Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog
Hét WO1-forum voor Nederland en Vlaanderen
 
 FAQFAQ   ZoekenZoeken   GebruikerslijstGebruikerslijst   WikiWiki   RegistreerRegistreer 
 ProfielProfiel   Log in om je privé berichten te bekijkenLog in om je privé berichten te bekijken   InloggenInloggen   Actieve TopicsActieve Topics 

4 December
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
 
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Actieve Topics
Vorige onderwerp :: Volgende onderwerp  
Auteur Bericht
Yvonne
Admin


Geregistreerd op: 2-2-2005
Berichten: 45632

BerichtGeplaatst: 05 Dec 2005 21:32    Onderwerp: 4 December Reageer met quote

December 4

1917 Psychiatrist reports on the phenomenon of “shell shock”


Well-known psychiatrist W.H. Rivers presents his report The Repression of War Experience, based on his work at Britain’s Craiglockhart War Hospital for Neurasthenic Officers, to the Royal School of Medicine, on this day in 1917. Craiglockhart, near Edinburgh, was one of the most famous hospitals used to treat soldiers who suffered from psychological traumas as a result of their service on the battlefield.

By the end of World War I, the army had been forced to deal with 80,000 cases of “shell shock,” a term first used in 1917 by a medical officer named Charles Myers to describe the physical damage done to soldiers on the front lines during exposure to heavy bombardment. It soon became clear, however, that the various symptoms of shell shock—including debilitating anxiety, persistent nightmares, and physical afflictions ranging from diarrhea to loss of sight—were appearing even in soldiers who had never been directly under bombardment, and the meaning of term was broadened to include not only the physical but the psychological effects produced by the experience of combat.

The most important duty of doctors like Rivers, as prescribed by the British army, was to get the men fit and ready to return to battle. Nevertheless, only one-fifth of the men treated in hospitals for shell shock ever resumed military duty. Rivers’s patients included the poets Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen, who later wrote of his fellow inmates of Craiglockhart: These are men whose minds the Dead have ravished/Memory fingers in their hair of murders/Multitudinous murders they once witnessed.

http://www.historychannel.com/
_________________
Met hart en ziel
De enige echte

https://twitter.com/ForumWO1
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail Bekijk de homepage
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6232

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2006 15:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Abgewiesene französische und russische Angriffe
Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Dezember, vormittags.
Auf dem westlichen Kriegsschauplatz wurden französische Angriffe gegen unsere Truppen in Flandern wiederholt abgewiesen, ebenso in Gegend nordwestlich Altkirch, wo die Franzosen bedeutende Verluste hatten.
Auf dem östlichen Kriegsschauplatz sind feindliche Angriffe östlich der Masurischen Seenplatte unter großen Verlusten für die Russen abgeschlagen.
Unsere Offensive in Polen nimmt normalen Verlauf.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)





Der Kaiser wieder in Berlin
Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Dezember. (Amtlich.)
Seine Majestät der Kaiser ist gestern Abend zu kurzem Aufenthalt in Berlin eingetroffen. 2)





Der Landsturm zweiten Aufgebots wird aufgerufen
Berlin, 4. Dezember. (W. B.)
Der "Reichsanzeiger" veröffentlicht eine Kaiserliche Verordnung, wodurch der aus dem Landsturm ersten Aufgebots übergetretene Landsturm zweiten Aufgebots zur Anmeldung zur Landsturmrolle aufgerufen wird. Gleichzeitig wird eine Bekanntmachung des Reichskanzlers bekanntgegeben, wonach der Aufruf des Landsturms zunächst lediglich die Herbeiführung der Eintragung in die Listen bezweckt. Die Anmeldung hat in der Zeit vom 16. bis einschließlich 20. Dezember 1914 zu erfolgen. 2)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Der Krieg gegen Serbien
Wien, 4. Dezember. (W. B.)
Vom südlichen Kriegsschauplatz wird amtlich gemeldet:
Die Besitzergreifung von Belgrad erfolgte gestern in feierlicher Weise Der Vormarsch unserer Kräfte geht am nördlichen Teile der Front kampflos vorwärts, wobei gestern 300 Mann zu Gefangenen gemacht wurden. Westlich und südwestlich von Arandjelowatsch stellten sich dem Vordringen unserer Truppen starke feindliche Kräfte entgegen, welche durch heftige Angriffe, die insgesamt abgewiesen wurden, versuchen, den Rückzug der serbischen Armeen zu decken. 2)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Der Krieg im Orient
Konstantinopel, 4. Dezember. (W. B.)
Mitteilung aus dem Hauptquartier:
Unsere Truppen haben in der Gegend am Tschorok und bei Adschara alle Tage neue Erfolge. In nördlicher Richtung vorgehend, sind sie in Adschara eingedrungen und südöstlich von Batum vorgerückt. Ostwärts vorgehend, gelangten sie in die Gegend von Ardakhan. Bei einem Kampfe westlich von Ardakhan erbeuteten sie mit anderen Waffen ein Maschinengewehr. Die Russen gingen auf Ardakhan zurück.

Konstantinopel, 4. Dezember. (W. B.)
Das Hauptquartier veröffentlichte gestern folgendes Communique:
Nach russischen amtlichen Mitteilungen vom 29. November wäre die Sinai-Halbinsel von unseren Truppen vollständig geräumt worden. Ferner sollen zwei unserer an der kaukasischen Grenze operierenden Divisionen in ihrem Bestande auf die Hälfte gesunken und einige unserer Bataillone vollständig vernichtet sein. Es wird behauptet, der Divisions-Kommandeur sei getötet und ein zweiter desertiert. Der für uns siegreich verlaufene Kampf in allernächster Nähe des Suezkanals zwischen unseren Truppen und den Engländern, der damit endete, daß auf der Seite der Engländer zwei Offiziere und zahlreiche Soldaten getötet wurden und eine große Zahl Gefangener in unsere Hände fiel, genügt, um zu beweisen, daß sich die Sinai-Halbinsel in unserem Besitz befindet. Was die Meldungen von ungeheuren Verlusten unserer an der kaukasischen Grenze kämpfenden Einheiten und den Tod eines Divisionskommandeurs betrifft, so sind diese vollständig falsch. Die Meldung von der Desertion eines Divisionskommandanten verdient nicht einmal dementiert zu werden. - Die in Tiflis aus russischer Quelle verkündete Nachricht, daß ein deutscher General, 14 andere deutsche Offiziere und drei österreichisch-ungarische Offiziere, die sich unter den am 24. November in den Kämpfen an der kaukasischen Grenze gemachten Gefangenen befinden sollen, in Tiflis eingetroffen seien, ist gleichfalls reine Erfindung. 2)





