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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2006 10:33    Onderwerp: 28 mei Reageer met quote

1918 U.S. troops score victory at Cantigny

In the first sustained American offensive of World War I, an Allied force including a full brigade of nearly 4,000 United States soldiers captures the village of Cantigny, on the Somme River in France, from their German enemy.

Though the United States formally entered World War I on the side of the Allies in April 1917, they were not fully prepared to send significant numbers of troops into battle until a full year had passed. By May 1918, however, large numbers of American soldiers had arrived in France, just in time to face the onslaught of the great German spring offensive.

On May 28, a day after their French allies suffered a blistering defeat on the Aisne River, a two-hour artillery barrage preceded the attack on Cantigny, located further north on the Western Front. The French army provided air cover, artillery, heavy tanks and—in an especially effective tactic—teams of flamethrowers to aid the U.S. advance through the German-held village, which was quickly overrun. The Americans took 100 German prisoners by the end of that day.

The commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF), General John J. Pershing, gave the order that no inch of Cantigny was to be surrendered. Over the next 72 hours, the Americans in Cantigny endured seven German counterattacks, maintaining control of the village despite high casualties, with 200 soldiers killed and another 200 incapacitated by German gas attacks. By the time relief finally came, total U.S. casualties at Cantigny had reached over 1,000, and the soldiers were exhausted from the strain of continual shelling. As their commander, Colonel Hanson E. Ely, remembered: “They could only stagger back, hollow-eyed with sunken cheeks, and if one stopped for a moment he would fall asleep.”

As the first major U.S. victory, the capture of Cantigny had a threefold impact on the war effort in the spring of 1918: first, it deprived the Germans of an important observation point for their troops on the Western Front. It also lent weight to Pershing’s argument that an independent U.S. command should be maintained apart from the joint Allied command. Finally, it provided a warning to the Germans that the Americans, although recently arrived and relatively new to the battlefield, were not a force to be taken lightly.

http://www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Acacia class sloop

The Acacia class was a class of twenty-four sloops that were ordered in January 1915 under the Emergency War Programme for the Royal Navy in World War I as part of the larger "Flower Class", which were also referred to as the "Cabbage Class", or "Herbaceous Borders". They were ordered in two batches, twelve ships on 1 January and another twelve on 12 January, and all were launched within about four or five months, and delivered between May and September 1915. They were used almost entirely for minesweeping until 1917, when they were transferred to escort duty. They were single-screw Fleet Sweeping Vessels (Sloops) with triple hulls at the bows to give extra protection against loss when working.

Ships
HMS Sunflower — built by D. & W. Henderson & Company, Glasgow, launched 28 May 1915. Sold 27 January 1921 to Rangoon Port Commissioners, and renamed Lanbya.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acacia_class_sloop
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

West Yorkshire Pioneer, 28 May 1915

ANOTHER SKIPTON SOLDIER WOUNDED
Mrs. Luty, of Water Street, Skipton, has two sons fighting at the Front, and on Friday morning week she received a postcard from her elder son, Private Arthur Luty, of the 'Green Howards', stating that he had been wounded and had been admitted into a hospital in France. He did not mention whether or not he had been seriously wounded. Mrs. Luty's younger son, Private Frank Luty, is in the Scots Guards, and though he has been at the Front since the outbreak of the war he is still in the best of health.

http://www.cpgw.org.uk/pioneer_articles.cfm?sID=170-03
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter Pte Roy Crosgrey, May 28 1915

Friday May 28th, 1915

Dear Father,

I thought I would write you a few lines to let you know that I am safe and well, as all the Cobourg boys except Scotty Munn, who was wounded in the leg on the road. One Peterborough sergeant was killed and a few wounded but all the rest are safe. The Germans found our position and shelled it with big guns and one of our guns and a wagon was blown right up when we were not there. Two others had shells come through the shields. I had a couple of close shaves but we have changed our position and are safe once more. They have since shelled our old position which we had made into a dummy battery.

I have just been out to see a batch of about twenty Germans go by under French escort. They were taken in an attack to-day which was successful. By the sound of things the Germans are making a counter attack right now. The batch is the second batch I have seen go by to-day. They stopped outside and a couple of our fellows went up and spoke to them. They seemed very pleased (and started giving away buttons and about everything they had as souvenirs. The French stopped them before I got one.) There have been quite a few spies arrested around here.

There are hundreds of things I would like to tell you about but cannot do so yet. I hope what I have written here is permitted to go through by the censor. I will write as often as I can. I hope all are well.

Roy

http://www.cdhsarchives.org/wiki/tiki-index.php?page=Letter%20Pte%20Roy%20Crosgrey%20May%2028%201915
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Kamerun, West Africa

The death in combat of Major H.W.G. Meyer Griffith, The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment.

The Freetown Memorial in Sierra Leone commemorates the names of the soldiers of Sierra Leone who died whilst serving with the Royal West African Frontier Force in West Africa, and whose graves are not known, or are not maintainable by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Inscribed on the memorial is the name of Major Harold Walter Gooch Meyer Griffith, The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment, who was killed in action on 28th May 1915, aged 36 years. Harold had served as a subaltern with the South Wales Borderers in South Africa, gaining the Queen’s Medal with three clasps and the King’s Medal with two clasps. Later he joined the 3rd Bn The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment as a Captain, and in August 1910 he became Major (unattached) Territorial Force, commanding the Glenalmond Officers’ Training Corps for three years.

In 1913 Harold took up the appointment of ADC and private secretary to the Governor of Sierra Leone. He was an Army Interpreter in French, and also an enthusiast in the Boy Scout movement, becoming Commissioner for Scouts in Sierra Leone. On the outbreak of war in August 1914 Harold resigned as ADC and purchased his own passage back to UK in order to enlist, but as the West African Frontier Force was expanded Harold was requested to stay and to serve in the Force.

In August 1914 Germany possessed two colonies in West Africa, tiny Togoland and the much larger Kamerun (Cameroon). Togoland (the first British shot of the Great War is said to have been fired here on 12th August 1914 by RSM Alhaji Grunshi DCM MM of the Gold Coast Regiment) was quickly invaded by British and French forces and the final German surrender took place on 26th August 1914.

Cameroon covered about 300,000 square miles and the military garrison consisted of 200 German and 3,200 African soldiers (these figures were quickly more than doubled by an effective mobilization plan) organized into 12 field companies. The Germans possessed 12 field guns and many more machine-guns than the British. However the Royal Navy secured the Cameroon coastline easily as the Germans had no fighting ships in the region.

