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19 juni

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2006 6:20    Onderwerp: 19 juni Reageer met quote

1917 Britain’s King George V changes royal surname

On this day in 1917, during the third year of World War I, Britain’s King George V orders the British royal family to dispense with the use of German titles and surnames, changing the surname of his own family, the decidedly Germanic Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, to Windsor.

The second son of Prince Edward of Wales (later King Edward VII) and Alexandra of Denmark, and the grandson of Queen Victoria, George was born in 1865 and embarked on a naval career before becoming heir to the throne in 1892 when his older brother, Edward, died of pneumonia. The following year, George married the German princess Mary of Teck (his cousin, a granddaughter of King George III), who had previously been intended for Edward. The couple had six children, including the future Edward VIII and George VI (who took the throne in 1936 after his brother abdicated to marry the American divorcee Wallis Simpson). As the new Duke of York, George was made to abandon his career in the navy; he became a member of the House of Lords and received a political education. When his father died in 1910, George ascended to the British throne as King George V.

With the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914, strong anti-German feeling within Britain caused sensitivity among the royal family about its German roots. Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany, also a grandson of Queen Victoria, was the king’s cousin; the queen herself was German. As a result, on June 19, 1917, the king decreed that the royal surname was thereby changed from Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Windsor.

In order to demonstrate further solidarity with the British war effort, George made several visits to survey the troops at the Western Front. During one visit to France in 1915, he fell off a horse and broke his pelvis, an injury that plagued him for the rest of his life. Also in 1917, he made the controversial decision to deny asylum in Britain to another of his cousins, Czar Nicholas II of Russia, and his family, after the czar abdicated during the Russian Revolution. Czar Nicholas, his wife Alexandra and their children were subsequently arrested and later murdered by the Bolsheviks.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2006 6:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Angriff auf die Grodekstellung
Erstürmung von Grodek und Komarno
Pesaro und Rimini von der österreichisch-ungarischen Flotte beschossen

1916
Günstiger Stand der Kämpfe bei Luck
Raumgewinn am oberen Stochod
König Georg an die englische Flotte
Von den Gefangenen

1917
Erfolg deutscher Sturmtrupps bei Monchy
Gefechtstätigkeit in Flandern und in der Westchampagne
Drei Dampfer aus Geleitzügen herausgeschossen
Maibeute der U-Boote: 869000 Tonnen
Neue Artillerieschlacht an der Tiroler Front

1918
Neue Kämpfe im Walde von Villers-Cotterets
Die italienischen Linien von Montello durchstoßen

http://www.stahlgewitter.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Sep 2007 12:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Xaver Eisenbarth, vrijwillige verpleger, overlijdt ergens aan het westfront.

Nachname: Eisenbarth
Vorname: Xaver
Dienstgrad: Krankenpfleger
Geburtsdatum:
Geburtsort:
Todes-/Vermisstendatum: 19.06.1916
Todes-/Vermisstenort:

http://www.volksbund.de/kgs/stadt.asp?stadt=650


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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

19 June 1915 - A pier was completed at Anzac Cove for landing stores and equipment. It was built by the 2nd Australian Field Company, Royal Australian Engineers, and called Watson’s Pier after Major S H Watson, 1st Division Signal Company, who supervised the construction.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/june-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Saturday 19th June 1915- Diary of HV Reynolds

‘One of our planes passed over here this morning and went down to the cape, he dropped a bomb about half way down. A plane flew over towards Maidos about 2pm and about an hour later another bombed the enemy trenches opposite Quins Post. At about 6pm another flew over and went down to the Cape. A seaplane has been directing a Monitors fire this afternoon on enemy concentrated on the No 2 A.S.C. Depot, a habit they have of shelling the Depot at sunset lately. A couple of heavy howitzer shells from the enemy exploded very near our camp today.’

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2010/06/19/saturday-19th-june-1915-diary-of-hv-reynolds/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE ASHTON TERRITORIALS - THE 9th BATTALION of the MANCHESTER REGIMENT

Published in the Reporter 19th June 1915.

EVERYONE A HERO.

Brilliant Work of the Territorials.

A CREDIT TO ASHTON.

The thrilling description of the grand work of the Ashton Territorials is sent by Sergeant T. CROPPER, licensee of the King William IV, Ashton, in a letter received this week by his wife. He is a son of Mr. G.H. Cropper, of Henrietta Street, Smallshaw, formerly licensee of the Spread Eagle, Stamford Street, Ashton, and has been a member of the Ashton Territorials for some time. His letter adds: - "I suppose you are wondering where we are. We are not allowed to tell you, but I can tell you that we are in the thick of it. You never know what minute you may be bowled over. Bullets are flying around you and shrapnel bursting all around you. Our casualties are very slight, considering what we have gone through. We were in the front firing line for five days, and I must say that the 9th Manchesters are a credit to the town of Ashton. Both officers and men did splendidly. We advanced about 150 yards under the enemy's fire. You see it wasn't only advancing, the men had to carry sandbags with them for cover whilst they dug a trench big enough. They worked like heroes, every one of them. The rain was coming down in torrents, and the trenches were full with water. They were for about 30 hours drenched to the skin. You see they had to leave the trenches and make a dash for it to where they had advanced, about 150 yards. It was a very daring feat. I feel proud that I belong to such a battalion as the 9th Manchesters. Tell our WALLACE (his brother) that his son, JOE, behaved like a man, and that he was one of the men to make a dash for the trench, and held it until they were relieved by our men, who had to cut their way to them. They lost two men and two wounded whilst they were in. I only wish his grandfather could have seen him; he would have felt proud of him. I know I am, for he has proved himself game. Don't forget to show this to his father, for he has a son he ought to be proud of. Of course, he did no more than any of the other fellows, they worked like devils, and are a credit to the town they belong to."

Published in the Reporter 19th June 1915.

OFFICERS STORY.

Taking a Sporting Chance in the Dardanelles.

SNIPER'S DISGUISE.

"Many have gone under in serving our King and country, and it's all in the game; any one of us may be shot here any moment," runs the sportsmanlike phrases of an officer of the Ashton Territorials serving at the Dardanelles, in a letter to his father, who occupies a prominent position in Ashton. In his letter he makes reference to the remarkable tactics adopted by the German snipers in order to effectively carry out their nefarious practices. "The snipers," he writes, "are devils. They are hidden where they cannot be found, and they are provided with lots of ammunition and provisions. They just have a shot at us when they like, when they know that there is no chance of them being found. One was captured the other day with his hands, face, and rifle painted green, and wearing green clothes decorated with twigs and leaves, so as to avoid detection. Yesterday afternoon another was caught just over to the right dressed in an English R.A.M.C. uniform. He got finished off quickly. I am about to retire for the night, but there is not much sleep with the guns firing. I wish I could retire to my little cot at XXXX. The ground is hard, no flocks, and we make our beds with spades and picks. We are sleeping near a stream, where the frogs are numerous. They croak nearly all day and night, and become a perfect pest. I hope when this murderous business is over the Germans with their Emperor will get their desserts. They ought to be hounded from the earth. We expect to be in the front firing line in a day or two. I was not far from it whilst engaged in the operations yesterday. The weather is hot here just now, and we have also to contend with the shells and stray bullets from the firing line of the enemy and the snipers."

Published in the Reporter 19th June 1915.

"GAVE THEM BEANS."

How the Territorials Landed.

A thrilling description of how the Ashton Battalion of the Territorials went into action in the Dardanelles against the Turks is given in a letter, which has been received by Mr. Jones from her son, Second Lieut. JONES, who was the first of the Ashton Territorials to fall. The letter was received after the official notification of the death of Lieut. JONES. Lieut. JONES resided with his mother at 5, Moorside Terrace, Droylsden, and was a teacher at the West End Council School. The letter was written from the Dardanelles, and bore the date of May 13th, and stated that his Company had been there since Sunday, May 9th. It continues as follows: - "The Saturday before we landed we saw a terrific bombardment by the Australian, British, and the French. This place is 'hell let loose.' Shells are bursting all over the place, but we are fairly giving them beans. It is an awful experience being under fire, and seeing the men continually brought in on stretchers. Now and then we find several Turks, half buried, dead, of course, but they look awfully ghastly, and smell beastly. The other day we were expecting shell fire, and I had to dig a dug-out for protection from the shells. I had only gone down about three feet when I saw a piece of cloth, which I tried to pull out of the way but I found it was part of a dead Turk who had been buried there. However, there was no time to waste, so my sergeant and I slept on the Turk that night. I felt awfully afraid that first night or two, when the shells were screaming all over, and the bullets were 'ping ponging' all around. But I am quite used to them now. Expect me home safe and sound as soon as we have finished off the Turks. Within the last few hours two Turks shells here have burst within 20 yards of me, but I am bullet-proof, you see if I am not! FRED." Mrs. Jones has received a telegram from the King, the terms of which are as follows:- KINGS SYMPATHY. "The King and Queen deeply regret the loss you and the army have sustained by the death of your son in the service of the country. Their Majesties truly sympathise with you in your sorrow." (Fred Jones was killed on the 24.5.1915 and is buried in the Redoubt Cemetery, Helles).

Published in the Reporter 19th June 1915.