Frankreich ruft Jahresklasse 1916 ein
Paris, 4. Dezember. (Priv.-Tel.)
Nach der Jahresklasse 1915 beruft Frankreich nun auch die Jahresklasse 1916 ein und zwar auf Mitte Februar. Wenn auch diese Rekruten nicht sofort in den Krieg geschickt werden sollen, so scheint doch aus der getroffenen Maßregel hervorzugehen, daß Frankreich noch mit einer langen Kriegsdauer rechnet. Im Westen sind beide Gegner auf mehreren Parallellinien so fest verschanzt, daß selbst die heftigsten Kämpfe (nach französischer Überzeugung) nur leichte Änderungen der Linien bewirken könnten; unter diesen Umständen genüge selbst ein Jahr nicht, um die Deutschen aus dem Lande hinauszuwerfen. 2)

www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6232

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2006 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Gebirgskämpfe gegen serbische Heeresreste
Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Kampftätigkeit wurde auf der ganzen Front durch unsichtiges, stürmisches Regenwetter behindert.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die bereits im deutschen Tagesbericht vom 2. Dezember zum Teil richtiggestellte russische Veröffentlichung vom 29. November entspricht auch in ihren übrigen Angaben nicht der Wahrheit. Bei dem russischen Überfall auf Newel (südwestlich von Pinsk), der nur unter einheimischen und mit dem Sumpf- und Waldgelände ganz vertrauten Führern möglich war, fiel der Divisionskommandeur in Feindeshand; andere Offiziere werden nicht vermißt. Daß sich bei Koslince und Czartorysk deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Truppen hätten zurückziehen müssen, ist nicht wahr.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Die Kämpfe gegen versprengte serbische Abteilungen im Gebirge wurden fortgesetzt. Gestern wurden über 2000 Gefangene und Überläufer eingebracht.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Die Höhen südlich Plevlje erstürmt
Wien, 4. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Angriffstätigkeit des Feindes gegen den Görzer Brückenkopf und den Nordteil der Hochfläche von Doberdo hält an. Schwächliche Angriffe und Annäherungsversuche bei Oslavija und vor der Podgora wurden abgewiesen. Die Beschießung der Stadt Görz dauert fort.
Gegen den Monte San Michele und bei San Martino griffen starke italienische Kräfte an. Unsere Truppen schlugen auch hier alle Vorstöße zurück.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unsere Truppen haben gestern früh die Höhen südlich von Plevlje im Sturm genommen. Auch bei Tresnjevica südwestlich von Sjenica wurden die Montenegriner abgeschlagen.
Westlich von Novibazar vertrieben bewaffnete Moslims plündernde montenegrinische Banden. An Gefangenen wurden gestern bei Novibazar und Mitrovica insgesamt 2000 Mann eingebracht.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Verfolgung der Engländer an der Irakfront
Konstantinopel, 4. Dezember.
An der Irakfront versucht der Feind, sich der Verfolgung unserer Truppen zu entziehen, indem er den Schutz seiner Kanonenboote aufsucht. Jedes derartige Haltmachen des Feindes verwandelt sich dank unserer energischen Angriffe in Flucht.
Am 1. Dezember vormittags kostete ein gleicher Versuch den Engländern große Verluste und brachte uns als Beute mehrere hundert Gefangene, zwei mit Lebensmitteln beladene Transportschiffe, ein anderes Fahrzeug, zwei Kanonenboote, zwei Munitionswagen und eine große Menge Kriegsmaterial. Unter den Gefangenen, die zum größten Teil Engländer sind, befanden sich ein Major, ein Hauptmann und ein Fliegerleutnant.
Die beiden erbeuteten Kanonenboote sind sehr stark. Das Kanonenboot "Kamed" führt 10 Geschütze, das Kanonenboot "Firiklesse" 4 Geschütze vom Kaliber 10,5 und 7,5 und 3 Maschinengewehre. Der größte Teil der auf ihnen erbeuteten Geschütze ist in gutem Zustande. Das eine der Kanonenboote "Firiklesse" wird bereits gegen den Feind verwandt.
Unsere vom Norden von Kut el Amara ausgesandten Streitkräfte greifen die sich zurückziehenden feindlichen Kolonnen in der Flanke an und fügen ihnen gleichfalls viele Verluste zu.
An der Dardanellenfront zeitweilige, aber manchmal lang anhaltende Feuergefechte mit allen Kalibern mit Unterbrechung. Bei Anaforta nahmen einige Kreuzer, bei Ari Burun ein Torpedoboot und ein Monitor, bei Sed ül Bahr ein Monitor und ein Panzerkreuzer an einer Beschießung des Landes teil, wobei sie unsere Stellungen wirkungslos beschossen. Unsere Artillerie zerstreute zwei feindliche Kompagnien Infanterie, die sich auf den. Marsch nach Kutschukkemikli befanden, rief in einem feindlichen Lager bei Buyukkemikli einen Brand hervor und sprengte das Munitionsdepot einer feindlichen Batterie in der Umgebung von Lale Baba Tepe in die Luft. Unsere Artillerie brachte eine schwere feindliche Batterie südlich von Azmakdere zum Schweigen. Einer unserer Flieger griff einen feindlichen Flieger an, der das Feuer der Kriegsschiffe leitete, und zwang ihn zu landen. Bei Sed ül Bahr, auf dem rechten Flügel, schleuderte der Feind während eines lebhaften Bombenkampfes in reichlichem Maße Torpedos gegen das Zentrum und den linken Flügel. Unsere Artillerie beschoß ferner feindliche Bataillone, die Übungen ausführten, zerstreute den Feind und fügte ihm Verluste zu.
Der Feind, der, wie in unserem Bericht vom 2. Dezember gemeldet, durch seine Flieger unser Hospitalschiff "Reschid Pascha", trotz des Abzeichens des roten Halbmondes, das durch internationale Verträge anerkannt ist, mit Bomben angreifen ließ, zögert anderseits nicht, alle seine militärischen Transporte unter der Genfer Flagge vor unserem Feuer zu schützen. So befördert er nachts in zwei Hospitalschiffen Soldaten, die von ihm bei Tage auf diese Schiffe gebracht worden sind. Diese Handlungsweise zeigt die Machtlosigkeit des Feindes und den Grad seiner Achtung vor den einfachsten Gesetzen der Menschlichkeit.