After Britain suffered reverses with three small dispersed columns of West African soldiers sent across the border into Cameroon, an Allied Expeditionary Force composed of French, British and Belgian local infantry units was formed, under a British General. The German port of Douala was seized by the Allies on 27th September 1914, the Germans making fighting withdrawals in three different directions.

As there were no British Ordnance officers in the Expeditionary force Major Meyer Griffith was appointed Chief Ordnance Officer and based at Douala in the captured German barracks. As the Allies advanced into Cameroon, British units moving from the west, French forces from the north and south, and French and Belgian units from the east, Harold Meyer Griffith was appointed as Officer Commanding Lines of Communication. His base was at Wum Biagas, 75 miles east of Douala.

The “Bond of Sacrifice” in its two-page biography comments:

“This post was no sinecure. There was no railway line beyond Edea, the expedition was experiencing strong opposition, and his lines of communication grew longer and thinner. Furious tornadoes enlivened their long and scorching marches; insects of every description harried them. They had often to cut their way through dense bush and cross streams spanned by frail and broken bridges over which the guns had to be lifted. There was neither telegraph nor telephone: every message and dispatch had to be sent by runner. The carrier columns were sometimes two and three miles long, and difficulties of food and transport had all to be thought out and arranged for. At the end of a heavy march, when others could perhaps secure a little rest, the Chief Ordnance Officer, in sopping clothes and squelching boots, would have to hurry round for another two hours settling differences and arranging matters. Defence arrangements were often inadequate and native information perhaps received that a German force had concentrated four miles south-east, intending to attack!”

As the Allies pushed into the thick bush of Cameroon exhaustion and fever depleted the ranks. An Allied convoy of porters carrying medically evacuated soldiers was ambushed by the enemy in dense forest near Wum Biagas on 28 May 1915. Receiving a report of the ambush Harold immediately marched to the assistance of the convoy with a party of French Tirailleurs Senegalaise and a few British troops . Reaching the scene of the ambush Harold and his Tirailleurs rescued the convoy and, during a 90-minute engagement, drove the enemy for a mile down a bush track. On coming to a clearing he ordered “A final volley. Fix bayonets and charge!” Harold led the charge but he was killed and five of his men were shot down and wounded before the now leaderless Allied detachment withdrew.

The following day a British search party found a grave under a small cluster of palm leaves placed by the Germans. Harold’s brother officers erected a large cross, but within weeks the grave would have been covered and concealed for ever by fast-growing bush. The French troops were impressed by Harold as a man and a soldier, and on page 12040 of the Supplement to the London Gazette dated 9th December 1916 notification was published of the award of the French Croix de Guerre to:

Major Harold Walter Gooch Meyer-Griffith, late Unattached List, Territorial Force, employed with West African Frontier Force. (Reserve of Officers, late North Lancashire Regiment, Special Reserve).

The campaign continued for another nine months. Finally the Germans in the south of Cameroon escaped across the Spanish Guinea border into internment, and those in the north surrendered at Mora on 18th February 1916.

Because the British infantry used in Cameroon were West African and Indian the campaign is not well-known in Britain, but the combat was at times very fierce and the terrain always rough. Contacts were at extremely short range and strong and courageous leadership was required. Harold Walter Gooch Meyer Griffith was an outstanding and brave leader. The motto in his diary sent home to his widowed mother read:

“Give me leave, therefore, always to live and die in this mind : that he is not worthy to live at all that, for fear of danger or death, shunneth his country’s service and his own honour.”

http://www.kaiserscross.com/188001/207901.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letters from the Front

My Grandfather’s Letters 1915-1918

BEF, Somewhere in France
28.05.16

My Dear Mother

Just a few lines to let you know that I am out of hospital once more. And that my hand is a good deal better although I am still not able for any heavy work. but the Captain was that pleased to see me back that he is letting me run about for a week without doing anything. I have got all your letters and was glad to know that all at home are still in good health. Well Dear Mother I suppose you will be glad to know that I have got another stripe since I came back. I have been promoted to the rank of Cpl. and am getting staying in my own Company.

The weather is simply lovely, it is just like summer this afternoon. I hope youse are having good weather at home for it is very pleasant. I hope Annie and Jimmy and yourself are keeping well. (You are right to keep fretting it will do you a whole lot of good.) [sic] I am beginning to think that you will never have sense. Well I may tell you if I havd started fretting over my hand I would not be back here today. You would have had me home with only one hand. But I kept up my heart and now you see the result of it. Well I think I have not much more to say. I will write soon again.

I remain
Ever your Loving Son

John Adams

http://johnadams.org.uk/letters/?cat=4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

President Wilson's Proclamation Establishing Conscription, 28 May 1917

Following America's entry into the war in April 1917 the question of recruiting sufficient men to fight a war in Europe arose. A policy of conscription was rapidly formulated and adopted, requiring men between the ages of 21 and 30 (inclusive) to register for military service.

The U.S. Congress approved conscription on 18 May 1917; reproduced below is the text of President Woodrow Wilson's conscription proclamation issued ten days later formally implementing the policy.

Although many anticipated that implementing conscription would result in civil disturbance in practice it was received calmly and indeed with widespread approval.

President Woodrow Wilson's Proclamation Establishing Conscription

Whereas, Congress has enacted and the President has on the 18th day of May, one thousand nine hundred and seventeen, approved a law, which contains the following provisions:

Section 5

That all male persons between the ages of 21 and 30, both inclusive, shall be subject to registration in accordance with regulations to be prescribed by the President:

And upon proclamation by the President or other public notice given by him or by his direction stating the time and place of such registration it shall be the duty of all persons of the designated ages, except officers and enlisted men of the regular army, the navy, and the National Guard and Naval Militia while in the service of the United States, to present themselves for and submit to registration under the provisions of this act:

And every such person shall be deemed to have notice of the requirements of this act upon the publication of said proclamation or other notice as aforesaid, given by the President or by his direction:

And any person who shall wilfully fail or refuse to present himself for registration or to submit thereto as herein provided shall be guilty of a misdemeanour and shall, upon conviction in the District Court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for not more than one year, and shall thereupon be duly registered; provided that in the call of the docket precedence shall be given, in courts trying the same, to the trial of criminal proceedings under this act; provided, further, that persons shall be subject to registration as herein provided who shall have attained their twenty-first birthday and who shall not have attained their thirty-first birthday on or before the day set or the registration; and all persons so registered shall be and remain subject to draft into the forces hereby authorized unless excepted or excused therefrom as in this act provided; provided, further, that in the case of temporary absence from actual place of legal residence of any person liable to registration as provided herein, such registration may be made by mail under regulations to be prescribed by the President.