A striking example of personal heroism and camaraderie is afforded in a graphic description of the way in which Private GEORGE LOWE, of the 9th (Ashton) Battalion Manchester Regiment, Territorials, was wounded whilst taking part in the operations at the Dardanelles. Private LOWE is the eldest son of Mr. George Lowe, of Newmarket Rd, Waterloo, and grandson of Mr. George Lowe, retired grocer and provisions dealer, Oldham Rd, Ashton. He worked in the goods office, L and Y Railway Station, Ashton, and joined the Territorials in February of last year. During the fighting at the Dardanelles he was shot in both legs, and he is now in St. Andrew's Hospital, Malta, where he is making satisfactory progress. Private LOWE is one of eleven scholars from the Littlemoss Sunday School who have joined the Territorials or other forces, and the Young Men's Class in connection therewith has been demanded of its best and noblest adherents. There is an empty class, so to speak, which has been reinforced by the young reserves. In a letter dated June 5th to his parents, Private LOWE writes: - "I did not think when I sent the postcard off on May 25th the Turks would catch me napping two days afterwards. When I wrote the postcard we were in the trenches, but we went out the same night after we had been in five days. We had very few casualties during that period, although we had advanced about a hundred yards and dug ourselves in. Well, all went well leaving the trenches, and the next day (Wednesday) we got orders to reinforce the troops on our left. However, we did not move off until Thursday at about 7.30, and we had gone about a mile when the Turks suddenly started shelling us. I along with the chap in front of me got bowled over. He was hit in the stomach, and I in both legs. I was lying helpless on the ground with full pack on, when up came Lance Corporal J. LOWNDS and Lance Corporal LEES, and between them they bandaged me up. During all this time the Turks were shelling us cruelly, so LOWNDS got me on his back and carried me about 200 yards into a small gully, where it was pretty safe. If it had not have been for LOWNDS I do not think I should have been writing this. I am sorry to say that while he was carrying me he sprained his back, and had to go into hospital along with me. I have not seen him since he was on the boat, but then he was much better. I don't know what hospital he is in at Malta. While in the gully I found I had been hit in the right thigh and left shin. It was shrapnel that hit me, and it had gone clean through the thigh, but the other had stopped in the skin, and it is in yet. It is a piece of lead like a marble (judging from the hole in the leg) that is causing all the trouble, and it is very painful when touched. There was a clergyman in the field hospital at the Dardanelles, and he said he would write and let you I reached my hold-all out, and put it down near me. It had not been out above two minutes before a bullet went clean through it, and left two holes in it. I got this bullet out, and I am keeping it as a memento. The biggest danger here is sniping. There are hundreds of snipers and they cause a lot of damage to our troops. When our side catch a sniper you can bet he gets no mercy. Will you please tell all friends that I am in the pink."

LANCE CORPORAL LOWNDS STORY.

Owing to the excitement and the great effort required in order to remove his wounded comrade out of the zone of withering fire as speedily as possible to a place of safety, Lance Corporal 1381 LOWNDS sustained an injury to his back, and he has since been under treatment at the Imtarfa Military Hospital, Malta. His plucky act is deserving of every commendation. He is a son of Mr. Samuel Lownds, licensee of the Royal Oak Inn, Delamere Street, Ashton, and is 19 years of age. For the past five years he has been a member of the Ashton Battalion Territorials, and when the war broke out he willingly offered himself for foreign service. He has two brothers serving in the Army and also a brother-in-law, Private THOMAS NICHOLLS, who is serving with the 1st Manchesters in France. In a letter to his parents Lance Corporal LOWNDS writes: - "No sooner had we landed from the boats at the Dardanelles than shells began to fall around us. It was lively, I can tell you. I suppose you will have heard about Private ANDREW GEE being killed. He was the first killed in our battalion. I was talking to him a short time before he was shot. We were in the trenches four days, and were relieved for three days. We were just going back to the trenches when the Turks started shelling us; I was at the rear of the Company when Private GEORGE LOWE fell shot in both legs. I dropped by his side and bandaged him as well as I could. I thought every moment would be my last. The Turks fired five shells at us, whereupon the Company went forward and dropped about five yards away around LOWE and me. I had to lie flat on the ground so that Private LOWE could wriggle on my back. I then rose and carried him a distance of about 200 yards to a place where we were able to get under cover. I could not carry him any further. I fell with him and sprained my back. A shrapnel bullet grazed my hand and broke the skin. I was in the hospital at Lemnos for three days, and then I was conveyed in the hospital ship to Malta. When we landed from the boats at Malta, ladies were in waiting, and they gave us cigarettes, chocolate and lemonade. We are being well looked after here by the nurses. I shall probably be in hospital some time yet, as the pain has made me very weak. Private LOWE is getting on as well as can be expected, and his wounds are healing all right."

http://ashtonpals.webs.com/1915page2gallipoli.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Diary of My Trip Abroad 1915-19
538 Cpl. Ivor Alexander Williams, 21st Battalion


June 19th 1915. In the morning we marched down to Zietoun camp to the Signal School ( about 1 1/4 miles ) from here. This, by the way, came before breakfast. The afternoon was rather eventful. We paid a visit to the Pyramids. I will give you the details of the afternoon and evening. We started out at 3.30pm and caught the tram with a guide who charged 10 piastres each. Going out the avenues and roads you pass are very beautiful. En route there are some very beautiful and some very dilapidated buildings, also in the distance the Citadel, various Mosques, The pyramids, and a large hill behind the Citadel. This figures in the next part of the description. We had to cross the Nile on our way out, by a very large bridge. From here we came into parts where the natives cultivate their fields and crops. All is grown by irrigation. For any one who is interested in irrigation this is an excellent example of what it will do in the heart of the desert. They were the first civilised race in the world, but they have the oldest methods of raising water from the Nile: Doing so with a string of buckets on a wheel geared to another wheel on top turned by a bullock. Thus each bucket comes to the top it falls over and is emptied into the chute and then carried into the various channels. Other have a much simpler method of doing so. They arrange an upright stake in the ground. On top of this they fix another to work like a scale or sea-saw and on the water end of this is a kerosene tin tied on to the rope? On the other end is fixed a very heavy stone or rock, the weight of which pulls the tin out of the water. The natives then simply empty the tin into the channel and lower it again into the water. After a 40 minutes ride, we have landed a short distance from the Pyramids. From the road they present a magnificent spectacle. There are three main ones and six smaller ones. The first and largest is that of CHEOPS, it weighs 7,000,000 tons. It was built in the time of Herodotus and took 100.000 men 20 years to build. It is an immense structure of the following dimensions:- 450 Ft high and it's base covers over 3,600 sq. Ft..

It was built some where about 3753 B.C. The top does not exactly come to a peak but is flat. I suppose about 12-13 ft square and on which is a flagpole. The Australians are supposed to be the first to get to the top and plant a flag there. This Pyramid was built of stone carried ( by what means I know not ) from the hill I spoke of behind the Citadel, far beyond the river. The blocks of stone are an immense size. At one time, some500 years or more ago, the whole of the outer dressed stone were taken from the two largest Pyramids. back again to a place near the hill ( already spoken of ) and built into the Sultan Hassen Mosque, the Citadel, and Mosque of the Citadel.

This stone was marble and alabaster of the best quality. The entrance of the Pyramid of Cheops was discovered some 10 years ago. It is a terrible stiff climb up to this one and the view of Cairo in the distance is glorious. Next we walked round to the tomb of Francis. I might tell you before we got very far we were all puffing on account of the sand. The tomb is cut into an absolutely solid rock. A series of figures, meaning of which I forget, are cut out all round the walls. After walking a bit further, we came to the tomb of Zigazah. This also is cut out of a big piece of rock and the walls carved representing the following order:- The King and Queen of their day, a Cow, Fighting mule, a man carrying trees on his head, the men who built the Pyramids, and the daughters of the King and Queen.

By the way, they are not at all handsome. One poor thing has lost her head, and the other, well someone has got a mallet to work, and instead of chipping off the paint, as you could some of our modern girls, he has chipped off a piece of her cheek and her nose. Next is a statue let into the wall. It is representing the Mother of Francis. She also is in a very dilapidated condition and would be much better for a piece of putty for a nose and an ear and corsets. Right beside this is the name of CHEOPS written in Egyptian hieroglyphics ( is that spelt right ). We came out of there and went down to the foot of the hills. Here was the most weird and most smelly sight. It was the dwellings of the poorest of poor. They live in caves cut out of the rocks and in mud houses with their goats, fowls etc. All living under the same roof so to speak. The smell was something awful. Footscray was heaven to it.

From this we had a considerable walk around the foot of the hill to the SPHINX, or as the guide pronounced it "Mistress Sphinx" This was an absolutely marvellous sight. It is an immense thing carved from an immense piece of stone. You can gather the size of it from this :- It is 66ft high, from the present level of sand, and they have not yet discovered what is below it. It is the opinion of our guide that their are hands and body to be excavated yet. From ear to ear it measures 14ft. By heavens it must have some brains. Anyhow, it was built by the people of PHAROAH. They thought it was like their God, so built it facing the sun, namely east. The age of her is 6,000 years and she has not gone bald, neither does she paint. She is all genuine. But like all the others, she has suffered because of the jealousy os Napoleon who mounted cannons nearby and instead of offering her his sheets ( his handkerchief would have been to small ) to blow her nose, he, himself, took on the contract and blew her nose completely off by a cannon ball. Cruel, wasn't he? Had my fortune told at her feet for half a piastre. Then the whole seven of us had our photo taken in front of her and on camels.

