. According to the Milford Daily News (5th December, 1917) Draper “emphasized the prime necessity of absolute discipline in the army, as a requisite of victory, the sort of discipline that keeps the men at the guns, even though it means almost sure death to remain.”

Wickliffe Draper spent the next year as an artillery instructor with the U.S. Army at Forts Sill. In 1919 he left the army with the rank of major. Later he was eventually promoted to lieutenant colonel in the Cavalry Reserve.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKdraperW.htm
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Watriama, William Jacob (1880 - 1925)

WATRIAMA, WILLIAM JACOB (1880?-1925), soldier and patriot, was born probably on 30 August 1880 at Tuo village, Maré, one of the Loyalty Islands of New Caledonia, son of Waupo, a servant of the chiefly Naisiline clan, and his wife Sera Wakanude. (...)

Watriama first came to public notice in 1911 through a campaign he launched urging the end of French rule over New Caledonia and its dependencies. He saw an influx of Japanese labourers there as the start of a Japanese invasion of the South Pacific and as a threat to the security of Australia. Accordingly, he declared himself to be the exiled 'King of the Loyalty Islands' and in that assumed role sought to persuade the British and Australian governments to annex New Caledonia and so abort the Japanese menace. He twice attempted to visit New Caledonia, but was deported each time. Although unsuccessful, his cause did enjoy considerable public following, while his pretensions to royalty were generally treated sympathetically.

As the recipient of this attention Watriama is a figure of some historical interest, for he was one of the few Black men to attain such a degree of acceptance in White Australian society. Much of his support was due to his war record. In 1901-02 he had served in the South African War as a trooper with the 2nd New South Wales Mounted Rifles. In 1914 he joined the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force which occupied German New Guinea and, en route to Rabaul, helped to train troops aboard the Berrima. Enlisting as a private in the Australian Imperial Force in December 1915, he served with the 5th Australian Training Battalion in England and with the 18th Battalion, A.I.F., in France. He was discharged on 5 December 1917. His most dramatic demonstration of patriotism occurred during an Anzac Day service in 1921: with a party of ex-servicemen, he hoisted a Union Jack above Sydney Town Hall in protest at the alleged disloyalty of the lord mayor W. H. Lambert.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120443b.htm
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Armistice of Erzincan

The Armistice of Erzincan or Erzincan Armistice was signed by the Russian and Ottoman command of Third Army in Erzincan on December 5, 1917. The armstice had the endorsement of the Special Transcaucasian Committee . The Armstice ended the armed conflicts between Russia and Ottoman Empire in the Persian Campaign and Caucasus Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. The armstice was followed with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918, between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice_of_Erzincan
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Wild with all Regrets

(Another version of "A Terre".)

To Siegfried Sassoon

MY ARMS have mutinied against me -- - brutes!
My fingers fidget like ten idle brats,
My back's been stiff for hours, damned hours.
Death never gives his squad a Stand-at-ease.
I can't read. There: it's no use. Take your book.
A short life and a merry one, my buck!
We said we'd hate to grow dead old. But now,
Not to live old seems awful: not to renew
My boyhood with my boys, and teach 'em hitting,
Shooting and hunting, -- - all the arts of hurting!
-- Well, that's what I learnt. That, and making money.
Your fifty years in store seem none too many;
But I've five minutes. God! For just two years
To help myself to this good air of yours!
One Spring! Is one too hard to spare? Too long?
Spring air would find its own way to my lung,
And grow me legs as quick as lilac-shoots.

Yes, there's the orderly. He'll change the sheets
When I'm lugged out, oh, couldn't I do that?
Here in this coffin of a bed, I've thought
I'd like to kneel and sweep his floors for ever, -- -
And ask no nights off when the bustle's over,
For I'd enjoy the dirt; who's prejudiced
Against a grimed hand when his own's quite dust, -- -
Less live than specks that in the sun-shafts turn?
Dear dust, -- - in rooms, on roads, on faces' tan!
I'd love to be a sweep's boy, black as Town;
Yes, or a muckman. Must I be his load?
A flea would do. If one chap wasn't bloody,
Or went stone-cold, I'd find another body.