Section 6

That the President is hereby authorized to utilize the service of any or all departments and any or all officers or agents of the United States and of the several States, Territories, and the District of Columbia and subdivisions thereof in the execution of this act, and all officers and agents of the United States and of the several States, Territories, and subdivisions thereof, and of the District of Columbia; and all persons designated or appointed under regulations prescribed by the President, whether such appointments are made by the President himself or by the Governor or other officer of any State or Territory to perform any duty in the execution of this act, are hereby required to perform such duty as the President shall order or direct, and all such officers and agents and persons so designated or appointed shall hereby have full authority for all acts done by them in the execution of this act by the direction of the President.

Correspondence in the execution of this act may be carried in penalty envelopes, bearing the frank of the War Department.

Any person charged, as herein provided, with the duty of carrying into effect any of the provisions of this act or the regulations made or directions given thereunder who shall fail or neglect to perform such duty, and any person charged with such duty or having and exercising any authority under said act, regulations, or directions, who shall knowingly make or be a party to the making of any false or incorrect registration, physical examination, exemption, enlistment, enrolment, or muster, and any person who shall make or be a party to the making of any false statement or certificate as to the fitness or liability of himself or any other person for service under the provisions of this act, or regulations made by the President thereunder, or otherwise evades or aids another to evade the requirements of this act or of said regulations, or who, in any manner, shall fail or neglect fully to perform any duty required of him in the execution of this act, shall, if not subject to military law, be guilty of a misdemeanour, and upon conviction in the District Court of the United States having jurisdiction thereof be punished by imprisonment for not more than one year, or, if subject to military law, shall be tried by court-martial and suffer such punishment as a court-martial may direct.


Now, Therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States, do call upon the Governor of each of the several States and Territories, the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and all officers and agents of the several States and Territories, of the District of Columbia, and of the counties and municipalities therein, to perform certain duties in the execution of the foregoing law, which duties will be communicated to them directly in regulations of even date herewith.

And I do further proclaim and give notice to all persons subject to registration in the several States and in the District of Columbia, in accordance with the above law, that the time and place of such registration shall be between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. on the fifth day of June, 1917, at the registration place in the precinct wherein they have their permanent homes.

Those who shall have attained their twenty-first birthday and who shall not have attained their thirty-first birthday on or before the day here named are required to register, excepting only officers and enlisted men of the regular army, the navy, the Marine Corps, and the National Guard and Navy Militia, while in the service of the United States, and officers in the Officers' Reserve Corps and enlisted men in the Enlisted Reserve Corps while in active service.

In the Territories of Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico a day for registration will be named in a later proclamation.

And I do charge those who through sickness shall be unable to present themselves for registration that they apply on or before the day of registration to the County Clerk of the county where they may be for instructions as to how they may be registered by agent.

Those who expect to be absent on the day named from the counties in which they have their permanent homes may register by mail, but their mailed registration cards must reach the places in which they have their permanent homes by the day named herein. They should apply as soon as practicable to the County Clerk of the county wherein they may be for instructions as to how they may accomplish their registration by mail.

In case such persons as, through sickness or absence, may be unable to present themselves personally for registration shall be sojourning in cities of over 30,000 population, they shall apply to the City Clerk of the city wherein they may be sojourning rather than to the Clerk of the county. The Clerks of counties and of cities of over 30,000 population in which numerous applications from the sick and from non-residents are expected are authorized to establish such agencies and to employ and deputize such clerical force as may be necessary to accommodate these applications.

The power against which we are arrayed has sought to impose its will upon the world by force. To this end it has increased armament until it has changed the face of war. In the sense in which we have been wont to think of armies, there are no armies in this struggle, there are entire nations armed.

Thus, the men who remain to till the soil and man the factories are no less a part of the army that is France than the men beneath the battle flags. It must be so with us. It is not an army that we must shape and train for war; it is a nation.

To this end our people must draw close in one compact front against a common foe. But this cannot be if each man pursues a private purpose. All must pursue one purpose.

The nation needs all men; but it needs each man not in the field that will most pleasure him, but in the endeavour that will best serve the common good. Thus, though a sharpshooter pleases to operate a trip-hammer for the forging of great guns and an expert machinist desires to march with the flag, the nation is being served only when the sharpshooter marches and the machinist remains at his levers.

The whole nation must be a team, in which each man shall play the part for which he is best fitted. To this end, Congress has provided that the nation shall be organized for war by selection; that each man shall be classified for service in the place to which it shall best serve the general good to call him.

The significance of this cannot be overstated. It is a new thing in our history and a landmark in our progress. It is a new manner of accepting and vitalizing our duty to give ourselves with thoughtful devotion to the common purpose of us all.

It is in no sense a conscription of the unwilling; it is, rather, selection from a nation which has volunteered in mass. It is no more a choosing of those who shall march with the colours than it is a selection of those who shall serve an equally necessary and devoted purpose in the industries that lie behind the battle line.

The day here named is the time upon which all shall present themselves for assignment to their tasks. It is for that reason destined to be remembered as one of the most conspicuous moments in our history. It is nothing less than the day upon which the manhood of the country shall step forward in one solid rank in defence of the ideals to which this nation is consecrated.

It is important to those ideals no less than to the pride of this generation in manifesting its devotion to them, that there be no gaps in the ranks.

It is essential that the day be approached in thoughtful apprehension of its significance, and that we accord to it the honour and the meaning that it deserves. Our industrial need prescribes that it be not made a technical holiday, but the stern sacrifice that is before us urges that it be carried in all our hearts as a great day of patriotic devotion and obligation, when the duty shall lie upon every man, whether he is himself to be registered or not, to see to it that the name of every male person of the designated ages is written on these lists of honour.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington this 28th day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand nine hundred and seventeen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and forty-first.

By the President

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usconscription_wilson.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Samuel Gompers on U.S. Policy of Conscription, May 1917

Samuel Gompers was a prominent U.S. trade union leader in the years prior to and during World War One. As president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL) from its inception in 1888 Gompers was a moderate trade unionist, believing that employee relations could best be encouraged through an effective dialogue between management and workers.

Such views inevitably led the AFL to be associated in the minds of many with the Democratic Party - and indeed the AFL publicly supported the 1908 Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, on account of his pro-union policies.

Although a committed pacifist he recognised the advantageous possibilities open to U.S. labour as a consequence of the declaration of war in Europe in August 1914. His personal views notwithstanding, he was nevertheless keen that his union's membership - comprised of some 2.4 million predominantly white skilled workers - should benefit from the boom in orders placed by the belligerent powers in Europe.

The U.S. did not enter the war until April 1917; however Gompers was one of many campaigners encouraging a state of war readiness in 1916. Accordingly he was appointed as an advisor to the Council of National Defense in October 1916.