www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6232

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2006 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916


Blick auf das Schlachtfeld bei Targoviste in Rumänien

Der deutsche Heeresbericht:

Vollständige Niederlage der 1. rumänischen Armee am Argesul
Vereinigung der deutschen Streitkräfte zwischen Donau und Gebirge -
Weitere 8000 Rumänen gefangen; unabsehbare Beute




General d. Infanterie Kosch


Generalleutnant Kühne

Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Armee des Generalfeldmarschalls Herzogs Albrecht von Württemberg:
Im Ypern- und Wytschaete-Bogen gingen im Anschluß an Sprengungen englische Patrouillen gegen unsere Stellungen vor. Einzelnen gelang es, in den vordersten Graben zu kommen; sie wurden im Handgemenge überwältigt oder zurückgerieben.
Von den übrigen Armeen sind besondere Ereignisse nicht zu berichten.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Front des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Nördlich des Dryswjatysees gingen nach starker Feuervorbereitung russische Kräfte gegen unsere Linien vor; sie wurden verlustreich abgewiesen. Ebenso scheiterte der Vorstoß feindlicher Streifabteilungen an der Bystrzyca Solotwinska. Eigene Unternehmungen westlich von Tarnopol und südlich von Stanislau hatten Erfolg.
Front des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
In den Waldkarpathen hat gestern die Angriffstätigkeit der Russen nachgelassen, nur zu leicht zurückgewiesenen, schwächlichen Vorstößen rafften sie sich an einigen Punkten noch auf. Gesteigertes Artilleriefeuer scheint das Abflauen der Angriffe verdecken zu sollen.
Stärker war der russische Druck noch an der siebenbürgischen Ostfront. Am Trotosultale gelang es dem Feinde, kleine Fortschritte zu machen. Deutsche und österreichisch -ungarische Truppen entrissen ihm weiter südlich eine jüngst verlorene Höhenstellung wieder.
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Der 3. Dezember brachte in der Schlacht am Argesul die Entscheidung; sie ist gewonnen. Die Operationen der Armee des Generals der Infanterie v. Falkenhayn - Mitte November durch die siegreiche Schlacht von Targu Jiu begonnen - und der auf das Nordufer der Donau gegangenen deutschen, bulgarischen und ottomanischen Kräfte sind von Erfolg gekrönt gewesen.
Die unter Führung des Generals der Infanterie Kosch kämpfende Donauarmee von Svistow her, die durch die westliche Walachei über Craiova vordringende Armeegruppe des Generalleutnants Kühne, die nach harten Kämpfen längs des Argesul aus dem Gebirge heraustretende Gruppe des Generalleutnants Krafft v. Delmensingen und die unter Befehl des Generalleutnants v. Morgen über Campolung vorbrechenden deutschen und österreichisch-ungarischen Truppen haben ihre Vereinigung zwischen Donau und dem Gebirge vollzogen.
Der linke Flügel nahm gestern Targoviste. Die Truppen des Generalleutnants Krafft v. Delmensingen setzten von Pitesti her ihren Siegeszug fort, schlugen die 1. rumänische Armee voltständig und trieben ihre Reste über Titu. Der Gabelpunkt der Bahnen von Bukarest auf Campoluna und Pitesti fiel in die Arme der bewähren 41. Infanteriedivision unter Führung des Generalleutnants Schmidt v. Knobelsdorff.
Auf dem linken Argesulufer, nordwestlich und westlich von Bukarest, blieb der Kampf in erfolgreichem Fortschreite.
Südwestlich der Festung wurde der Rumäne, der nach aufgefundenem Befehl die Absicht hatte, die Donauarmee vereinzelt zu schlagen, während sein Nordflügel - die 1. Armee - standhielt, über den Neajlovu gegen den Argesul zurückgeworfen. Südlich von Bukarest waren starke rumänisch-russische Angriffe abzuwehren; auch hier wurde dem Feinde eine schwere Niederlage bereitet.
Kavallerie und Fliegern gelangen Bahnunterbrechungen im Rücken des rumänischen Heeres. Die Haltung unserer Truppen in den siegreichen Kämpfen war über alles Lob erhaben, ihre Marschleistungen gewaltig. Das reiche Land und die erbeuteten gefüllten Verpflegungsfahrzeuge des Gegners erleichterten die Versorgung der Truppe.
Die rumänische Armee hat die schwersten blutigen Verluste erlitten.
Zu den Tausenden von Gegangenen aus den vorhergehenden Tagen kamen gestern noch über 8000 Mann.
Die Beute an Feldgerät und Kriegsmaterial allerart ist unabsehbar. Es fielen bei der Donauarmee 35 Geschütze, bei Titu 13 Lokomotiven mit vielem rollenden Material in unsere Hand.
Die Operationen gehen planmäßig weiter; neue Kämpfe stehen bevor. In der Dobrudscha keine größeren Kampfhandlungen.
Mazedonische Front:
Ohne Einfluß auf die Entscheidung suchenden Schläge in Rumänien bleibt der Verlust einer auf dem Ostufer der Cerna gelegenen Höhe, die gestern von den Serben genommen wurde, und die damit verbundene Verlegung eines Teils unserer dortigen Stellung.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Erfolgreiche Kämpfe südlich und westlich Bukarest
Berlin, 4. Dezember, abends. (Amtlich.)
Früh scheiterte ein englischer Vorstoß östlich von Le Sars; sonst im Somme-Gebiet nichts Wesentliches.
Kämpfe südlich und westlich von Bukarest in für uns günstigem Fortschreiten. 1)