My heavens when we were getting up, the camel rose stern first, not head as I thought he would, and nearly bumped us off. Getting off we nearly came to grief again. He went down head first and we nearly did the somersault trick over his head. Hang these this camels, they are not trustworthy. This over, we visited the temple of the Sphinx. This is situated in front of her and is built of beautiful granite and in place, pieces of alabaster. The pieces of granite etc are of immense size and date back to 4,066 BC. There are rows of immensely big pillars crossing it in two places. It contains six tombs, three alabaster and three stone. This temple is where they used to come and worship the Sphinx. After spending some more time looking at her beauty, we moved on around behind her. Here is situated Cornell Cambell's tomb. It is very deep and in an aperture in the side of the wall was shaped to the coffin .

It was all of black marble and one solid piece. The Excavators have taken the "MUMMY" out of the coffin.

We left this and after some considerable walk arrived at the entrance of the second or sister Pyramid of Kephron. He was, if you understand anything about the Dynasties of Egyptian Empire of the 4th Dynasty. We explored this Pyramid. At the entrance we had to take off our boots and pay 1/2 piastre for sandals. One enters this by a very low and long passage slanting down at about 30 degrees and made of granite. It was terribly slippery. Two or three times I nearly as Billy did, namely, sit down and shoot the chute. After we had about 100 feet of this, we had to get down a 6 foot ledge and then after a while another 4 feet. Then came the most exciting part of it all. We had to get down on our stomachs as flat as possible so as to enable us to get through the passage which is, in this place, no more than 18 inches high. After much struggling and grovelling in the dust we got through into the chamber. This was very cold. In this hole we had our fortunes told. He told me one or two very true things. But every one else was told the same.

All built of immense pieces of rock. In the centre is the coffin of Kephron. After all this excitement we wended our way back to Cairo and had dinner at 8pm. This cost over 100 piastres for the lot of us. ( a Piastre equals 2.5 pence here ) Lastly we arrived very tied at 10pm.

http://www.nashos.org.au/15diary.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Everything is so quiet – The ‘Nursery’

When the AIF served here between March and June 1916 this area was known as the ‘Nursery’, somewhere that was supposed to be relatively quiet where units new to the Western Front could be sent to acquire the skills of trench warfare. So low-lying and waterlogged is the ground in these fields that the trenches here were actually built-up sand bag mounds, or breastworks, and shelters were surface huts of sand bags and timber roofed with galvanised iron. On Anzac Day 1916, Lance Corporal James Belford, 1st Battalion (New South Wales), of Newcastle, New South Wales, wrote to his family about the ‘Nursery’:

It is a lovely day today, and the place where we are now is about 500–600 yards from the firing line … There is an orchard, so I guess our boys will make short work of the fruit when it gets a bit ripe. If you were here just now you wouldn’t know there was a war on, everything is so quiet.
Belford, quoted in Charles Bean, The AIF in France, 1916, The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, Vol 3, Sydney, 1929, p.137

Sadly, Belford learnt only too quickly that there was a war on. In the early morning of 19 June 1916 Belford was hit in the stomach by the explosion of a German mortar shell and evacuated to Estaires. Major Ronald Campbell, 1st Australian Casualty Clearing Station, wrote to the Australian Red Cross:

… he was admitted to this station from the 2nd Australian Field Ambulance, at 6 am on 19 June, suffering with severe bomb wounds abdomen. He was operated on immediately after admission but very little hope of recovery was given and he died at 10.45 pm the same day. I enclose a note from Chaplain Alexander who saw him during the day and conducted the funeral service.
Australian Cross Wounded and Missing Enquiry Bureau file, Lance Corporal James Belford, http://www.awm.gov.au/cms_images/1DRL428/00002/
1DRL428-00002-0320501.pdf


James Belford was buried in Estaires Communal Cemetery and Extension well behind the lines from where he was wounded. One of the witnesses to his death informed the Australian Red Cross that Belford received his wound shortly after he had passed along a communication trench to the front line called ‘Convent Avenue’. ‘Convent Avenue’ lay off the D175 in the fields to the right shortly after the La Boutillerie crossroads where, to the left, are the ruins of an old abbey marked on the map as the Abbaye de La Boutillerie.

Two other Australians who lost their lives in the ‘Nursery’ near La Boutillerie were Privates Albert Smith and Arthur Matthews, of the 4th Battalion (New South Wales). Charles Bean describes both their deaths in the official history as an example of how dangerous the area was because of German snipers and that ‘if a man exposed his head above the parapet for more than a few seconds, or showed himself several times at the same point, he was likely to be hit through the brain’. Entries in the 4th Battalion’s war diary reveal that Smith was ‘shot through head while looking over the parapet’ and Matthews was ‘shot through head while observing over parapet’. Both men were buried not far away in Rue Pétillon Military Cemetery, which is on the D175 about two kilometres from the La Boutillerie crossroads, not far from each other in Plot I, Row J, Graves 55 and 57.

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/fromelles/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 9:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Dick's Diary - The 1916 war diaries of 2nd Lieut. Richard T C Willis Fleming

19 June 1916 - From 5:30 this morning till 7:30 we were digging a signalling trench. I had a topping bathe this morning; digging again in the evening.

The horses didn't come up from Romani this evening as now the 155th Brigade have made a strong position down there, there is no need for them to come up unless we are ordered out on mobile column.

We had a big, and I believe successful, strafe on El Arish yesterday, so we are rather expecting them to return the compliment here in a day or two.

http://www.willisfleming.org.uk/dicksdiary/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 14:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 June 1917 - Infanterist Karl Kurz

Infanterist Karl Kurz, KuK Inf Regt ‘Ernst Ludwig Großherzog von Hessen und bei Rhein' Nr 14.

Karl was killed in action during the desperate defence of the Porta Lepozze during the Battle of Ortigara (Italy) which had raged since 10 June 1917. He now lays in the military cemetery/ossuary at the foot of Monte Ortigara.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1323-19-june-1917-infanterist-karl-kurz.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 14:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Solar eclipse of June 19, 1917

A partial solar eclipse occurred on June 19, 1917. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partially obscuring Earth's view of the Sun. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the moon's shadow misses the earth.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse_of_June_19,_1917
Voor afbeelding, zie http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEplot/SEplot1901/SE1917Jun19P.GIF
Voor de échte fanaat: http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEsearch/SEdata.php?Ecl=19170619
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 14:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

SS Batoum

Batoum was a 4.054grt defensively armed Britsih Merchant steamship. On the 19th June 1917 when 6 miles South from the Fastnet, Ireland she was torpedoed without warning and sunk by submarine U-61. 1 life lost.

http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?12286
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 14:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Toul (Boucq) Sector (March-June 1918)

On June 19 the 103rd Infantry suffered 172 more gas casualties during a bombardment of 2000 gas shells which began at 0315, directed at Seicheprey, Beaumont and Nandres in retailiation for a large American gas attack on German targets in the Bois de la Sonnard.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/the-adventure-unfolds/over-there-1918-1919/toulla-reine-boucq-sector-march-june-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 14:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 1918 Wartime Diary of Private Charles Robert Bottomley

June 19, 1918 -- Working around lines all day, cleaning guns and limbers. At night, took the gun to the ordinance works to be overhauled in a village called Savuy. Slept in an old barn during the night.

http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/remembers/sub.cfm?source=collections/diary/1diary/Bottomley/june1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 15:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 June 1918, Commons Sitting

ZEEBRUGGE AND OSTEND OPERATIONS: DECORATIONS.


HC Deb 19 June 1918 vol 107 cc325-6 325

Colonel LESLIE WILSON asked the First Lord of the Admiralty whether any decorations have been granted to the officers and men who took part in the naval operations against Zeebrugge and Ostend; and, if so, will he say when a list of these decorations will be published?

Dr. MACNAMARA Recommendations for decorations are now being considered for submission to His Majesty, and when approved will be published.

Colonel WILSON In view of the fact that these operations took place nearly two months ago, will not the Admiralty consider the advisability of initiating a system of immediate award, the same as in the Army, for gallant service?

Dr. MACNAMARA Yes; but some of these recommendations, at any rate, have to go to His Majesty. There will be no delay. We shall have to wait for the Rear-Admiral's recommendations, and then they have to receive the assent of the King.

General Sir IVOR PHILIPPS Is not the right hon. Gentleman aware that awards on the field of action do not have to go to His Majesty? The whole principle of the award is that they are given by the officer commanding the. Expeditionary Force, or the Fleet in this case, and there is no necessity for them to go to His Majesty?

Dr. MACNAMARA If I may say so, my hon. Friend is wrong in one particular. There is an award which, although recommended on the field of action, is still a recommendation and has to go to the King in all cases.

Sir I. PHILIPPS Will my right hon. Friend look into the matter, because I do not think his statement is correct?

Dr. MACNAMARA I will.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/jun/19/decorations
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 15:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Wenden (Cesis) - 19–23 June 1919

The Battle of Wenden (Latvian: Cēsu kaujas, Estonian: Võnnu lahing) fought near Cēsis in June 1919 was a decisive battle in the Estonian War of Independence and the Latvian War of Independence. After heavy fighting Estonian forces repelled German attacks and went on full counter-attack.

On 16 April 1919, the Latvian government of Kārlis Ulmanis was toppled by the Germans, who installed a puppet government headed by Andrievs Niedra.