Gompers worked closely with U.S. propagandist George Creel to encourage domestic support for the war effort once President Wilson formally declared hostilities in April 1917.

Reproduced below is the text of a speech by Gompers supporting a policy of conscription in the U.S.

Samuel Gompers on U.S. Conscription Policy, 1917

I have counted myself happy in the companionship of the men and women who called themselves pacifists. There was not a State or national or international peace society of which I was not a member, and in many instances an officer. As a trade unionist, with its practices and its philosophies, I have been in happy accord with our movement for international peace.

At a great gathering in Faneuil Hall, Boston, some years ago, I gave utterance to my soul's conviction that the time had come when great international wars had been put to an end, and I expressed the opinion that in the last analysis, if those who are the profit-mongers by "war" undertook to create a war, the working people of the countries of the world would stop work simultaneously, if necessary, in order to prevent international war...

I was sent as a delegate from the American Federation of Labor to the International Congress of Labor in 1909, held at Paris, France, and there at that conference, incidental to it, there was arranged one of the greatest mass meetings I have ever attended, at which the representatives of the labour movement of each country declared that there would not be another international war.

And I went home, happy in the further proof that the time of universal peace had come. And I attended more peace conferences. I was still firmly persuaded that the time had come, and until 1914 I was in that Fool's Paradise.

I doubt if there were many who were so thoroughly shocked to the innermost depths of their being as I was with the breaking out of the European War. But it had come!

And as it went on, ruthlessly, we saw a terrific conflict in which the dominating spirit was that the people attacked must be subjugated to the will of the great autocrat of his time regardless of how our sympathies ran, and that men who had given the best years of their lives in the effort to find some means, some secret of science or of nature, so that the slightest ill or pain of the most insignificant of the race might be assuaged, turned to purposes of destruction.

At the call of this autocrat, His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Germany, men were set at attack, and we found that these very men were clutching at each other's throats and seeking each other's destruction...

The United States has declared that she can no longer live in safety when there is stalking throughout the earth this thunderous machine of murder. The United States authoritatively has declared that peace is desirable and should be brought about, but that peace is impossible so long as life and liberty are challenged and menaced.

The Republic of the United States has cast her lot with the Allied countries fighting against the greatest military machine ever erected in the history of the world.

I am made ill when I see or hear any one suffering the slightest pain or anguish, and yet I hold that it is essential that the sacrifice must be made that humanity shall never again be cursed by a war such as the one which has been thrust upon us.

Source Records of the Great War, Vol. V, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923, http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/usconscription_gompers.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Karl Abraham to Sigmund Freud, May 28, 1917

Dear Professor,
So, your long silence was due to postal delays. Your letter of the 20th arrived here yesterday. I was pleased to learn from it that you and all your family are well and especially wish you at this moment continued good news from your warrior on the Isonzo. Many thanks for all your news. I very much regret that there is no prospect of a meeting yet.
The Zeitschrift arrived at the same time as your letter; a particularly good and substantial number—amazingly good for wartime! (...)

http://www.pep-web.org/document.php?id=zbk.052.0350a
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MILITARY MEDALS, AWARDED TO MEMBERS OF QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY NURSING SERVICE AND THE TERRITORIAL FORCE NURSING SERVICE DURING THE GREAT WAR

GARRETT, Ethel
Staff Nurse, QAIMNS Reserve
London Gazette 28 May 1917
For conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during an enemy air raid. She rendered efficient first aid to a patient who was injured by a bomb and then fetched a Medical Officer. She did this although no less than fourteen bombs fell within a radius of 60-80 yards of the tent in which her patient was wounded.

http://www.scarletfinders.co.uk/121.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Cantigny, 28 May 1918

The battle of Cantigny, 28 May 1918, was the first American offensive of the First World War. Cantigny had been captured during the Second Battle of the Somme (21 March-5 April 1918), the first of Ludendorff’s series of major offensives during the spring and summer of 1918. The village had then been fortified and turned into a German observation point. It was defended by veteran troops of General Oskar von Hutier’s Eighteenth Army.

The American attack was made by the American First Division under Major General Robert Lee Bullard. The village was captured, and then held against repeated German counterattacks on 28 and 29 May. American losses were 100 dead and 1,500 wounded, out of an initial force 4,000 strong (one infantry regiment), later increased to 8,000. German casualties are unknown, but around 200 men were captured during the battle.

In the context of the Western Front, the battle of Cantigny was little more than a skirmish. However, it gained great significance part because it was the first combat success of the American army, after nearly a year of preparation in France, and partly because it took place on the second day of the Third Battle of the Aisne (27 May-3 June 1918). The first day of that battle had seen the Germans advance thirteen miles, the greatest distance achieved in a single day since the start of trench warfare. The American victory at Cantigny was therefore a valuable boost to Allied morale.

Rickard, J (10 August 2007), Battle of Cantigny, 28 May 1918 , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_cantigny.html
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/cantigny.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 May 1918, Commons Sitting

BODY ARMOUR.


HC Deb 28 May 1918 vol 106 cc649-50 650

Mr. LESLIE SCOTT asked the Undersecretary of State for War whether he is aware that the Chemico body-shield when worn by soldiers has successfully resisted both bullets and shrapnel and already saved many lives which otherwise would certainly have been lost; whether, if it were included in the Regulation outfit of officers and men, a very large number of casualties would be avoided; and whether the Government will therefore take steps to have it put into universal and immediate use?

Mr. MACPHERSON Other forms of body armour have been found more satisfactory, and have consequently been issued in preference to the Chemico body-shield.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1918/may/28/body-armour
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

May 28, 1918

“They have been teaching us bayonet fighting today and I can tell you it makes your arms ache, when you make a point that is, when you lunge out at imaginary enemy, with the rifle at arms length. I think with this hard training they will either make a man of me or kill me. You ought to see me in my Shrapnel Helmet and Gas Mask, it would make you laugh, especially as the helmet wobbles from side to side, every time I walk.”

E.J. ‘Ted’ Poole wrote this letter to his father from Aldershot, a British military training camp. Two months after being sent to France, he was killed in action on October 13, 1918.

http://calibrarywwi.edublogs.org/1918/05/28/may-28-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 19:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 156, May 28, 1919.

It was the pig, says an eminent Danish economist, that lost Germany the War. His omission to specify which pig seems almost certain to provoke further recriminations among the German High Command.

A Miners' Association in the North has decided not to establish a weekly newspaper. Pending other arrangements they will do a little light mining, but it must not be taken as a precedent.

It is said that the question of neutrality has caused most of the delay in the formation of the League of Nations. We certainly realise the difficulty in deciding how Norway and Switzerland could come to grips, in the event of a War between these two countries, without infringing the laws of neutrality.