Das Schlachtfeld am Argesul
Berlin, 4. Dezember. (Amtlich.)
Der Argesul, an dem am 3. Dezember die Schlacht stattfand, ist ein Gebirgsstrom von wechselnder Breite. Diese beträgt von Pitesti bis südwestlich Titu zwischen 200 bis 300 m. Der Fluß hat hier eine Wassertiefe bis zu 20 m. An verschiedenen Stellen sind Furten vorhanden. Weiter abwärts verengt sich das Bett. Der reißende Strom wird hier überall zum absoluten Hindernis. Die vorhandenen Brücken haben eine Länge bis zu 300 m. Wäre es nicht geglückt, durch schärfstes Nachdrängen den Feind am Sprengen der Brücken und planmäßigen Besetzen der am jenseitigen Ufer befindlichen ausgebauten Stellungen zu verhindern, so wäre voraussichtlich ein längerer Aufenthalt vor dem starken Abschnitt unvermeidlich gewesen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 4. Dezember.
Amtlich wird gemeldet:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
Die Schlacht am Argesul hat zu einem Sieg von entscheidender Bedeutung geführt. Der Vorstoß der Donauarmee an dem unteren Argesul war durch den von den Rumänen und ihren Bundesgenossen mit großen Hoffnungen begleiteten Gegenstoß nicht zu bannen. Die feindliche Angriffsgruppe wurde nordöstlich von Draganesci aufgefangen und durch umfassendes Vorgehen über den Njaslow zurückgeworfen. An diesen Kämpfen nahmen an der Seite deutscher, bulgarischer und ottomanischer Truppen auch österreichisch-ungarische Grenzjäger und Batterien teil.
Gleichzeitig erzwang sich westlich von Bukarest eine Armeegruppe den Übergang über den Argesulfluß. Sie drang gestern bis Titu vor und empfing hier Trümmer der 1. rumänischen Armee, die tags zuvor von den österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Truppen des Generalleutnants Krafft v. Delmensingen südöstlich von Pitesti geschlagen worden sind.
Starke rumänische Abteilungen wurden vernichtet.
Weiter nördlich nahmen die Verbündeten Tirgovist in Besitz. Die seinerzeit in der Kleinen Walachei abgeschnittenen rumänischen Truppenteile werden in fortdauerndem Kesseltreiben allmählich aufgerieben. Die Donau ist geöffnet. Über die außerordentlich reiche Beute lassen sich noch keine annähernd zutreffenden Angaben machen; sie wächst stündlich.
Heeresfront des Generalobersten Erzherzogs Joseph:
Während so in der walachischen Ebene der jüngste Bundesgenosse unserer Gegner entscheidend geschlagen wurde, mühten sich die Russen vergebens, gegen die tapferen österreichisch-ungarischen und deutschen Truppen der Generale v. Arz und v. Köveß einen auch auf Rumänien rückwirkenden Erfolg zu erringen. Wenn auch die Entlastungsversuche gewiß noch nicht abgeschlossen sind, so zeigte gestern doch das Nachlassen der russischen Angriffe in den Karpathen, daß der erschöpfte, stark hergenommene Feind dringend einer Kampfpause bedurfte. Nur beiderseits des obersten Trotus-Tales setzen die Russen ihre Angriffe in unverminderter Heftigkeit fort. Sie stürmten stellenweise bis zu zehnmal, wurden aber, von unwesentlichen Schwankungen abgesehen, überall zurückgeschlagen. Im Süden des Abschnittes entrissen wir dem Gegner eine kürzlich an ihn verlorene Höhe.
Heeresfront des Generalfeldmarschalls Prinzen Leopold von Bayern:
Stellenweise Kampfhandlungen untergeordneter Bedeutung.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Das Geschützfeuer im Karstabschnitt dauert fort. Auch die Minenwerferkämpfe haben wieder begonnen. Ein italienisches Flugzeuggeschwader warf auf Dutovlje, Groß-Repen und Sesana ohne Wirkung Bomben ab. Unsere Flieger griffen den Feind an und zwangen bei Mavhinje einen Caproni mit vier Insassen zur Landung. In diesem Luftkampf zeichneten sich Linienschiffsleutnant Banfield und Oberleutnant Brunowski aus.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant.

Ereignisse zur See:
Am 3. Dezember abends hat eines unserer Seeflugzeuggeschwader die feindlichen Stellungen bei Doberdo sehr erfolgreich mit Bomben belegt und kehrte trotz heftigster Beschießung unversehrt zurück.

Flottenkommando. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 4. Dezember.
Generalstabsbericht vom 4. Dezember:
Mazedonische Front:
Der Feind eröffnete sehr heftiges Artilleriefeuer gegen die Höhen nordwestlich von Bitolia. Im Cernabogen schwache Tätigkeit der feindlichen Artillerie, östlich der Cerna sehr heftiges Artilleriefeuer, an der Front zu beiden Seiten des Wardar schwaches Geschützfeuer. An der Front an der Belasitza Ruhe, an der Struma zeitweiliges Artilleriefeuer und Patrouillengefechte.
Rumänische Front:
In der Walachei dauert der Vormarsch an. Der Feind versuchte unseren rechten Flügel anzugreifen, wurde aber zurückgeworfen.
An der Donau zwischen Tutrakan und Cernavoda Artillerie- und Infanteriefeuer.
In der Dobrudscha Artillerietätigkeit an der ganzen Front. Nach dem völligen Scheitern der feindlichen Angriffe, die in den drei letzten Tagen gegen unseren linken Flügel zwischen Satisköj und der Donau gerichtet wurden, zog sich der Gegner heute endgültig in seine alten Stellungen zurück. Unsere vorgeschobenen Abteilungen besetzten Satisköj. Die feindlichen Verluste sind sehr schwer, allein vor der Höhe 234 zählten wir 600 feindliche Leichen. Wir nahmen 80 Soldaten gefangen und erbeuteten 4 Maschinengewehre.
An der Front am Schwarzen Meer beschossen 2 Kriegsschiffe Konstanza, Menschen fielen der Beschießung nicht zum Opfer.

www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Emiel



Geregistreerd op: 22-7-2005
Berichten: 6232

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2006 15:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917
Beginn der Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen für die russische Front - Sturmerfolg bei Cambrai
La Vacquerie genommen