Which I shan't manage now. Unless it's yours.
I shall stay in you, friend, for some few hours.
You'll feel my heavy spirit chill your chest,
And climb your throat on sobs, until it's chased
On sighs, and wiped from off your lips by wind.

I think on your rich breathing, brother, I'll be weaned
To do without what blood remained me from my wound.


Wilfred Owen, 5th December 1917



http://theotherpages.org/poems/books/owen/owen.html
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CALENDAR OF WAR VERSE ON SALE - Red Cross Has Complied Collection Now Obtainable at 75 Cents.
Published: Wednesday, December 05, 1917

The American Red Cross has issued a "Calendar of War Verse," the proceeds of whose sale go toward the work of the organization. It is now on sale at the Co-operative at 75 cents a copy. The CRIMSON prints the following review of the calendar:

The first official contribution on the American Red Cross to the ever-growing collection of war poetry has appeared in the form of "A Calendar of War Verse." Although in our busy world the calendar of quotations, once so popular, has given way to the more useful "Memorandum," this little desk calendar deserves special notice.

Aside from the motto, the cover is attractive; the decorative design is simple and dignified, and the color scheme harmonious. Amid bursting shrapnel stands the Red Cross, partially hidden by branches of laurel and by a gleaming sword. The motto alone is weak. It is hard to see how one could have made a poorer choice than the singsong couplet:

"Starry-Vision'd songs of Fame
Crown with Love the Warrior's Name!"


After a simple dedication "to the mem- ory of Alan Seeger, our soldier-poet, who met death in July, 1916, fighting for the high cause to which now all America is consecrated," the calendar contains a page for each week, and on each page a bit of war verse. Wisely governed by the rule that a poem should be given completely or not at all, the editor has collected the best of the shorter poems dealing with the war. Most of these are the work of American authors, but France, Belgium and England have each at least one representative. To name all the authors would be unprofitable, for the list is amazingly complete. Among them are Noyes, Mackaye, Brooke, van Dyke, Hagedorn, Service, Bourdillon, Seeger, Phillpotts, Woodberry, Cammaerts, Binyon, Masters, Eliot, Dole, Katherine Lee Bates, Mary Raymond Shipman Andrews and Edith Wharton.

Equally well selected and equally various are the subjects. One finds Rupert Brooke's "The Dead" and "The Soldier." Cammaert's "Song of the Belgians," and Bourdillon's "The Call." One poem seems, for the moment, a bit out of place in the Collection--Miss Burr's "Holy Russia," a glorification of the new (now wavering) democracy.

Rupert Brooke is too well known to quote; Mary Raymond Shipman Andrew's "Vigil" too long. Miss Winifred Letts, in a whimsically said little lyric, speaks thus of the Oxford men in service:

"I saw the spires of Oxford
As I was passing by,
The grey spires of Oxford
Against a pearl-grey sky.
My heart was with the Oxford men
Who went abroad to die.

* * *
God rest you, happy gentlemen,
Who laid your good lives down,
Who took the khaki and the gun
Instead of cap and gown.
God bring you to a fairer place.
Than even Oxford town."


The Red Cross has asked our help in the past not in vain; surely our response to this new call will be as prompt and as willing.

http://theharvardcrimson.com/article/1917/12/5/calendar-of-war-verse-on-sale/
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The Westervelt Board
by Captain Scott R. Gourley

(...) About the time the Armistice was signed, Major General William J. Snow, Chief of Field Artillery, began searching for ways to capitalize on these combat experiences and to salvage some of the artillery lessons learned with these new systems. He was afraid that the US Army might otherwise lose this priceless information in the rush to demobilize. Consequently, he considered various plans to digest and preserve these artillery experiences.