The Battle of Wenden was a decisive victory for Estonian forces in the war against the pro-German forces. 3rd Estonian Division continued their advance towards Riga. On 3 July, the Estonian forces were at the outskirts of Riga, a ceasefire was made on the demand of the Entente and the Ulmanis government was restored in Riga. German forces were ordered to leave Latvia, the Baltic-German Landeswehr was put under command of the Latvian government and sent to fight against the Red Army. However, to circumvent Entente's orders, many German soldiers instead of leaving, were incorporated into the West Russian Volunteer Army. Fighting in Latvia and Lithuania restarted in October and continued until December 1919.

In Estonia the anniversary of the battle is celebrated as "Victory Day", a national holiday.

More at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cesis
http://www.armchairgeneral.com/forums/showthread.php?t=79359
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 15:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Black and Tans

The Black and Tans (Irish: Dúchrónaigh) was one of two newly recruited bodies, composed largely of World War I veterans, employed by the Royal Irish Constabulary from 1920 to 1921 to suppress revolution in Ireland. Although it was established to target the Irish Republican Army, it became notorious through its numerous attacks on the Irish civilian population. (...)

On 19 June 1920 Lieutenant-Colonel Gerald Smyth made a speech to the ranks of the Listowel RIC in which was reported as having said:

Now, men, Sinn Fein have had all the sport up to the present, and we are going to have the sport now. The police are not in sufficient strength to do anything to hold their barracks. This is not enough for as long as we remain on the defensive, so long will Sinn Fein have the whip hand. We must take the offensive and beat Sinn Fein at its own tactics...If a police barracks is burned or if the barracks already occupied is not suitable, then the best house in the locality is to be commandeered, the occupants thrown into the gutter. Let them die there—the more the merrier. Should the order ("Hands Up") not be immediately obeyed, shoot and shoot with effect. If the persons approaching (a patrol) carry their hands in their pockets, or are in any way suspicious-looking, shoot them down. You may make mistakes occasionally and innocent persons may be shot, but that cannot be helped, and you are bound to get the right parties some time. The more you shoot, the better I will like you, and I assure you no policeman will get into trouble for shooting any man.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Black_and_Tans#4.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 19:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Opposition within the SPD (June 19, 1915)

Although the early days of fighting were accompanied by the impression of popular unity, the consensus in favor of the war was fragile from the start, vulnerable to pressures from both the right and the left. The Socialists’ decision to support the war in 1914 was by no means unanimous. And by 1915, prominent Socialists had begun to express serious reservations. Within the ranks of the SPD, supporters of the war clashed with opponents of it, causing the party to split in 1917. Here, Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky, and Hugo Haase appeal to their SPD colleagues to oppose the government’s and certain conservatives’ aggressive annexationist plans.

Leipzig, June 19, 1915
The Order of the Day

The hour of decision has arrived. German Social Democracy confronts a question that is of the greatest importance to the destiny of the German people and the future of the civilized world.

During the past few weeks, prominent personalities and influential groups have been giving voice to demands – if anything in even more radical form – for which certain sectors of the press, as well as organizations to which no particular importance had been attached, have systematically stirred up support. Programs are being drawn up that put the stamp of a war of conquest on the present war. It is still fresh in everyone’s memory that the President of the Prussian House of Lords, Wedel-Piesdorf, declared during the session on March 15, 1915: Germany is now the victor:

“And if we desired nothing more than to repel the attack by our enemies, I believe that it would not be at all difficult to obtain peace quickly. However, Germany cannot be satisfied with such a peace. After the frightful sacrifices that we have borne in men and material, we must demand more. We can sheathe our sword only once Germany has obtained guarantees that our neighbors will not again attack us in similar fashion.”

Lees verder op http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=963
Ook te bekomen in het Duitsch: http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_document.cfm?document_id=963&language=german
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 19 Jun 2010 19:16, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

USS Arizona

Tot op de dag van vandaag wordt het Amerikaanse slagschip Arizona gezien als het symbool van de ramp die de Verenigde Staten trof bij de Japanse aanval op Pearl Harbor (7 december 1941) en die de Amerikaanse oorlogsverklaring aan Japan tengevolge had, een aanval die volgens sommigen echter was uitgelokt om het Amerikaanse volk "oorlogsbereid" te maken...

De Arizona was reeds actief in de Eerste Wereldoorlog, hoewel het toen niet tot gevechtshandelingen kwam. Op 19 juni 1915 werd ze te water gelaten door Esther Ross, de dochter van een puissant rijke zakenman uit Arizona, W.W. Ross, en in oktober 1916 werd het schip in dienst gesteld met John D. McDonald als kapitein.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Arizona
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

19 juni 1916 - De tijden verslechten - de honden worden in Kortrijk verkocht aan 1,20 fr. de kilo - en de katten aan 1,80 fr. Hier op de streek gingen de aardappels verleden week 10 fr. - en nu zijn ze aan 45 fr. Er wordt van niets anders gesproken dan van levensduurte - maar van waar het geld komt waarmede de mensen blijven kopen ~ is een raadsel. De smokkelaars zijn in volle bedrijf langs alle wegen.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0022.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 19:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Flying Elephant

De Flying Elephant is een superzware Britse tank uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Achtergronden
Op de eerste vervolgbestelling van de eerste Britse tank: de Mark I, in april 1916, volgden voorlopig geen nieuwe bestellingen. Men zou wachten op de afloop van de eerste inzet van het nieuwe wapen voordat er verdere beslissingen over de productie ervan zouden worden genomen. Het was dus zeer goed mogelijk dat er helemaal geen verdere exemplaren van dit, of een afgeleid, type gebouwd zouden worden als bleek dat het in enig opzicht ernstig tekort schoot. Eén van de twee fabrikanten van de Mark I, William Tritton, de directeur van Fosters, meende al te weten op welk punt het mis zou kunnen gaan: de bepantsering. De Mark I was wel beschermd tegen kogels van handvuurwapens en granaatscherven, maar zou een voltreffer van een artilleriegranaat niet kunnen weerstaan. Zelfs het vuur van zware machinegeweren zou op korte afstand fataal kunnen blijken. Plannen om een afstandspantser van vier millimeter op het dak te plaatsen gingen niet door. De enige verbetering ten opzichte van het prototype, Mother, was een pantserplaat van twaalf in plaats van tien millimeter dikte aan de voorkant. Tritton gokte er op dat dit de achilleshiel van het nieuwe wapen zou blijken en begon in april met het maken van ontwerptekeningen van een zware tank die immuun was voor middelzware artillerie.

Hoe dik het pantser dan moest zijn was echter onduidelijk. Luitenant Symes begon diezelfde maand met het beschieten van een pantserplaat van twee duim (ongeveer vijf centimeter) dik met buitgemaakte Duitse houwitsers en kanonnen. Pantserfabrikant Beardmores leverde in juni verschillende typen plaat voor een wat uitgebreider testprogramma te Shoeburyness. De resultaten van al die proefnemingen waren wat lastig te interpreteren en Tritton gooide zijn ontwerp drie maal om voordat hij een definitief plan durfde te presenteren aan het Tank Supply Committee, het dagelijks bestuur van het Tank Supply Department onder leiding van Albert Stern. Het plan voor de ontwikkeling van een prototype werd rond 19 juni 1916 goedgekeurd. Het project droeg oorspronkelijk de naam Heavy Tank en later Foster's Battle Tank.

Lees zeker verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Elephant
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

ZIJN BOMENAARS HONDENFRETTERS?

Diefstal, plundering en woekerpraktijken waren schering en inslag. Om het roven van veldvruchten tegen te gaan vaardigde de bevelhebber van de "Südabschnitt" een uitgaansverbod uit tussen 10 uur 's avonds en 5 uur ’s morgens.

Agent Van Crombruggen betrapte drie vrouwen, die kolen raapten op de militaire ijzeren weg. Die spoorbaan hadden de Duitsers aangelegd. Ze liep van de kazerne Sint-Bernard in Hemiksem via de Bosstraat in Boom naar het fort van Walem.

Politiecommissaris Defacq werd verplicht een strenge bewaking te organiseren, want op de laatste wagon van een kolentrein ontbraken duizend kilogram steenkool. Een waakdienst voor het bewaken van de veldvruchten werd ingesteld.

"Der Zivilkommissar des Kreises Antwerpen, Abteilung: Wucher" schreef op 19 juni 1917 een brief "An die Herren Bürgemeister des Kreises Antwerpen" om een verordening van het Keizerlijk Gouvernement Antwerpen van 14 mei 1917 tegen de woeker bekend te maken. In alle winkels in levensmiddelen en op de wekelijkse markt moesten prijslijsten opgehangen worden. De voortbrengerprijzen van groenten en fruit werden bekendgemaakt. De kleinhandelsprijzen mochten hoogstens 30% hoger zijn. Bij een hogere winstmarge werd de verkoper als woekeraar vervolgd.

De Duitse ambtenaar Emmerich verwittigde de gemeente dat "de opgelegde witte kolen, wanneer zij verjaren hunne kleur verliezen en zwart uitslagen en dat in dezelfde voorwaarden de opgelegde tomaten hun sap laten loopen, zoodat er niets anders van overblijft dan de schors en het zaad". Het schepencollege achtte "het noodzakelijk dat soortgelijke groenten, die nog in voorraad in den gemeentewinkel zijn, in de volkssoep ten spoedigste zouden verbruikt worden".

