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Austro-Hungarian army in the Ukraine: March-November 1918

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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Okt 2010 21:40    Onderwerp: Austro-Hungarian army in the Ukraine: March-November 1918 Reageer met quote

After the Austro-Hungarian offensive in July-August 1917, the Eastern Front achieved relative stability, being situated approximately along the border between Russia and Austria-Hungary. By the end of 1917, Russian troops were stationed on Austrian territory only in a strip to the west of Tarnopol/Ternopil'. A formal armistice was concluded on 29 September 1917 at 4pm between General Litzmann and the Commander of the Russian 11th Army Corps. On 20 November 1917, the Ukraine itself proclaimed autonomy and it became independent on 3rd December.

Armistice talks were conducted on 4 December 1917 between Prinz Joseph and Generals Mackensen and Shcherbachev ( * ), with an initial stabilisation of 10 days of armistice between 7th & 17th December along the entire Russian front. The Armistice of Brest-Litovsk was signed on 15 December 1917 and extended to 14 January 1918. During all this time, the 2nd, 4th & 7th Austro-Hungarian Armies were located along the border with Russia.

On 9 February 1918, the Central Powers recognised the independence of the Ukraine and signed a separate peace treaty with it. Moreover, on 10 February, L.D. Trotskii, as Head of the Russian Delegation, declared "the cessation of a state of war" between Russia and the Central Powers ( ** ). Subsequently, on 13 February 1918, the German General Staff decided to renew the attack against Russia, going on_the offensive in the Baltic provinces. Thus, the Germans occupied Dvinsk/ Daugavpils on the 18th, Dorpat on the 24th, Reval/Tallinn and Pskov on the 25th, heading towards Petrograd. Under the pressure of these events, there followed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 28 February 1918 and a separate peace was concluded with Russia on 3rd March. Russia gave up Poland, the Baltic provinces, the Ukraine and some Asiatic territories. At the same time, the Bolsheviks occupied most of the Ukraine, including Kiev and, as a result, the Head of the Ukrainian Rada fled from there and asked for Austro-Hungarian help. During this period, the Germans had already prepared an attack on the territories comprising Lutsk- Rovno/Rivne- Laminiec- Siniawka-Dűnaburg/Daugavpils and Livonia. It was in these conditions that Austro-Hungarian intervention was decided against the Bolsheviks in the Ukraine.

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