Großes Hauptquartier, 4. Dezember.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
An der flandrischen Front steigerte sich das Feuer von Mittag an zwischen Poelkapelle und Gheluvelt zu großer Heftigkeit. In mehreren Wellen griff englische Infanterie nördlich von Gheluvelt an. Im Feuer und im Gegenstoß wurde sie abgewiesen.
In den nördlichen Abschnitten des Kampffeldes bei Cambrai war die Artillerietätigkeit zwischen Inchy und Bourlon vorübergehend lebhaft. Kleinere Vorfeldkämpfe verliefen erfolgreich. In den südlichen Abschnitten dauerten tagsüber zwischen Marcoing und der von Péronne auf Cambrai führenden Straße örtliche sehr heftige Kämpfe an. Unermüdlich im Draufgehen mit Handgranaten und Bajonett entrissen unsere Truppen dem Engländer zähe verteidigte Grabenstücke. Vergeblich versuchte der Feind, sie wiederzunehmen. Badische Truppen erstürmten das Dorf La Vacquerie und behaupteten es gegen mehrfache englische Gegenangriffe. Wir machten mehr als 500 Gefangene.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
An der Ailette und zu beiden Seiten der Maas bei reger Erkundungstätigkeit zeitweilig auflebendes Feuer.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Waffenstillstandsverhandlungen für die russische Front haben begonnen.
Mazedonische Front:
Nichts Besonderes.
Italienische Front:
Bei guter Sicht war die Artillerietätigkeit in einzelnen Abschnitten lebhafter als an den Vortagen.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff.

Berlin, 4. Dezember. (Amtlich.)
Die russische Abordnung für Abschluß eines Waffenstillstandes wurde gestern nachmittag 4 Uhr vom Oberbefehlshaber Ost, Generalfeldmarschall Prinzen Leopold von Bayern mit einer kurzen Ansprache begrüßt. Darauf begannen die Verhandlungen über den Abschluß eines Waffenstillstandes, an denen unter Vorsitz des Chefs des Generalstabes, General Hoffmann, Vertreter der deutschen Land- und Seestreitkräfte sowie Bevollmächtigte der Obersten Heeresleitungen von Bulgarien, Österreich-Ungarn und der Türkei teilnehmen. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 4. Dezember.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz.
Das Artilleriefeuer hat stellenweise zugenommen; größere Kampfhandlungen unterblieben.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Gestern nachmittag haben die Verhandlungen über den Waffenstillstand an der russischen Front begonnen.

Der Chef des Generalstabes.





Allgemeine Aussprache über die Punkte des Waffenstillstandes
Wien, 4. Dezember.
Amtlich wird am 4. ds. nachmittags mitgeteilt:
Die Verhandlungen über einen Waffenstillstand mit Rußland wurden fortgesetzt; es fand eine allgemeine Aussprache über die einzelnen Punkte statt. Nachmittags wurden gemeinsame Kommissionsberatungen abgehalten. Die nächste Vollsitzung ist auf den 5. Dezember, vormittags, anberaumt. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Sofia, 4. Dezember.
Mazedonische Front:
Das gewöhnliche Störungsfeuer, das stellenweise etwas heftiger war. In der Moglenagegend und östlich des Wardar wurden. vom Feinde unternommene Erkundungsvorstöße abgewiesen. Feindliche Flugzeuge warfen Bomben auf das Militärhospital bei dem Bahnhof Porea. In der Gegend von Serres zwangen wir zwei französische Flugzeuge zur Landung und nahmen die Besatzungen gefangen.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 4. Dezember.
Sinaifront: An der Küste und westlich Jerusalem im allgemeinen Ruhe. Der Versuch des Gegners, gegen unsere Truppen südöstlich Nsalin vorzudringen, scheiterte schon in unserem Artilleriefeuer. Heftiger war der Kampf bei Betur-el-Boca. Den Engländern gelang es sich vorübergehend in den Besitz dieses Ortes zu setzen; abends hatten unsere tapferen Truppen alle ihre Stellungen wiedergewonnen. Starkes Artilleriefeuer lag auf unseren Stellungen vorwärts Bethunis.

Konstantinopel, 4. Dezember.
Der Oberbefehlshaber des russischen Heeres hat einen auf Abschluß eines Waffenstillstandes abzielenden Vorschlag gemacht, und zwar für alle Fronten der verbündeten Heere im Osten. Dieser Vorschlag ist von den verbündeten Heeren angenommen worden. Daraufhin ist eine russische Abordnung zu darauf hinzielenden Verhandlungen bei dem Oberkommando der Ostarmeen eingetroffen. Eine von dem Oberbefehlshaber der türkischen Armee ernannte Abordnung unter Führung des persönlichen Adjutanten des Sultans, Divisionsgenerals erster Klasse Zekki Pascha, hat sich der Vertretung der verbündeten Heere angeschlossen. Die Vorbesprechungen über den Waffenstillstand haben am 3. Dezember begonnen.

www.stahlgewitter.com
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 9:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On This Day - 4 December 1914

Western Front: French strengthen hold on Vermelles, and capture Langemarck in Belgium.

Eastern Front: Galicia: Russians advancing more on Cracow, occupy Vieliczka.

Naval and Overseas Operations: South Africa: Rebels heavily defeated near Reitz by Botha.

Political, etc.: Belgium: King George visits Belgian headquarters and confers K.G. on King Albert.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_12_04.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 9:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Buster Keaton

Joseph Frank Keaton VI (4 October 1895 – 1 February 1966) American actor and filmmaker, often called The Great Stone Face , he was the first person ever called "Buster", acquiring the nickname from Harry Houdini who saw him take a fall down some stairs as an infant.(...)