Lezen, want leuk! http://tenboome.webruimtehosting.net/tenboome/paginas/hondenfretters.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 20:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

June 19, 1918: New Constitution Becomes Effective in Haiti

Haiti’s new constitution goes into effect. Sudre Dartiguenave remains president, though his position is nothing more than that of a figurehead. Real power remains with the US occupiers.

http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=haiti_598
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 20:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ferrari: Het steigerende paard

Het Ferrari-logo is waarschijnlijk het beroemdste autobeeldmerk ter wereld. Het zwarte steigerende paard op het gele schild heeft zijn eigen verhaal, daterend uit de tijd van Enzo Ferrari als coureur. Op 17 juni 1923 won Ferrari het Circuito del Savio in een 3-liter Alfa Romeo voor het fabrieksteam. De wedstrijd werd uitgereden op een wegcircuit in de buurt van Ravenna en Enzo's overwinning was een van de beste uit zijn korte loopbaan, waarin hij ongeveer een dozijn races won. Het Circuito del Savio was, net als de meeste andere, niet ontzettend belangrijk, maar Ferrari won overtuigend van sterke concurrenten. Hij vestigde ook een nieuw ronderecord, maar deze wedstrijd werd in de Ferrari geschiedenis opgenomen om een andere belangrijke reden.

In het publiek bevond zich een plaatselijke aristocraat, graaf Enrico Baracca. Deze Baracca was een van degene, die Ferrari na de race kwamen feliciteren. Hij nodigde Enzo uit om hem en zijn vrouw, gravin Paolina Baracca, te komen bezoeken in hun huis op het familielandgoed in de buurt van Ravenna.
Deze Baracca's waren de ouders van Francesco Baracca, Italië's beste gevechtsvlieger in de Eerste wereldoorlog. Francesco werd in 1888 geboren. In 1907 schreef hij zich tegen wil van zijn ouders in bij de militaire academie van Modena, Enzo's geboorte stad. In 1912 ging hij in dienst bij de Cavalerie, maar 3 jaar later verhuisde hij naar Frankrijk voor een opleiding als piloot tijdens het vroege begin van het militaire vliegen. Binnen een paar weken had hij de kwalificatie van eerste klas student en ging door om instructeur te worden.

Toen Italië in 1915 in de oorlog betrokken werd, werd Baracca gevechtsvlieger. Zijn eerste slachtoffers vielen in april 1916 en ergens midden in het jaar 1918 had hij zijn score opgevoerd tot 34 voltreffers. Hij overleefde diverse beschietingen van zijn vliegtuig en moest 1 keer een noodlanding maken. Onder de diverse beloningen voor dapperheid werd Baracca ook geëerd met de belangrijkste onderscheiding van Italië: de Gouden Medaille voor Militaire Moed.
In november 1916 werd hij benoemd tot Luchtridder. Wellicht terugdenkend aan zijn tijd bij de cavalerie zette hij een middeleeuws ridderschild op de zijkant van zijn vliegtuig. Het was een zwart steigerend paard, de 'Cavellino Rampante', op een witte ondergrond.

Op 19 juni 1918, toen Baracca in zijn SPAD gevechtsvliegtuig boven het Oostenrijkse front vloog, werd hij in zijn hoofd getroffen door een kogel, die waarschijnlijk afgevuurd was vanaf de grond. Hij was op slag dood en het toestel stortte neer achter de vijandige linies. Bij wijze van eerbetoon werd het schild van zijn vliegtuig gehaald en aan zijn ouders geretourneerd.
Daarom werd 5 jaar later Ferrari uitgenodigd ten huize van de Baracca's. De Hertogin droeg het steigerende paard-symbool van haar zoon op aan de jonge racecoureur uit Modena, om hem geluk te brengen in zijn carrière. Het gebaar waarmee men een bepaalde indruk wil vestigen kan ingegeven zijn vanwege de Modena relatie of wellicht omdat Enzo's oudere broer Alfredo eerder in de oorlog omgekomen was tijdens de dienst in hetzelfde squadron als dat van Baracca. Hoe dan ook, Ferrari accepteerde het als een grote eer. Hij verving de witte achtergrond door een geel schild, de kleur van de vlag van Modena. De rest van zijn leven behandelde hij Baracca's embleem met volle waardigheid door het te bevestigen op de raceauto's van Scuderia Ferrari en op alle Ferrari straat auto's.

http://www.autogespot.com/nl/item/281/het-steigerende-paard.html

Baracca, Francesco

(...) In the middle of June 1918, the Austrians launched their last offensive. Baracca and his men experienced, once again, a desperate and exhausting pace of fighting. On 19 June, at 6 p.m., Baracca took off to attack enemy infantry with his machine gun. A few minutes later, he was shot and crashed on the Montello hill. Only on 23 May [??? - P.T.] were the Italians able to recover his body. Italy maintained that Baracca was killed by an infantry machine gun, while Austria gave the credit for the victory to Arnold Barwig (1896-1918), an observer officer on a Phönix C1 plane.

Baracca’s death caused a great stir both on the frontline and in the country, granting him an immediate apotheosis. He entered the national heroes’ empyrean straight away, playing a great role in the air force’s enormous rise in popularity.

Francesco Baracca was soon the cornerstone of aviation myths. Fascism quickly appropriated and nourished these myths, but they were able to outlive it and overcome the disastrous defeat of the Second World War. During the 1920s, the race car driver Enzo Ferrari (1898-1988) obtained, from Baracca’s family, permission to use his personal sign – the prancing horse – as a personal logo, and then for the famous sports car factory Ferrari.

https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/baracca_francesco
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pluriform Protestgeluid

De Haagse afdeling van de SDAP (voorloper van de huidige PvdA) organiseerde op 19 juni 1919 een protestdemonstratie tegen de ‘geweldvrede’ zoals ze het ‘Verdrag van Versailles’ noemden en belangrijke Nederlandse socialisten zoals Pieter Jelles Troelstra lieten weten het schandalig te vinden hoe de overwinnaars met het ‘Veertien Puntenplan’ van de Amerikaanse president Wilson waren omgegaan. Het ‘Katholieke Dagblad voor Noord Brabant’ zag de vrede ook somber in en schreef dat „het Duitse volk, dat gehoopt had op een rechtvaardige behandeling, was verraden en geamputeerd en aan een wereldvrede onderworpen was die het zou uitputten en verarmen. De politici die aan deze vrede hebben meegewerkt zijn verantwoordelijk voor de volgende bloederige oorlogen’. De ‘Bredasche Courant’ meldde over het ‘Verdrag van Versailles’: ‘Deze vrede is net als een duivel die met zaadjes strooit waar nieuwe rampen en ellende uit gaan groeien. Het is een vredesverdrag die met verkeerde bedoelingen is gesloten en waar een nieuwe oorlog uit zal ontstaan’.

http://www.ssew.nl/eerste-wereldoorlog-heeft-nooit-plaatsgevonden
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2010 23:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

All Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Liquidation of Illiteracy

On this day, 19 June, 1920, Sovnarkom of RSFSR established the All Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Liquidation of Illiteracy.

The Soviet system had inherited economic and cultural deficiency from tsarist Russia. Before the revolution, approximately 70% of the population could not read or write. Vladimir Lenin considered this problem among his top priorities to address. The commission was formed to carry out the decree signed by Lenin, “on the eradication of illiteracy among the population of RSFSR” in 1919 (otherwise known as Likbez), and was designed to manage the education of people unable to read or write. According to this decree, all people aged from 8 to 50 years old were required by law to become literate in Russian or their native language.

A huge social propaganda campaign was launched by Likbez. Posters with slogans like “An illiterate man is a blind man. Misfortune and Unhappiness awaits him everywhere” were seen everywhere. A huge amount of the effort to eliminate illiteracy was aimed at women. At the time of the Russian Revolution 14 of the 17 million illiterates in the country were women.

The organization gradually built an impressive administrative structure that became involved in all aspects of literary work. They ordered the printing and distribution of textbooks and bought paper and pencils from abroad, using the government’s precious foreign currency. Teachers were provided with food, clothing and shoes; special schools were established for peasants, soldiers and national minorities.

In Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) declaration, he identified the main functions of the Political Education Department and listed the three “enemies of communism”, one of which was illiteracy (other two being Communist Conceit and Bribery). It reads “As regards the second enemy, illiteracy, I can say that so long as there is such a thing as illiteracy in our country, it is too much to talk about political education. This is not a political problem; it is a condition without which it is useless talking about politics. An illiterate person stands outside of politics. He must first learn his ABC. Without that there can be no politics; without that there are rumors, gossip, fairy-tales and prejudices, but not politics.”

The education system that was built by Lenin is considered by many to be the best aspect of his rule. Every Russian person growing up in the Soviet time can remember Lenin’s quote displayed in every classroom “Learn, learn and once again, learn!” Everybody aimed at having a good education; it was seen as prestigious and gave you social status. Students were expected to excel in all areas, from reading to weapons engineering and cultural studies.

According to the census, by 1939 the literacy rate had risen to 87.4%. Today’s Russian education system is almost unchanged from the times of the Soviet Union and has a literacy rate of a near-perfect 99.4%.

http://rt.com/Russia_Now/2010-06-19.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 23 Jun 2011 22:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WWI underground: Unearthing the hidden tunnel war"

by

Peter Jackson

June 19th, 2011

BBC News

Archaeologists are beginning the most detailed ever study of a Western Front battlefield, an untouched site where 28 British tunnellers lie entombed after dying during brutal underground warfare. For WWI historians, it's the "holy grail".