"No harm to the moon will result from the eclipse of the sun on May 28th," states a writer in an evening paper. This is good news for those who have mining shares there.

Government ale, says a trade paper, will shortly be on sale in some parts of Ireland. This certainly ought to be a lesson to them.

A taxi-driver who knocked down a pedestrian in Edgware Road and then drove off has been summoned. His defence is that he mistook the unfortunate man for an intending fare.

The Northumberland Miners' Council has passed a resolution calling on the Government to evacuate our troops from Russia, drop the Conscription Bill, remove the blockade and release conscientious objectors. Their silence on the subject of Dalmatia is being much commented on.

A report reaches us that Jazz is about to be made a notifiabledisease.

http://www.fullbooks.com/Punch-or-the-London-Charivari-Vol-156-May-28.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 20:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

28 May 1919, Written Answers (Commons)

INTERNED AUSTRIAN.


HC Deb 28 May 1919 vol 116 c1249W 1249W

Mr. RAWLINSON asked the Home Secretary whether, consistently with the public safety, he can see his way to release Mr. Leo Jung, an Austrian subject, lately a student at Cambridge University, who is now interned at the Alexandra Palace, so that he may resume his studies at the university?

Mr. SHORTT I regret that I do not see my way to- release this man from internment at present. His application for exemption from repatriation will come in due course before the Committee over which Mr. Justice Younger is presiding, and I shall await their advice on it.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/1919/may/28/interned-austrian
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BerichtGeplaatst: 27 Mei 2010 20:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HMAS AUSTRALIA

28 May 1919 - HMAS AUSTRALIA, (battle-cruiser), arrived in Fremantle, WA, from Portsmouth, England.

01 June 1919 - The ‘HMAS AUSTRALIA Mutiny’ occurred on the battle-cruiser while berthed at Fremantle. AUSTRALIA had returned to Fremantle on 28 May, after an absence of over four and half years from Australia. The ship spent four days alongside, and when she was due to depart about 80 ratings gathered on the quarterdeck and requested that the ship stay longer in port, in order to entertain civilian friends and repay their generous hospitality. The Commanding Officer, CAPT C. Cumberlege, RN, advised that this was not possible, and directed the men to disperse, which they did. However, when Cumberlege tried to take the ship to sea the stokers walked out of the boiler room. A scratch crew managed to get the ship to sea, and Cumberlege ordered the arrest of five sailors considered to be ringleaders in the ‘Mutiny’. The ensuing courts martial, on board HMAS ENCOUNTER in Sydney Harbour, up to 2 year prison sentences, and intervention by the Australian Government, were to have a dramatic and long lasting effect upon the RAN.

http://www.navyhistory.org.au/category/navy-day-by-day/1919-1938/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2011 21:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Zwarte Hand

Op 28 mei 1914 kwamen drie Bosnische studenten (Gavrilo Princip, Gabrez en Cabrinovic) aan in het kleine havenstadje Sabac nabij Belgrado. Ze namen meteen contact op met een zekere Popovic van "de Zwarte Hand". Via hem werden ze in contact gebracht met majoor Jankovic die de rechterhand was van kolonel Dimitrijevic. Hij leerde hen omgaan met wapens en munitie.

http://www.geronimohoorspelen.nl/info-paginas/de_moord_op_frans_ferdinand_sarajewo_1914.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2012 7:19    Onderwerp: 28/05/1918: Battle of Cantigny Reageer met quote

American Expeditionary Force at the Battle of Cantigny

The American Expeditionary Force fought its first World War I offensive at the tiny hamlet of Cantigny, France, a canton of Montdidier, located six kilometers to its east. In the spring of 1918, the population of Cantigny sat at approximately 100 people. Between them they ran a small number of businesses like a café and a grocery store and bakery. But it was mostly an agricultural village as were so many of the small villages in France at that time.




For those who lived there, its geographical location was excellent. By road, it was 115 kilometers almost due north of Paris. It was just 32 kilometers northwest to Amiens, 135 kilometers east by southeast to Reims, and about 105 kilometers from the English Channel.

When the Germans invaded in through Belgium in to France in August, 1918, Cantigny fell on the last day of the month, August 31st, left behind by the French Sixth Army as it and the rest of the French Army and the British Expeditionary Force retreated in the face of overwhelming German military might. The Germans were too busy chasing their adversaries to bother with any real occupation. They pushed forward leaving Cantigny behind and raced south toward the Marne and toward Paris. But then there was the Battle of the Marne which started on September 6, 1918, and as quickly as they had come through the Germans left. And so within the space of a few weeks, Cantigny found itself rid of Germans and back in friendly hands.

Over the next few months there was the race to the sea to the north and east of Cantigny. And then when that ended, both sides gradually clawed deep trenches into the once fertile soil of Belgium and northern France from one end to the other of the Western Front more or less locking it in place for the next three and a half to four years, There would be some movement at various points across the Western Front, but generally speaking Cantigny would remain nervously safe about 20 kilometers from the front lines from mid-September, 1914 to February, 1917 when the Germans did the unthinkable and unilaterally withdrew as much as 35 miles in places, most notably away from the area right in front of Cantigny. This movement was logical as the part of the front facing Cantigny had been a salient into the Allied lines. By withdrawing, the Germans were able to get rid of the bulge and shorten their own lines and make better use of their thinning manpower. But they utilized nasty scorched earth tactics destroying villages, poisoning wells, tearing up roads, and cutting down forests leaving behind a brutalized land.

But then on March 21, 1918, the Germans unleashed Operation Michael and punched forward again. They did so brilliantly shattering much of the opposition in their path. It wasn't just the normal penetration that could be measured in hundreds of yards or even one or two miles, but a thoroughly deep strike using four armies and new storm trooper tactics across a broad front approximately 40 miles long from Arras south to near Laon.

On the receiving end was the British Fifth Army. Over the next 15 days through April 5th, the German Seventeenth, Second, Eighteenth and Seventh Armies created another salient 25 miles deep that echoed the one they had created in 1914. And at the tip of the new salient was the little once sleepy village of Cantigny.

The Germans liked being there. Cantigny sat on a plateau a few hundred meters above much of the land around it giving the Germans a commanding view of the Allied lines. Other than that, the terrain around Cantigny was like much of the rest of France: expansive gently rolling and sometimes flat farmers' fields punctuated by the occasional small but thick forest.