The funny thing about our act is that dad gets the worst of it, although I'm the one who apparently receives the bruises . . . the secret is in landing limp and breaking the fall with a foot or a hand. It's a knack. I started so young that landing right is second nature with me. Several times I'd have been killed if I hadn't been able to land like a cat. Imitators of our act don't last long, because they can't stand the treatment.
- Interview in The Detroit News (4 December 1914)

http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Buster_Keaton
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:36, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

News items from The Hamburg Reporter, Hamburg, Iowa - 1914-1915

COMING TO THE FRONT
John Adamson recently received a letter from his son, who recently joined the army, stating that he had
been raised to chief plumber which means an incease in wages from $18 to $45, shorter hours and no guard
duty.
Oscar is stationed in the Islands and when the examination was announced decided to take it, more to see
what he could do. Much to his surprise his grade was high, permitting him to change work at one. Oscar
thanks his father for instructing him in pipe work as it was largely through the knowledge gained in this
way that he was able to pass the examination.

http://files.usgwarchives.org/ia/fremont/newspapers/dec1914.txt
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The 11th Battalion, The Suffolk Regiment (The Cambs Suffolks) - The First Three Months

(...) The Battalion suffered it's first loss on Friday, 4th December 1914. Private Sidney Shepherd 16392 (son of George Shepherd of Leverington). Aged 17 years, having stated his age at 19 years in order to enlist in November 1914. Private Shepherd, who died from pneumonia is buried in Leverington Churchyard. (...)

http://www.curme.co.uk/1914.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:37, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Private George H Wrighton - 3/7108 2nd Battalion Bedfordshire Regiment

Son of John & Mary Wrighton
Aged 20 years
Died 31st October 1914
Commemorated on Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial, Belgium, Panel 31 & 33.

The Rushden Echo Friday 27 November 1914
Rushden Soldier's Silence - No News from Private G Wrighton

It is assumed by his relatives the Private George Wrighton (Rushden), of the Bedfords, is at the front, but no news has been received for nearly eight weeks. The last message he sent was from a camp in England and was to the effect that he was moving and that no further correspondence must be sent to him until he wrote again. The War Office have been communicated with, but no reply has yet been received.

The Rushden Echo Friday 4 December 1914
Rushden Soldier's Long Silence News Forthcoming? 'Rushden Echo' to the Rescue

Through the instrumentality of the "Rushden Echo" it is possible that news will be received from Pte George Wrighton (Rushden), of the Bedfords. Seeing a report in last week's "Rushden Echo" that nothing had been received by his parents as to the welfare of Private Wrighton, another Rushden soldier, Pte C Magee, writes to say that the Company to which Pte Wrighton belonged has suffered losses. Pte Magee gives a name and address of someone who may be able to enlighten Mr and Mrs Wrighton as to their son's well being. The writer further states that he has undergone an operation on his arm.

Evening Telegraph, Wednesday, 9th December 1914
The Best of Everything

Pte. Harry Parker, of Dell-place, Rushden, belonging to the 3rd Beds Regiment, has been wounded in the hand and is now in hospital in London. He writes that he is sorry to hear that George Wrighton, of Cromwell-road, was shot in the back three or four weeks ago. He could not say if Wrighton was dead or alive. Proceeding, he says they need not send him anything as he gets everything of the best. He does not think he will be better for Xmas.

The Wellingborough News Friday 18 December 1914
No Confirmation of Rushden Private's Wounds

With regard to the report given by Private Harry Parker that Private George Wrighton of Rushden, was wounded, Mrs Wrighton of Cromwell road, his mother, informs us that she has received no message of confirmation from him or the War Office.

http://www.rushdenheritage.co.uk/war/memorial%20men/wrightonG1914.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Allied Conference at Calais, 4 December 1915

The Allied Conference of 4 December 1915, called by the British, was one of a number of Allied summits convened at the French port of Calais in northern France.

Attending the conference was the British minister of war Lord Kitchener (together with Chief of the General Staff William Robertson) and the French Prime Minister Aristide Briand (alongside French Commander-in-Chief Joseph Joffre).

Britain's intention in calling the conference was simple - to persuade the French to abandon the campaign in Salonika, which the former regarded as a pointless, wasteful backwater of the wider offensive. Britain's position was that the Allies could ill-afford the manpower resources diverted to Salonika while shortages were experienced on the Western Front and Gallipoli.

Briand and Joffre ultimately agreed to abandon the Salonika campaign, although not without much reluctant hesitation. Astonished however by the extent of French popular and political opposition to the withdrawal however, the French seized the opportunity presented by the major inter-allied conference convened at Chantilly just two days later - at which Joffre fortuitously presided - to reverse the decision over the heads of the British.

With a continued Allied commitment to Salonika the British promptly resolved to evacuate the Gallipoli peninsula; the decision was however pending in any event.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/calais1915.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kosovo Offensive Operation (1915)

The Kosovo Offensive Operation, the third major battle in history to have been fought there, occurred between 10 November 1915 and 4 December 1915.

Lees verder op http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kosovo_Offensive_Operation_(1915)
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jan Sluyters - Sinterklaas op weg naar de staatshoofden - 5 december 1915

Bijvoegsel van De Nieuwe Amsterdammer, No. 49, 4 december 1915

https://www.museumdefundatie.nl/nl/collectie/object/?pagina=27&id=557&
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:38, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Essex Regiment

Battalions of the Territorial Force - 1/4th Battalion

August 1914 : in Brentwood. Part of Essex Brigade in East Anglian Division. Moved to Norwich in late 1914 and on to Colchester in April 1915.
May 1915 : formation became 161st Brigade in 54th (East Anglian) Division. Moved late in the month to St Albans.
21 July 1915 : sailed from Devonport for Gallipoli, going via Lemnos. Landed at Suvla bay 12 August 1915.
4 December 1915 : evacuated from Gallipoli and moved to Mudros, going on to Alexandria 17 December 1915. Remained in Egypt/Palestine theatre thereafter.

http://www.1914-1918.net/essex.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lieutenant William Symons - 7th Battalion AIF, 8-9 August 1915

On the afternoon of 8 August 1915, the 7th Battalion, from Victoria, led by their commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel Harold Elliot, went into the Lone Pine battle to relieve the exhausted 1st and 2nd Battalions. They took over positions at the southern end of the captured Turkish trenches and here Elliott divided his command between a left and a right section. On the left he placed in charge Lieutenant William Symons. Throughout the evening and night of 8 August, Symons’ men fought a duel with groups of Turkish bombers who were able to make their way into the main trench. Eventually, the Turks were beaten back but on the morning of 9 August strong attacks were renewed against all 7th Battalion positions. At one point, it seemed that the enemy might totally engulf the southern part of the position known as Jacob’s Trench. Colonel Elliott had been impressed throughout with Symons’ leadership and consistent cheerfulness:

In this emergency, therefore, he sent for Symons, handed him his own revolver, and ordered him to retake Jacob’s Trench. ‘I don’t expect to see you again’, he said, ‘but we must not lose that post’.
[Charles Bean, The Story of Anzac, Vol II, Sydney, 1924, p.562]

The young lieutenant now led a charge down Jacob’s Trench assisted by Corporals George Ball and John Wadeson during which he killed two Turks with Elliott’s revolver. They then rebuilt a barricade but, finding themselves being attacked from three sides, Symons requested permission to withdraw to a more defensible position further back up Jacob’s Trench where there was some head cover. A few metres of open trench was thus surrendered to the Turks who now came on and managed, twice, to set fire to the head cover. Both times Symons personally charged out, beat back the attack, and extinguished the flames. Further attacks on Symons’ position were driven off by artillery fire.