When military historian Jeremy Banning stepped on to a patch of rough scrubland in northern France four months ago, the hairs on the back of his neck stood up.

The privately-owned land in the sleepy rural village of La Boisselle had been practically untouched since fighting ceased in 1918, remaining one of the most poignant sites of the Battle of the Somme.

In his hand was a selection of grainy photographs of some of the British tunnellers killed in bloody subterranean battles there, and who lay permanently entombed directly under his feet.

When most people think of WWI, they think of trench warfare interrupted by occasional offensives, with men charging between the lines. But with the static nature of the war, military mining played a big part in the tactics on both sides.

The idea of digging underneath fortifications in order to undermine them goes back to classical times at least. But the use of high explosive in WWI gave it a new dimension.

One of the most notable episodes was at the Battle of Messines in 1917 where 455 tons of explosive placed in 21 tunnels that had taken more than a year to prepare created a huge explosion that killed an estimated 10,000 Germans.

Tunnelling was mainly done by professional miners, sent from the collieries of Britain to the Western Front.

What happened at La Boisselle in 1915-1916 is a classic example of mining and counter-mining, with both sides struggling desperately to locate and destroy each other's tunnels.

"When you stand on a spot and can look at a picture of a man still down there below you, it's amazing," Banning says.

"It just does something very strange to you, it makes the hairs stand up on the back of your neck."

After six years of painstaking paper research by fellow historian Simon Jones, the researchers had built up detailed knowledge of the individual tragedies involved.

They knew the exact locations and depths at which each man was lost, the circumstances of their deaths, and almost all of their names.

And yet it was only when the owner of the site chose to open it up to research that they were able to finally connect the stories to the place.

The Lejeune family, who have owned the land since the 1920s, have a deep affinity with the site and have known many British veterans who served at La Boisselle.

But it was only after visiting the team's excavations at nearby Mametz last May that they decided to offer their land up for historical study.

Archaeologists, historians and their French and German partners now aim to preserve the area - named the Glory Hole by British troops - as a permanent memorial to the fallen.

Digging does not start until October, but the first practical steps of mapping the tunnels and trenches using ground penetrating radar, and exploring the geophysics are under way.

Some open tunnel sections have already been entered and are considered remarkably well preserved.

The team intends to leave the bodies undisturbed in the collapsed tunnels, but any others found in trenches will be reburied in accordance with the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Bomb disposal experts will be on standby to negotiate the unexploded ordnance they will inevitably uncover.

They also expect to find graffiti on the walls, poetry, bottles of drink, and all manner of artefacts untouched since the day fighting ceased. In short, they say, it's a time capsule.

The long-term intention is to open the site to the public, and the whole project is expected to take five to 10 years.

For Jones, a former curator at the Royal Engineers Museum, the dig is about completing the stories of the two Tunnelling Companies (179th and 185th) who worked at the Glory Hole.

"Finding out about these men has become an obsession, and although we know a great deal about the lives of soldiers in WWI, these men have left very few clues as to their experience or feelings," he says.

Mining was perilous work in a hidden war, which remained a state secret for many years, meaning the men did not get the recognition they deserved.

By studying war diaries, tunnel plans, letters, maps and records, Mr Jones has identified 25 of the 28 British and all 10 French tunnellers at the Glory Hole. The number of Germans remains unclear.

The British were lost between August 1915 and April 1916, sometimes individually but more often two or more at a time.

"Often men from the same pits preferred to work alongside one another and hence were lost together," Mr Jones says.

One such miner was Sapper John Lane, 45, from Tipton in Staffordshire, a married father-of-four who left his colliery for the Western Front with four colleagues. None returned.

On 22 November 1915, he and four others were killed 80ft (24m) below when a German mine exploded, in turn detonating a British charge of 5,900lb (2,700kg).

For his great grandson Chris Lane, 45, from Redditch in Worcestershire, piecing together his relative's story has been a fascinating process.

He says they knew he was killed in a mine, but prior to his research, his grandfather always thought it was in Ypres in Belgium.

"It's important to know your past, one small incident for one family is history for lots of other people," he says.

The new dig is only the second on the Western Front to be officially sanctioned by the French authorities.

Patches of untouched virgin battlefield are rare. Most have been ploughed over, cleared or developed, and private landowners have been reluctant to hand them over for research.

It's a site of huge strategic importance. When the British launched the bloody Battle of the Somme on 1 July 1916, La Boisselle stood on the main axis of the attack.

Of the 1.5m total casualties in the four-month campaign, 420,000 British soldiers were killed, wounded or missing having gained just two miles - a loss of two men per centimetre.

Fellow historian Peter Barton says La Boisselle is the "holy grail" for historians, containing the "complete evolution" of trench warfare.

"The site has got both sides of the line and the fourth dimension of underground warfare, making it a truly holistic project," he says.

"These are not just holes in the ground, they're homes - that was where you lived when you were holding the line.

"You became troglodytes. They designed, evolved and engineered a way of living and surviving, and had to go deeper and deeper as the shelling became more effective."

Barton's research took him to Munich and Stuttgart, where interpreters and translators have helped paint an even bigger picture.

"We'll know the Germans who killed the British and French, and vice-versa - it's the most supremely researched piece of battlefield on the Western Front," he says.

"Connecting those men who suffered and gave their lives there with their present day relatives is probably the most meaningful part."


http://philosophyofscienceportal.blogspot.com/2011/06/down-deep-there-is-world-war-i-history.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 7:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leader - Wednesday 19 June 1918: A SOLDIER'S THANKS.

In a letter to this office, Pte. R.
J. Thomas, writing from France,
says: I am writing to let you know
that I received the Christmas parcels
that went sent to me, and thank the
citizens of Orange very much for
same. It's about the only thing we
look for over this way—parcels and
letters, and I happened to get the
parcels when they were most needed.
The last one I got I had to crawl in
a dugout to get out of the way of
flying iron and foundries. It's very
funny the way we are situated some
times when we get our mails. I
have met nearly every Orange boy
know over here lately, and they are
all doing well. I hope we have the
good luck to get back again. The
Australian soldier certainly holds his
own with any of them.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/100965377/10546850
via http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/19-june-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 7:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

GREAT WAR LIVES LOST - Wednesday 19 June 1918 - We Lost 286

Today’s highlighted casualties:
- Private Joseph Clarke (Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry) is killed at age 27. His brother who was a member of the Aylesbury United Football Club died of wounds in May 1915.

- Private Stephen McD Fowles (Manitoba Regiment) is executed near the village of Villers behind Vimy Ridge for desertion. At the time of his conviction he was serving under a suspended sentence of death for a previous desertion offense.

https://greatwarliveslost.com/2018/06/18/wednesday-19-june-1918-we-lost-286/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 7:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Raymond Chandler on the Western Front, 1918

The American-born novelist, Raymond Chandler, enlisted with Canadian forces during the First World War, and suffered concussion near Arras 100 years ago, on 19 June 1918. US historian Chris Dickon explains how Chandler’s experience of the trenches may have influenced his writing, immortalised in the stories of his tough-guy detective, Philip Marlowe.

Raymond Thornton Chandler had not gotten himself into war out of any great conviction, and certainly not to become a leader of men. He was a man of complicated origin. He had been born in Chicago of an alcoholic father and an Irish mother who took her American son back to Ireland where, in trying to start his adult life, he became a British citizen and eligible for work in the civil service.

He really wanted to be a writer, however, and moved to California in 1912 to try to get that going, but without much success. Restless in August 1917, he saw the war in Europe as perhaps a good change in course. He traveled north to Victoria, British Columbia and signed up with Canadian forces. It may have been that this American/British hybrid was prompted to join with Canadian forces mostly because Canadian compensation for dependants was higher and he now had a mother to help support in Los Angeles.

By November of 1917, he was training in Sussex with the British Columbia Regiment, and in March 1918 he was in the trenches near Arras, France. His battalion had suffered great losses since 1915, and he ran quickly up the replacement chain to become a non- commissioned commander of 30 men. In fighting on June 19, 1918, his military career was altered with a concussion suffered from German shelling that, by some accounts, killed everyone else in his platoon.

Royal Air Force. While convalescing in England he trained to be a pilot for the Royal Air Force, but the war ended before he would ever fly. It was during this time that Chandler took up the drinking that would haunt him for the rest of his life, and an unpublished piece of writing about the moment of concussion in a dark trench became the point at which many critics believed he embarked on the style of writing that would take him to the 1930s exploits of his fictional detective Philip Marlowe in noir Los Angeles.

'The strafe started a lot heavier than usual. The candle stuck on the top of his tin hat guttered from something more that draught. The rats behind the dugout lining were still. But a tired man could sleep through it. He began to loosen the puttee on his left leg. Someone yelled down the dugout entrance and the beam of an electric torch groped about on the slimy steps. As he pushed aside the dirty blanket that served for a gas curtain the force of the bombardment hit him like the blow of a club at the base of the brain. He groveled against the wall of the trench, nauseated by the din. He seemed to be alone in a universe of incredibly brutal noise. Time to move on. Mustn’t stay too long in one place'.(1)

Chandler emerged from the Great War with the rank of Sergeant. Years later, he wrote to one of his fans:

Courage is a strange thing. You can never be sure of it. As a platoon commander very many years ago, I never seemed to be afraid, and yet I have been afraid of the insignificant risks. If you had to go over the top somehow all you seemed to think of was trying to keep the men spaced, in order to reduce casualties. It was always very difficult, especially if you had replacements or men who had been wounded. It’s only human to want to bunch for companionship in face of heavy fire. Nowadays war is very different. In some ways it’s much worse, but the casualties don’t compare with those in trench warfare. My battalion (Canadian) had a normal strength of 1200 men and it had over 14,000 casualties'.(2)

It was a rare letter from Raymond Chandler. Like many men, he did not like to talk about the worst moments of war. It would be Philip Marlowe who would play out its effect in the violence, detachment and dark corners of the stories and novels that were to follow.