The first option pondered by Snow involved asking General Peyton C. March, the Army's Chief of Staff, to authorize a personal fact-finding mission for the Chief of Artillery. Snow abandoned this option after a conversation with Brigadier General E. H. DeArmond, a member of his staff. DeArmond, who had considerable experience in the Office of the Chief of Artillery, AEF, suggested that a board of officers be appointed for the artillery study. General Snow liked this alternative and had General DeArmond prepare a memo to the Chief of Staff for Snow's signature.
In this memorandum of 5 December 1918, DeArmond and Snow not only recommended the issues to be considered by the proposed Board but also recommended the Board's composition. General March approved the proposal, and orders activating the Board were cut within the week.

General Westervelt was the initial member selected for the Board. When the orders were issued, Westervelt was Assistant to the Chief of Artillery, AEF. He was selected to lead the Board based upon his years of experience in the Ordnance Department and his personal specialization in artillery materiel.

Leuk PDF'je... http://sill-www.army.mil/FAMAG/1985/SEP_OCT_1985/SEP_OCT_1985_PAGES_27_29.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 21:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMS Cassandra (1916)



HMS Cassandra was a C-class light cruiser of the British Royal Navy. She was part of the Caledon group of the C-class of cruisers.

She was built by Vickers Limited, Barrow in Furness and laid down in March 1916, launched on 25 November 1916 and commissioned into the Navy in June 1917.

She had a short career, and initially joined the 6th Light Cruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet. She suffered a mishap when she ran aground on Fair Isle on 15 August 1917 but was successfully salvaged. Despite this she survived the war, and was sent into the Baltic to operate against the Bolsheviks. On 5 December 1918 she ran into an uncharted German minefield. She struck a mine and sank in Gulf of Finland with the loss of 10 sailors but the remaining crew of 400 was evacuated.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Cassandra_(1916)
Zie ook http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/aug/23/british-warships-cassandra-myrtle-gentian-estonia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 21:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Propopsal for American Jewish Congress Flag 1918



Flag offered by the brothers Isaac and Nisen Haisrael to the Jewish congress, 5 December 1918.

http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/il%7Dz1918.html
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

2nd Bn Devonshire Regiment

For their exceptional heroism and self-sacrifice, the 2nd Devon's and the 5th Battery, 45 Bde RFA (who had fought it out with them) were awarded the Croix de Guerre and Palm Leaf by the French Government.

It was presented to the Battalion by General de Languishe on 5 December 1918 and can be seen in the National Army Museum in London.

Although the Devonshire Regiment no longer exists, having been amalgamated in 2007 into The Rifles, the green and red ribbon of the Croix de Guerre continues to be worn on the shoulder by all ranks of this new regiment.

http://www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_chemin_24.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 21:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

"USAAS Jazz Band”, Charles W. Hamp (director), about December 1918



http://www.vjm.biz/new_page_14.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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Percy Toplis



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BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2010 21:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldier's Mail - Letters Home from a New England Doughboy 1916-1919

Chauffort, France 12/5/1918

Dear Em

I have just been granted a furlough and although we don’t know just when we are to leave, our time dosen’t start until we arrive at the leave area so we should worry. The place to which we are going is La Bombole some where in the south western part of France and over a hundred miles from where we are now stationed. From what the fellows say that have been there I judge that one can have a very good time. Im looking forward to it anyway and you can rest assured that after a fellow has spent over ten months in confinement and the greater part of this time right at the front he will enjoy himself when given a little liberty. They say there are all kind of amusments, and plenty of eats of the best kind. Picture me will you, for seven whole days where there is all kinds of dancings and other places for the boys. Y.M.C.A. girls to dance with.

I am feeling tip top and can’t see why I won’t enjoy myself perfectly. Will write again when I arrive there and tell you what kind of a time I am having. Hope that Henry is coming along alright, and tell Lena to watch herself in the health line.

It dosent look now as though we would get home for Christmas. Divisions that have earned a speedy return, such as the gallant 76th are in on this gravy. Never mind, we will get there someday. Trusting this finds you all well Ill close remaining

Sam.
S. E. Avery #69762, Hdq Co. 103rd Inf.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2009/12/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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