For Symons’ consistent courageous leadership during this period Colonel Elliott recommended him for the VC. Like Keysor, he was evacuated from Gallipoli with enteric fever to London where, on 4 December 1915 the medal was pinned on his uniform by King George V at Buckingham Palace. On this occasion the King, so the story goes, said to Symons:

I am proud to decorate an Australian with this Cross. You may be interested to know that the intrinsic worth of this bronze cross is only five and a half pence [a few cents]. I hope you will live long enough to wear it.
[George V, quoted in Stephen Snelling, VCs of the First World War: Gallipoli, 1995, p.154]

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/vc/symons.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

A CHRONOLOGY OF ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION

1913-15 - Commonwealth Meteorological Expedition (Australia)
Harold Power (1914) and A. C. Tulloch (1915) (leaders of winter parties)
Meteorological station established on Macquarie Island by the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-14) transferred to the Commonwealth Meteorological Service; 3 men wintered. Breeding sheep (28), poultry, and ducks were introduced and an attempt made to start a pastoral industry. Endeavour, with a full complement aboard (21 men), disappeared without trace after relieving the station on 3 December 1914 (probably foundered on Macquarie Island). The station was maint­ained until 4 December 1915, when it was closed owing to the difficulty of securing a vessel for annual relief during the First World War; men taken off aboard Rachel Cohen.

http://www.antarctic-circle.org/headland.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 December 1915 - Henry Ford's peace ship, Oskar II, begins voyage to Europe

On the outbreak of the First World War in Europe, Ford soon made it clear he opposed the war and supported the decision of the Woman's Peace Party to organize a peace conference in Holland. After the conference Ford was contacted by America's three leading anti-war campaigners, Jane Addams, Oswald Garrison Villard, and Paul Kellogg. They suggested that Ford should sponsor an international conference in Stockholm to discuss ways that the conflict could be brought to an end.

Ford came up with the idea of sending a boat of pacifists to Europe to see if they could negotiate an agreement that would end the war. He chartered the ship Oskar II, and it sailed from Hoboken, New Jersey on 4th December, 1915. The Ford Peace Ship reached Stockholm in January, 1916, and a conference was organized with representatives from Denmark, Holland, Norway, Sweden and the United States. However, unable to persuade representatives from the warring nations to take part, the conference was unable to negotiate an Armistice.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAford.htm
Zie ook http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0730.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:39, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 10:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Verkeerde datum, maar sluit mooi aan bij het bovenstaande...

W.K. Haselden - Daily Mirror - 11 Dec 1915

The American car manufacturer Henry Ford opposed the war, and agreed to fund a peace mission to Europe. The Ford "Peace Ship" left the United States on 4 December 1915, and arrived in Stockholm the following month, where a conference was organized with representatives from Denmark, Holland, Norway, Sweden and the United States. However, the conference lacked representation from the belligerent nations, and failed to have any impact. The "Peace Ship" was ridiculed in Britain, and Haselden drew a series of cartoons depicting the "Strange adventures of Mr. Peace Crank."

http://www.cartoons.ac.uk/group/first-world-war-cartoons-wk-haselden?page=1
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:39, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 December 1916 → Commons Sitting: NETHERLANDS OVERSEAS TRUST.

Sir H. DALZIEL asked the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he is now able to state the terms and obligations entered into by Dutch merchants with the Netherlands Overseas Trust on condition of obtaining import licences?

Lord R. CECIL There are different forms of contract and guarantee required by the Netherlands Overseas Trust of Dutch importers before permission to import is given. These vary according to the nature and value of the goods to be imported and the circumstances of the import. Generally speaking, it may be said that the following obligations have to be undertaken by the importer: To deposit either securities with the Trustor a money guarantee with a bank; to ship the goods by a steamship company which has subscribed to the Netherlands Overseas Trust conditions; that the goods and products manufactured therefrom are destined exclusively for use in Holland or for such re-export as is authorised by the Trust; that the importer or buyer has a direct interest in the goods, and is not a forwarding agent, nor an agent of a belligerent Government; and, generally, that all conditions imposed by the Trust as regards delivery and disposal of the goods, are observed.

Sir H. DALZIEL Can the right hon. Gentleman say if the importing firm has entered into an obligation not to export those goods into Germany?

Lord R. CECIL Yes. As I stated in my reply, ‘The goods and products manufactured therefrom are destined exclusively for use in Holland or for such re-export as is authorised by the Trust.’

Sir H. DALZIEL I take it they gave that pledge?

Lord R. CECIL I have no doubt that they did, but I have not got it in mind off-hand.

Sir G. YOUNGER May I ask what means are taken for the execution of the matter?

Lord R. CECIL The execution of the matter is left in the hands of the Trust, but we have every reason to believe, after repeated inquiry into the matter, that the Trust carries out its obligations to the full.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/dec/04/netherlands-overseas-trust
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:40, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

4 december 1916 - Er was een klacht over huisvredebreuk tegen gendarme Lucassen van Baarle-Nassau. Die had ’s nachts in een Belgisch huis de toegang geëist tot de op de bovenverdieping gelegen kamer van de zieke mevrouw Bolsius. (Gemeentearchief Baarle-Hertog; 2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling)

http://www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=189&Itemid=47
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

What if . . . The Liberals hadn't split
Dominic Sandbrook, 07 September 2010

Reading a review copy of Roy Hattersley's new life of David Lloyd George last week, I fell to wondering whether history could have worked out differently. We remember Lloyd George today as the great, reforming chancellor who laid the foundations of the welfare state, the munitions chief who mobilised the nation to win the First World War, and the long-serving Liberal prime minister who steered Britain through the Great Depression.