Chris Dickon is author of Americans at War in Foreign Forces, published in 2014, and a recent biography of the World War I poet Alan Seeger.

1.Raymond Chandler: A Biography, Tom Hiney, Grove Press 1999, p 44 from Raymond Chandler Papers, Bodleian Library, Oxford University
2.The Life of Raymond Chandler, Frank McShane, E.P. Dutton, 1976, p 29


http://www.centenarynews.com/article/raymond-chandler-on-the-western-front-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 7:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mexico, June 19, 1918: The Minting of Coins

The speculation of the price of gold and silver, due to World War I, made that the value of these precious metals would increase causing a general rise in prices and with this uncontrolled inflation. The national currencies depreciated due to the lack of support in cash for commercial operations. The banks, the large commercial companies, governments and even individuals hoarded gold and silver, which led to a serious shortage that sparked the global financial uncertainty.

One of the trade restrictions imposed by the Government of the United States toward our country was the suspension of the legal purchase of Mexican silver. In a contradictory manner to this measure, that country did not stop the smuggling of Mexican gold and silver to the northern border, an offense which deepened between 1917 and 1918. Meanwhile, the government of President Venustiano Carranza tried to restructure the economy through domestic savings and strengthening the Mexican peso, minting silver coins that will support the issuance of banknotes.

Until June 1918, around three million pesos in gold and silver coins of different denominations had been coined. This strengthened the peso.

http://www.mexicoescultura.com/actividad/193570/en/june-19-1918-the-minting-of-coins.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 7:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

19 June 1917 - WW1 Blog - Jersey Heritage: Jersey asked to contribute towards cost of its defence

HM Government has raised questions over who is presently paying for Jersey’s wartime defence. Following the Militia’s disbandment earlier this year, the British Army assumed full responsibility for garrisoning the island. It seems, however, that it does not want to also assume responsibility for the expense of doing so.

The subject of paying for the island’s defence has been a thorny one since the war began. Patriotically, the States agreed early on to meet the expense of Militia mobilisation, which has amounted to more than £25,000 per year. Given the unexpectedly prolonged duration of the war, the cost of this generous act has been considerable, requiring a number of war loans to ensure that Jersey remained solvent.

With the adoption of compulsory military service and corresponding end to Militia service, the expectant hope was that this drain on local finances would disappear. Yet the UK Government appears to have other ideas, writing to the Lieutenant Governors of both Jersey and Guernsey on the matter. The thrust of the correspondence is simple: it is unreasonable for UK taxpayers to entirely meet the cost of defending these islands.

https://www.jerseyheritage.org/ww1-blog/19-june-1917
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Extraordinary celebrations as final rebellion prisoners released

[Editor's note: This is an article from Century Ireland, a fortnightly online newspaper, written from the perspective of a journalist 100 years ago, based on news reports of the time.]

Dublin, 19 June 1917 - There were scenes of jubilation at Westland Row train station yesterday where thousands gathered to greet the released Republican prisoners, arriving home from prisons throughout England.

The crowd had been gathering at the station for hours to meet the 117 prisoners who had been arrested in the aftermath of the Easter Rising. Recognisable in the crowd were mothers, sisters and widows of the executed rebel leaders.

Among those released were Countess Markievicz and Count Plunkett, the latter of whom had only been arrested and jailed earlier this month. Countess Markievicz was accompanied by Kathleen Lynn, Helena Molony and Marie Perolz who had all travelled to Britain to escort her home.

Other senior figures released included Eoin MacNeill, Eamon de Valera, Thomas Ashe and Cathal Brugha.

The journey home. The prisoners were brought from Parkhurst, Maidstone, Portland and Lewes prisons to Pentonville in London, before being put about a special train leaving Euston Station.

While in Pentonville Prison, some of the prisoners located the grave of Sir Roger Casement and knelt and prayed there for some time. Some took away with them pieces of the sod that covered the remains as mementos.

The returnees arrived in Holyhead at 1.30am, and as they disembarked from the train at the port they sang 'The Soldier’s Song', and were arranged in military order by Mr de Valera before setting sail for home.

British government statement. The British government minister Andrew Bonar Law, speaking in the House of Commons, remarked that the release was intended to facilitate an ‘atmosphere of harmony and goodwill’ ahead of the Convention of Irishmen to decide how the country is to be administered into the future.

Mr Bonar Law stated that, in releasing the prisoners, the Government had satisfied itself ‘in the first place, that the public security will not be endangered by such an act of grace; and, secondly, that in none of the cases concerned is there evidence that participations in the rebellion was accompanied by individual acts which would render such a display of clemency impossible’.

This amnesty, which follows an earlier release on Christmas Eve last year, means that all of those arrested due to their involvement in the Rising have now been freed.

https://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/index.php/articles/extraordinary-celebrations-as-rebellion-prisoners-released
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Albert Cecil Scagell (Q3 1896 – 19 June 1917)

Albert was the son of Albert William and Beatrice Mary Scagell (nee Leeks)
who married at Stow in Suffolk in August 1891. Albert senior was born in
St Pancras, London and his wife Beatrice in Stowmarket, Suffolk. Albert
senior was employed as a foreign wood agent’s clerk.
Albert and Beatrice had 4 children, one girl and three boys. The eldest was
Montrose Vivian was born in 1893 followed by Albert in 1896; then came Dorothy Beatrice in 1898
and finally, Philip Oliver in 1900. Dorothy and Philip were born in Hornsey while Montrose was born
in Lee in Kent and Albert in Islington. Shortly after the birth of the youngest child Philip, their mother
Beatrice died leaving Albert senior a widower with four
children aged under 9.
In 1901 the family were living at 55 Barrington Road,
Hornsey. Father Albert re-married in 1908 to Elizabeth Jane
Basson. By 1911 Albert and Elizabeth were living in 3 St
Mary’s Crescent, Spring Grove with the four children. The
eldest Montrose, then aged 18, was working as a foreign
provisions agent’s clerk while the other 3 children were still
at school. Albert was attending Isleworth County School
(now Isleworth and Syon School). They had a live-in
domestic servant.
Albert joined the London Rifle Brigade of the London
Regiment in October/November 1914. His rank was
Rifleman in the 1st/5th Battalion. His Regiment was joined
with others to form the 169th Brigade in the 56th London
Division in 1916. His older brother Montrose enlisted in the
army in December 1914. Initially he was a Private in the 15th Battalion London Regiment but in 1917
was transferred to the Army Labour Corps. He survived the war and was demobbed in 1919.
On 3rd May 1917 Albert’s Battalion was part of an advance at Arras as the 56th Division assaulted the
lines east of Monchy le Preux. On 8 June it was planned to take over the front line astride the Cojeul
river. On 9 June the London Rifle Brigade were ordered to march from Danville to Achicourt and
then to Beauvais; finally to be accommodated in the Telegraph Hill area. On 16 June it was planned
to advance the front line by 350 yards between the Cojeul river and the railway. Posts and
concertina barbed wire were to be installed under cover of darkness on the nights of 17/18th and
18/19th June.
Albert was killed in action on 19 June 1917 at the age of 20. He is remembered at the Arras
Memorial in the Fauborg d’Amiens Cemetery in the western part of Arras, Pas de Calais, France. He
is also commemorated at Isleworth and Syon School.
His father was the sole beneficiary of his personal effects and his home address at the time of his
death was “Hazlemere”, Staines Road, East Bedfont.

http://www.isleworthww1.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Scagell-Albert-Cecil.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Walter Long to Bonar Law, 19 June 1916

Walter Hume Long (1854-1924) was a Conservative MP born in Bath on 13 July 1854. Long had familial Irish connections and he was very involved in Irish Unionism. He had been Chief Secretary for Ireland, leader of the Irish Unionist MPs and the Irish Unionist Alliance and chairman of the Ulster Unionist Council. He had also sat as a Unionist MP for Dublin South County.

This document is a letter from Walter Long when he was president of the Local Government Board in the coalition cabinet (1915-1916), to Bonar Law. It also encloses letters sent between Long and General J. C. Maxwell. Maxwell attracted criticism for his controversial handling of the Rising after arriving in Ireland on 28 April as military governor with plenary powers under martial law. The letters express concern over Neville Chamberlain’s position as Inspector General of the Royal Irish Constabulary, the availability of weapons in Ireland and the increase in support for the insurgents. The letters provide an insight into Maxwell’s view on the causes of the insurrection.

Lees de brief op https://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/evolutionofparliament/legislativescrutiny/parliamentandireland/collections/easter-rising-1916/letter-from-walter-long-local-government-board/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Alice Fitzgerald to her son Seamus Fitzgerald, 19 June 1916

This letter was written to Seamus Fitzgerald (1896–1972). Fitzgerald was a Cork politician and joined the Irish Volunteers and Sinn Féin after Easter Week 1916. He was subsequently arrested and sent to Frongoch, Wales, one of the seven places in which he was interned in later years.