The Americans had slowly been gathering strength as ship after ship transported army and air service units from American ports to British and French ones. Both the British and the French had made no pretense about wanting the fresh Americans be used as penny packet replacements for their own units. It didn't matter what they said: John J. Pershing resisted, promising that he would only use the American Expeditionary Force as a unified one under his command. Now with the Germans threatening Paris once again, he relented. The new US 1st Infantry Division, whose nickname was the "Big Red 1" in honor of the unit's shoulder patches, was inserted by itself into the lines of the French First Army right in front of Cantigny.


The 1st Infantry Division might have been largely untried, but it was a big, solid American Expeditionary Force division with a total strength of about 27,000 men including troops, officers and support staff. There were two brigades, the 1st and 2nd Infantry Brigades. The 1st had the 16th and 18th Regiments as well as the 2nd Machine Gun Battalion. The 2nd Infantry Brigade had the 26th and 28th Regiments and the 3rd Machine Gun Battalion. The other divisional units were the 1st Machine Gun Battalion, 1st Engineers, 2nd Field Signal Battalion and the 1st Field Artillery Brigade made up of the 5th, 6th and 7th Field Artillery units. The 5th had 155mm guns and the 6th and 7th had 75mm guns. The French had also placed a coterie of artillery battalions and batteries from nine regiments at the disposal of the 1st Infantry Division. They were richly equipped with 75mm guns, 155mm guns, 220mm guns and even 280mm giants. Rounding out the French artillery were four batteries of trench mortars ranging from 58mm to 240mm.

Naturally taking Cantigny and bumping the Germans from their commanding view was tasked to the 1st Infantry Division. On May 28th, at 4:45 am while it was still pitch black, the artillery units started firing their 75mm guns at Cantigny for adjustment. 5:45 am, moments after sunrise, the artillery unleashed a full artillery bombardment blasting the German defenders in the village and lighting up the village making it visible for miles around. The 28th Infantry Regiment, to whom the assignment had been poetically made, moved forward at 6:45 am, advancing through the early morning fog. Journalist Fredrick Palmer reported that the heavily laden men were equipped with the following as they left their trenches:

"The men who went over the top were to carry two hundred and twenty rounds of rifle ammunition, two hand grenades and one rifle grenade, two canteens filled with water, one shelter half, four sand bags, one flare and one shovel or one pick, and they were to wear their blouses and to leave their blankets behind. They must have enough food and water to remain for two days in their newly-won positions…"

They were accompanied by the French 5th Tank Battalion which was made up of 12 French Schneider tanks, slow 14 ton six man leviathans with a richly deserved reputation for getting stuck while attempting to cross trenches. Several broke down though this was to be expected from any tank at that time. But those that moved forward provided cover and fire from their side machine guns and solitary 75mm cannons set into the right hand side of the nose, fulfilling their mission of knocking out the formidably deadly German machine gun posts.

By 7:20 am the attack was all over and the Americans had taken Cantigny. What was absolutely surprising is that all of the objectives were achieved on time and with minimal losses. The Americans had suffered less than 100 casualties, but had captured 350 German prisoners.

The Germans counter-attacked, shooting up the village with their own artillery. What little the Americans might have left untouched had been whittled down further. Cantigny was ruined, but the Americans held and on the 30th reinforced their position with fresh troops as the 16th Regiment relieved the 28th Regiment. However, by that time, American casualties had climbed to well over the thousand man mark. German casualties remained unknown.

The Americans had launched their first offensive in Europe and won. Compared to the overall epic scale of World War I, Cantigny had been a small battle, but it showed the Germans, the French, the British and even themselves that American Expeditionary Force could fight and win.

Bronpagina's:
http://www.usaww1.com/American-Expeditionary-Force/American-Expeditionary-Force-Battle-of-Cantigny.php4
http://www.usaww1.com/American-Expeditionary-Force/American-Expeditionary-Force-Battle-of-Cantigny_p2.php4
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 8:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First Republic of Armenia

The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia was the first modern Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages. (...)

The Armenian National Council declared the independence of Armenia on 28 May 1918. From the very onset, Armenia was plagued with a variety of domestic and foreign problems. A humanitarian crisis emerged from the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide as tens of thousands of Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire settled there. The republic lasted for over two years, during which time it was involved in several armed conflicts caused by territorial disputes. By late 1920, the nation was conquered by the Soviet Red Army. The First Republic, along with the Republic of Mountainous Armenia which repelled the Soviet invasion until July 1921, ceased to exist as an independent state, superseded by the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic that became part of the Soviet Union in 1922. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the republic regained its independence as the current Republic of Armenia in 1991.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Republic_of_Armenia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 8:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The battle of Cantigny and the dawn of the modern American Army

Mooi PDF'je, door ene Paul Herbert, toevallig de "Executive Director of the Cantigny First Division Foundation in Wheaton, Illinois." Het is, zoals je van Amerikanen mag verwachten, niet geheel en al ontbloot van schaamteloze op-de-borst-klopperij. Ge zijt gewaarschuwd!

http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/pdf/battle_of_cantigny.pdf
Ook hier: http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_cantigny.html
Ook hier: http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/28-may-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 9:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T.E. Lawrence - 27/28 May 1917

Having reached Wadi Sirhan, on the evening of 27 May the
Howeitat were found to be at Isawiya, at the camp of Ali abu Fitna, chief of one of Auda’s clans.

“Our march was prosperously over. We had found the Howeitat: our men were in excellent fettle: we had our gold and our explosives still intact. So we drew happily together in the morning to a solemn council on action. There was agreement that first we should present six thousand pounds to Nuri Shaalan, by whose sufferance we were in Sirhan. We wanted from him liberty to stay while enrolling and preparing our fighting men; and when we moved off we wanted him to look after their families and tents and herds.

“These were great matters. It was determined that Auda himself should ride to Nuri on embassy, because they were friends … Auda would explain to Nuri what we hoped to do, and Feisal’s desire that he make a public demonstration of adherence to Turkey. Only so could he cover us, while still pleasing the Turks …

“… we laded six bags of gold into Auda’s saddle-bags, and off he went.”


Events of 28 May 1917 as recounted by T. E. Lawrence in Seven Pillars of Wisdom (1926).

http://www.telsociety.org.uk/28-may-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 9:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Dipple

On 28th May 1917 40-year-old George Dipple, a former groom, was killed in action whilst serving as a Gunner with 296th Siege Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery. Born in Ullenhall, he was the third of four children born to parents John (an agricultural labourer) and Martha (née Wiggett) who had married at Ullenhall in 1870.

The family moved to Lapworth from Ullenhall between 1874 and 1880, and remained there until at least 1902 when father, John, died aged 64. George had left the family home by 1891 when, aged 14, he was a servant at Darley Mill, Packwood. By 1901, he was working as a groom and was a boarder at The Institute, Lapworth.

In April 1904, George Dipple married Rosa Dutton at Lapworth parish church, and they went on to have six children: Dorothy (born 1904), Gladys (born 1905), Nellie (born 1908), George Arthur (1910-1972), Rosa (born 1912) and John (1914-1986)

By 1911, George had become a farmer and was living at Windmill Farm, Lapworth. The Warwick and Warwickshire Advertiser of 20th September 1913 carried an announcement that he was intending to leave Windmill Farm and had instructed Henley Auction Sales Ltd to sell:

- 10 dairy and store cattle, 3 down calving cows, 3 in-milk cows, yearling heifer, and 3 reared calves
- 3 nag horses
- 18 pigs, 2 sows and their pigs
- dairy utensils
- growing roots, 3/4 of an acre of mangolds, and 3/4 of an acre of potatoes

When he joined the Army in June 1916, aged 39 years and nine months, he gave his address as Manor Cottage, Kingswood, Hockley Heath, and his occupation as groom and stockman. He first entered a Theatre of War on 30th March 1917, and was killed in action almost two months later, leaving his widow, Rosa, with six children aged three to 13. She remarried in 1920, marrying William J. Hancock and, by 1939, they were living in Station Road, Warwick. Rosa appears to have died in 1966, aged 88.

George Dipple is buried at Westhof Farm Cemetery, France, and is also commemorated locally at Rowington.

https://solihulllife.wordpress.com/2017/05/28/28th-may-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Barrier Miner, 28 May 1916: NINETEEN TRAINLOADS OP GERMAN CORPSES BURNT IN A BLAST FURNACE

The following item lias been transmitted by the Independent Cable service:

London, Saturday. Amsterdam messages report that 19 trains containing German corpses from the vicinity af Hill 304 have arrived at Seraing, in Belgium, four miles from Liege. The corpses are incinerated in a blast furnace.

https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45339592
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Byng Replaces Alderson As Commander of the Canadian Corps: 28 May 1916

General Sir Douglas Haig, the British Commander-in-Chief, blamed Lieutenant-General Edwin Alderson for the failure of the Canadian Corps to hold the unconsolidated British gains at the Battle of St Eloi Craters, Belgium, in April 1915. Although there were many contributing factors to the failure, General Haig had decided to make Alderson the scapegoat for the defeat.

The Canadian minister of militia, Sam Hughes, also wanted Lieutenant-General Alderson replaced. Hughes had been infuriated when Alderson replaced the Ross rifle with the British Lee-Enfield as the standard weapon of the Canadian troops under his command. As a result, General Haig, with Hughes' approval, appointed Lieutenant-General Julius Byng to replace Alderson as commander of the Canadian Corps on 28 May 1916.

Byng was a happy choice and adapted quickly to the Canadian ways of getting things done. While his tour as commander of the Canadian Corps lasted not much more than a year, he must be given credit for stewarding the development of new tactics. By the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April of the next year, these tactics proved that infantry could overcome the obstacle of seemingly overwhelming firepower and seize and hold their objective.

https://lermuseum.org/first-world-war-1914-18/1916/byng-replaces-alderson-as-commander-of-the-canadian-corps-28-may-1916
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Krazy Kat - Sunday comic strip by George Herriman from 1916-05-28

Stripverhaal... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Krazy_Kat_1916-05-28.jpg
Ook hier: http://www.ignatzmouse.net/us/archives/kk/1916.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 28 Mei 2018 10:24, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Martial Law – Extension Proclaimed - Irish Revolution

By the Lords Justices General and General Governors of Ireland.

A PROCLAMATION

Whereas disaffection and unrest still prevail in certain parts of Ireland, causing anxiety and alarm amongst the peaceful and law abiding subjects of His Majesty.

Now We, the Lords Justices General and General GOvernors of Ireland do hereby proclam that a state of Martial Law shall continue to exist throughout Ireland until further other.

Given at His Majesty’s Castle of Dublin, this 28th day of May, 1916.

Richard H. Cherry LCJ; J.O. Wylie.

God Save the King


http://theirishrevolution.ie/1916-diary-news-may-29-june-4-1916/#.WwvKBUiFPIU

Page from minute book of Louth County Council showing resolution adopted that the Irish Volunteers should be established in every parish, 28 May 1914.

https://www.louthcoco.ie/en/Services/Archives/1916-Easter-Rising-Centenary-Document-Spotlight/Dundalk-UDC-minute-book-resolutions.pdf via https://www.louthcoco.ie/en/Services/Archives/1916-Easter-Rising-Centenary-Document-Spotlight/
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:33    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German Government's Response to the Sinking of the Lusitania, 28 May 1915

Reproduced below is the official German response to U.S. and British protests over the sinking of the Lusitania on 7 May 1915 by German U-boat U-20 on 7 May 1915. The German note, written by Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jagow and sent to the U.S. government, argued that while the sinking was regrettable it was nonetheless necessary.

To support this assertion von Jagow argued that the German government possessed information that the Lusitania was carrying munitions to Britain - a situation which would inevitably render her a legitimate target.

The Sinking of the Lusitania - Official German Response by Foreign Minister Gottlieb von Jagow, 28 May 1915

Berlin, May 28, 1915

The Imperial Government has subjected the statements of the Government of the United States to a careful examination and has the lively wish on its part also to contribute in a convincing and friendly manner to clear up any misunderstandings which may have entered into the relations of the two Governments through the events mentioned by the American Government.

With regard firstly to the cases of the American steamers Cushing and Gulflight, the American Embassy has already been informed that it is far from the German Government to have any intention of ordering attacks by submarines or flyers on neutral vessels in the zone which have not been guilty of any hostile act; on the contrary, the most explicit instructions have been repeatedly given the German armed forces to avoid attacking such vessels.

If neutral vessels have come to grief through the German submarine war during the past few months by mistake, it is a question of isolated and exceptional cases which are traceable to the misuse of flags by the British Government in connection with carelessness or suspicious actions on the part of the captains of the vessels.

In all cases where a neutral vessel through no fault of its own has come to grief through the German submarines or flyers according to the facts as ascertained by the German Government, this Government has expressed its regret at the unfortunate occurrence and promised indemnification where the facts justified it.

The German Government will treat the cases of the American steamers Cushing and Gulflight according to the same principles. An investigation of these cases is in progress. Its results will be communicated to the Embassy shortly. The investigation might, if thought desirable, be supplemented by an International Commission of Inquiry, pursuant to Title Three of The Hague Convention of October 18, 1907, for the pacific settlement of international disputes.

In the case of the sinking of the English steamer Falaba, the commander of the German submarine had the intention of allowing passengers and crew ample opportunity to save themselves.