In this letter to Seamus his mother Alice counsels him to keep his spirits up for fear "you will make me worse than what I am". She hopes his friends will be sent to the same place so they could be company for him. His father has not been told of Seamus' arrest.

Lees de brief op https://repository.dri.ie/catalog/95942h62k
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Behind the lines: Cobbers remembered: Fromelles 19/06/1916

(...) On the 19th of July 1916, the 5th Australian Division attacked entrenched German positions near the French town of Fromelles.

The AIF’s 1st battle for the on the Western Front has been described as the worst 24 hours in Australian military history.

One volunteer who experienced the horrors was W J A “Allan” Allsop. Allsop served as a stretcher bearer. His diary entries give a vivid, if brief account of the battle.

The total casualties numbered 7,800 out of no more than 12,000 troops if there were that many. More than the losses at the landing in Gallipoli, and one of the hardest fought fights in the war to date. Men who were in Gallipoli told me personally that Gallipoli was a picnic to it.

The objective of 3 Australian Brigades was to overrun a network of trenches around the fortified "Sugarloaf” salient.

Manning this sector were regiments of the 6th Bavarian Division. They had destroyed 3 previous attempts by the British. Defensive lines of reinforced dugouts, concrete blockhouses, pillboxes, and breastworks overlooked the AIF’s 8th, 14th and 15th Divisions. German machine gun posts had set up well-prepared ‘kill zones.’ Surely the ‘Tommies’ would not attack here again? (...)

Lees verder op http://mosman1914-1918.net/project/blog/cobbers-remembered-the-battle-of-fromelles-19-july-1916
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kleiner Pal, Bataillonskommando, Offiziersmesse, aufgenommen am 19. Juni 1916

Foto... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kleiner_Pal,_Bataillonskommando,_Offiziersmesse,_aufgenommen_am_19._Juni_1916_(BildID_15473864).jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from the front: Thomas Gordon Fitzpatrick

Thomas Gordon Fitzpatrick was born in Dublin in 1880. He was the younger son of Reverend William and Euphemia Fitzpatrick. He married Ethel Francis Macready in 1900 and they lived in Mount Pleasant Square, Ranelagh in Dublin. Together they had nine children: Aileen, William, Doreen, Desmond, Sheila, Terence, Pat, Jack and Deirdre. During this time Thomas worked in the office of railway company LNWR in North Wall.

Soon after the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 Thomas enlisted to the 8th Battalion of the Royal Irish Fusiliers. They were formed in September 1914 in Armagh, moving then to Tipperary for training and to join the 16th Division. After further training in Pirbright, Surrey in September 1915, they shipped out to France in February 1916 to take part in the Battle of the Somme.

Thomas was promoted to temporary Captain in May 1916 but was killed in action during a push across a road near a village called Combles, into Leuze wood on the 6 September 1916. He was 36 years old and is buried at Serre Road cemetery, Somme, France.

Below is a selection of letters sent by Thomas to Ethel during his time at war. He wrote almost every day between his enlistment and his death but these give a snapshot of his time at the front during the Somme.

19 June 1916 - Thomas writes to Ethel to tell her not to worry about him and hopes they will have many years together.

Lees op https://www.rte.ie/centuryireland/index.php/articles/letters-from-the-front-thomas-gordon-fitzpatrick
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 'Nursery' - Everything is so quiet

(...) When the AIF served here between March and June 1916 this area was known as the 'Nursery', somewhere that was supposed to be relatively quiet where units new to the Western Front could be sent to acquire the skills of trench warfare. So low-lying and waterlogged is the ground in these fields that the trenches here were actually built-up sand bag mounds, or breastworks and shelters were surface huts of sand bags and timber roofed with galvanised iron. On Anzac Day 1916, Lance Corporal James Belford, 1st Battalion (New South Wales), of Newcastle, New South Wales, wrote to his family about the 'Nursery':

It is a lovely day today, and the place where we are now is about 500–600 yards from the firing line … There is an orchard, so I guess our boys will make short work of the fruit when it gets a bit ripe. If you were here just now you wouldn't know there was a war on, everything is so quiet.

Sadly, Belford learnt only too quickly that there was a war on. In the early morning of 19 June 1916 Belford was hit in the stomach by the explosion of a German mortar shell and evacuated to Estaires. Major Ronald Campbell, 1st Australian Casualty Clearing Station, wrote to the Australian Red Cross:

… he was admitted to this station from the 2nd Australian Field Ambulance, at 6 am on 19 June, suffering with severe bomb wounds abdomen. He was operated on immediately after admission but very little hope of recovery was given and he died at 10.45 pm the same day. I enclose a note from Chaplain Alexander who saw him during the day and conducted the funeral service.

James Belford was buried in Estaires Communal Cemetery and Extension well behind the lines from where he was wounded. One of the witnesses, to his death, informed the Australian Red Cross that Belford received his wound shortly after he had passed along a communication trench to the front line called 'Convent Avenue'. 'Convent Avenue' lay off the D175 in the fields to the right shortly after the La Boutillerie crossroads where, to the left, are the ruins of an old abbey marked on the map as the Abbaye de La Boutillerie. (...)

Lees verder op https://anzacportal.dva.gov.au/history/conflicts/australians-western-front-19141918/australian-remembrance-trail/vc-0
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Desplanque Farm Cemetery, Nord, France - WW1 Cemeteries.com

1010 Lance Corporal - Frederick Ernest Hillman - 23rd Bn. Australian Infantry, A. I. F. - 19th June 1916, aged 21 - Row B. 1.

Son of Frederic Joseph and Margaret Hillman, of 1313, Dana St., Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.
Pte Hillman enlisted on 19 April 1915 and was later promoted to lance corporal (LCpl). LCpl Hillman, a signaller, was killed in action at Armentieres in France on 19 June 1916.

https://www.ww1cemeteries.com/desplanque-farm-cemetery.html
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Violets from the Trenches: Selections from the Letters of Roland Leighton and Vera Brittain

19 June 1915 - (...) Sometimes I have felt that I could forgive the future everything if it would let me see you once again. (I don’t think I should really; I think I should forgive it still less, but still that is sometimes what I have thought.) At other times I feel I couldn’t bear to see you again till the war is over; that though I am out to face hard things there is just one I couldn’t endure, and that is to live over again the early morning of March 19th on Buxton railway station. But now the possibility of having to do so begins to arise, I know that it is more than worth while -- even this. One is willing to pay the bitterness of death for the sweetness of life. (...)

Lees de brief op http://pw20c.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/brittain-vera-letter-19-june-1915-0
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from the First World War, 1915

Richard Frederick, Hull, 19 June 1915, France.

Dear Gerald
Many thanks for letter which was somewhat a surprise to me. No the
news was quite fresh as I do not hear from anybody in the office.
We have just come from the trenches where we were for seven days and
had a most awful time. We were three days in the Reserve and put in the
firing line where we took part in an attack and were also under a very
heavy bombardment.
I am sorry to say we had many casualties thirty five killed and one
hundred and thirty eight wounded and I can assure you it was an
experience I shall never forget. Anyhow Williams, Kemball and myself
came out quite safely.
I have seen Frost out here, of course his battalion (8th Argyll & Sutherland
Highlanders) are in the same brigade also, as a matter of fact, they were
in the firing line the night we came out. I received a letter while I was in
the trenches from Mr Slater. Yes, I heard about Chamberlain, jolly sad
was it not, if you do hear from Dick James you might pass any news on to
me…
Shall be glad to hear from you. I could write more, only am a wee bit
tired after seven days in trenches.
I am yours sincerely, Fred Hull.
P.S. Of course you know my address. Remember me to all I know.

These are some of the many letters sent by staff of the Great Western
Railway Audit office at Paddington who had enlisted to fight in the First
World War. Here you will find all the letters and transcripts from this
collection that relate to the soldiers' experience of the trenches.


Mooi PDF'je... http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/education/letters-from-the-first-world-war-1915-3-trenches.pdf
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 8:26    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

French soldiers sorting kit, Seddul Bahr, 1915

French soldiers at Sedd-el-Bahr, Cape Helles, during the Battle of Gallipoli, 1915. Photo from The War Illustrated, 19 June 1915. Caption reads: :French soldiers sorting out the kits of fallen in their camp at Seddul Bahr, the Turkish fort on the Gallipoli shores that was captured by the allied troops. These photographs were taken by the official photographer with the Dardanelles Expedition.

Foto... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:French_soldiers_sorting_kit_Seddul_Bahr_1915.jpg
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 11:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australian Naval History on 19 June 1919

CAPT H. P. Cayley, RN, led a landing party from HMAS SYDNEY, (cruiser), to put down a civil disturbance in Penang.

https://www.navyhistory.org.au/19-june-1919/
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 19 Jun 2018 11:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Spectator, 19 June 1920: Soldiers All by J. C. Chase

Mr. Chase, the American artist, was sent by the American War Department to France to paint portraits of the leading American generals and of soldiers who had distinguished themselves in the field. This handsome book contains good reproductions of his numerous portraits with short biographies. A capital likeness of General Pershing forms the frontispiece. A glance through the book shows that, though there are many types among the picked manhood of America, a distinctively American type is evolving. English people generally recognize an American's nationality by instinct, but it might be possible for an anatomist to define the special points in a characteristically American face with the help of such a collection of clever portraits as this.

Confused http://archive.spectator.co.uk/article/19th-june-1920/23/soldiers-all-by-j-c-chase-new-york-
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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