It was not until the captain disregarded the order to lay to and took to flight, sending up rocket signals for help, that the German commander ordered the crew and passengers by signals and megaphone to leave the ship within ten minutes. As a matter of fact, he allowed them twenty-three minutes and did not fire the torpedo until suspicious steamers were hurrying to the aid of the Falaba.

With regard to the loss of life when the British passenger steamer Lusitania was sunk, the German Government has already expressed its deep regret to the neutral Governments concerned that nationals of those countries lost their lives on that occasion.

The Imperial Government must state for the rest the impression that certain important facts most directly connected with the sinking of the Lusitania may have escaped the attention of the Government of the United States. It therefore considers it necessary in the interest of the clear and full understanding aimed at by either Government primarily to convince itself that the reports of the facts which are before the two Governments are complete and in agreement.

The Government of the United States proceeds on the assumption that the Lusitania is to be considered as an ordinary unarmed merchant vessel. The Imperial Government begs in this connection to point out that the Lusitania was one of the largest and fastest English commerce steamers, constructed with Government funds as auxiliary cruisers, and is expressly included in the navy list published by the British Admiralty.

It is, moreover, known to the Imperial Government from reliable information furnished by its officials and neutral passengers that for some time practically all the more valuable English merchant vessels have been provided with guns, ammunition and other weapons, and reinforced with a crew specially practiced in manning guns. According to reports at hand here, the Lusitania when she left New York undoubtedly had guns on board which were mounted under decks and masked.

The Imperial Government furthermore has the honour to direct the particular attention of the American Government to the fact that the British Admiralty by a secret instruction of February of this year advised the British merchant marine not only to seek protection behind neutral flags and markings, but even when so disguised to attack German submarines by ramming them.

High rewards have been offered by the British Government as a special incentive for the destruction of the submarines by merchant vessels, and such rewards have already been paid out. In view of these facts, which are satisfactorily known to it, the Imperial Government is unable to consider English merchant vessels any longer as "undefended territory" in the zone of maritime war designated by the Admiralty Staff of the Imperial German Navy, the German commanders are consequently no longer in a position to observe the rules of capture otherwise usual and with which they invariably complied before this.

Lastly, the Imperial Government must specially point out that on her last trip the Lusitania, as on earlier occasions, had Canadian troops and munitions on board, including no less than 5,400 cases of ammunition destined for the destruction of brave German soldiers who are fulfilling with self-sacrifice and devotion their duty in the service of the Fatherland.

The German Government believes that it acts in just self-defence when it seeks to protect the lives of its soldiers by destroying ammunition destined for the enemy with the means of war at its command. The English steamship company must have been aware of the dangers to which passengers on board the Lusitania were exposed under the circumstances.

In taking them on board in spite of this the company quite deliberately tried to use the lives of American citizens as protection for the ammunition carried, and violated the clear provisions of American laws which expressly prohibit, and provide punishment for, the carrying of passengers on ships which have explosives on board. The company thereby wantonly caused the death of so many passengers.

According to the express report of the submarine commander concerned, which is further confirmed by all other reports, there can be no doubt that the rapid sinking of the Lusitania was primarily due to the explosion of the cargo of ammunition caused by the torpedo. Otherwise, in all human probability, the passengers would have been saved.

The Imperial Government holds the facts recited above to be of sufficient importance to recommend them to a careful examination by the American Government. The Imperial Government begs to reserve a final statement of its position with regard to the demands made in connection with the sinking of the Lusitania until a reply is received from the American Government, and believes that it should recall here that it took note with satisfaction of the proposals of good offices submitted by the American Government in Berlin and London with a view to paving the way for a modus vivendi for the conduct of maritime war between Germany and Great Britain.

The Imperial Government furnished at that time ample evidence of its good will by its willingness to consider these proposals. The realization of these proposals failed, as is known, on account of their rejection by the Government of Great Britain.

Source: Source Records of the Great War, Vol. III, ed. Charles F. Horne, National Alumni 1923

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/lusitania_germanresponse.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:35    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. 28 May 1915.

The 'Y' trench, leading to Quinn's Post, looking from Pope's Hill, whilst the supports were waiting for an attack at Anzac.

Foto... https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C57438
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
Naar boven
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Support Trenches, Plugstreet Wood; Sgt Major's Dug Out, 28 May 1915

Image: a view of several British soldiers gathered outside a dug-out constructed with sandbags and corrugated iron, set within the trees of Ploegsteert Wood. A duckboard path leads up to the dug-out and alongside it to the right.

Schets... https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Support_Trenches,_Plugstreet_Wood;_Sgt_Major%27s_Dug_Out,_28_May_1915_Art.IWMART4782.jpg
Ook hier: https://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/23112
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 10:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A Thursday Before the War: 28 May 1914 in Vienna

On 28 May 1914, the Viennese press reported that a young man from the sixteenth district in Vienna had attempted suicide. Sitting on a bench at the Pezzlpark, twenty-one-year-old laborer Karl P. shot himself in the head with a revolver. “The motive,” one newspaper reported, “was said to be unrequited love.” By chance, the same park bench would see more action later that day. Pregnant twenty-three-year-old laborer Marie B. was on her way to a birthing clinic when she went into labor. Sitting on what the newspaper now deemed the Selbstmörderbankerl, with the help of two nearby watchmen, she gave birth to a girl. The headline “Death and Life on a Bench” highlighted one extraordinary coincidence in an otherwise ordinary day in the city.

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/austrian-history-yearbook/article/thursday-before-the-war-28-may-1914-in-vienna/AAD86F5FE1E6D66BD6A0DDBA6641CB16
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"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 28 Mei 2018 11:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD → 28 May 1919 : Commons Sitting of 28 May 1919

CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS.

Mr. LUNN asked the Secretary of State for War (1) whether he is aware that Fred Beardsworth, No. 48088, 3rd South Lancashire Regiment, a conscientious objector who was court-martialled in September, 1918, is now serving a sentence of hard labour in Wormwood Scrubs prison; (2) whether he will now remit the remainder of this man's sentence; whether he is aware that George Broadley, No. 54922, 7th Royal West Yorks Regiment, who was rejected as medically unfit in August, 1916, was arrested and court-martialled as a conscientious objector in October, 1917, and is now serving a sentence of two years' hard labour in Wands-worth prison; and whether he will now remit this man's sentence?

Captain GUEST I would refer the hon. Member to the statement made on the 3rd April in reply to a question by the hon. and gallant Member for Plaistow, and to the reply given on the 1st May to a question by the hon. Member for Bishop Auckland, which explained the policy with regard to the release of conscientious objectors and others who are serving terms of imprisonment.

https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1919/may/28/conscientious-objectors
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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