Appeasement may have tarnished his reputation; but as Hattersley points out, had it not been for Lloyd George's New Deal, Britain might not have been so well prepared for the long war against Hitler's Germany.

Oddly, however, the turning point in the Goat's career was an event over which he had little control. We often forget today that, for a brief moment at the end of 1916, it seemed that he would turn against his own closest colleague, Prime Minister H H Asquith. But on 4 December 1916, Asquith, whose conduct of the war had been much criticised by his coalition colleagues, decided to let Lloyd George chair the new war committee. Had he chosen differently, the Liberal Party might even have split, throwing both men into the wilderness. As it was, however, Asquith became "the Man who Won the War", leading the Liberals to victory in the 1918 and 1922 elections and handing over to his brilliant Welsh deputy three years later.

The really intriguing question, though, is what would have happened to the British party system if Asquith and Lloyd George had fallen out. Historians now talk about the "strange rebirth of Liberal England", to borrow the title of George Dangerfield's classic book, arguing that the expansion of the franchise, the resolution of the war in Ireland, the implosion of Unionism and the failure of the Labour Party to make headway meant that Liberal hegemony was always inevitable. Might Labour have toppled the Liberals as the "progressive" party?

The answer, clearly, is no. Liberalism was so deeply rooted in British political tradition - especially among nonconformists and the progressive middle classes - that it always had an enormous advantage, while Labour's ageing leaders seemed adrift in the new world of the 1920s. A decade later, indeed, many of Labour's senior figures had virtually joined the Liberals, most famously Ramsay MacDonald in 1931.

Buoyed by the intellectual inspiration of Keynes and Beveridge, Liberalism carried all before it. When Lloyd George stepped down in 1937, he gave way to the greatest Liberal leader of all in Winston Churchill. And even now, under our third Lib-Lab administration in 20 years, we remain a quintessentially Liberal country, renowned for our modesty, sobriety and sexual decorum - the most ironic of Lloyd George's many legacies.

http://www.newstatesman.com/uk-politics/2010/09/lloyd-george-liberal-war
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:24    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lionel Halsey

Admiral Sir Lionel Halsey GCMG GCVO KCIE CB ADC (26 February 1872 – 26 October 1949) was a British Royal Navy officer and courtier. (...)

On 4 December 1916 Halsey was appointed Fourth Sea Lord at the Admiralty, becoming Third Sea Lord in May 1917.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lionel_Halsey
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:40, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Destroyers & depth-charge sinking

While capital ship engagements were scarce in World War I, destroyer units were almost continually engaged in raiding and patrol actions. The first shot of the war at sea was fired on 5 August 1914 by a destroyer of the 2nd Flotilla, Lance, in an engagement with the German auxiliary minelayer Königin Luise. The first British naval casualty was Amphion, the light cruiser leading the 3rd Flotilla, which ran into a mine laid by Königin Luise.

Destroyers were involved in the skirmishes that prompted the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and filled a range of roles in the Battle of Gallipoli, acting as troop’s transports and fire support vessels, as well as their fleet-screening role. Over 80 British destroyers and 60 German torpedo-boats took part in the Battle of Jutland, which involved pitched small-boat actions between the main fleets, and several foolhardy attacks by unsupported destroyers on capital ships. Jutland also concluded with a messy night action between the German High Seas Fleet and part of the British destroyer screen.

The threat evolved by World War I with the development of the submarine, or U-boat. The submarine had the potential to hide from gunfire and close underwater to fire torpedoes. Early-war destroyers had the speed and armament to intercept submarines before they submerged, either by gunfire or by ramming. Destroyers also had a shallow enough draft that torpedoes would find it difficult to hit them.

The desire to attack submarines underwater led to rapid destroyer evolution during the war, which were quickly equipped with strengthened bows for ramming, depth charges and hydrophones for identifying submarine targets. The first submarine casualty to a destroyer was the German U-19, rammed by Badger on 29 October 1914. While U-19 was only damaged, the next month Garry successfully sank U-18. The first depth-charge sinking was on 4 December 1916, when UC-19 was sunk by Llewellyn.

The submarine threat meant that many destroyers spent their time on anti-submarine patrol; once Germany adopted unrestricted submarine warfare in January 1917, destroyers were called on to escort merchant convoys. US Navy destroyers were among the first American units to be dispatched upon the American entry to the war, and a squadron of Japanese destroyers even joined Allied patrols in the Mediterranean. Patrol duty was far from safe; of the 67 British destroyers lost in the war, collisions accounted for 18, while 12 were wrecked.

http://wapedia.mobi/en/Destroyer
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finnish Declaration of Independence

On 15 November 1917, the Bolsheviks declared a general right of self-determination, including the right of complete secession, "for the Peoples of Russia". On the same day the Finnish Parliament issued a declaration by which it assumed, pro tempore, all powers of the Sovereign in Finland.

The old Instrument of Government was however no longer deemed suitable. Leading circles had long held monarchism and hereditary nobility to be antiquated, and advocated a republican constitution for Finland.

The Senate of Finland, the government the Parliament had appointed in November, came back to the Parliament with a proposal for a new republican Instrument of Government on 4 December. The Declaration of Independence was technically given the form of a preamble of the proposition, and was intended to be agreed by the Parliament.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finnish_Declaration_of_Independence
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New York Times, Tuesday 4 December 1917

FASHION DISPLAY AT PALACE
Lady Duff-Gordon Appears far a War Charity---Herman Timberg---

A fashion display staged by Lady Duff-Gordon, and including that personage herself as an added attraction, was the mecca that drew an unusually large crowd to the Palace Theatre yesterday afternoon. Lady Duff-Gordon's vaudeville appearance is on behalf of a war charity, and in that cause she presented a rather naive entertainment entitled "Fleurette's Dream at Peronne." Its military environment is rather unnecessary, and an equally striking effect would have been achieved by dropping all pretense of narrative and merely parading the mannequins across the stage.

The program also includes the versatile Herman Timberg, fresh from the Winter Garden, and undeniably an tentertainer [sic] of parts. Among others on a fairly good bill are Cecil Cunningham and a tabloid musical comedy entitled "The Reckless Eve."

http://www.encyclopedia-titanica.org/palace_fashion.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

4 December 1917 → Lords Sitting: DISEMBARKATION OF FOOD CARGOES.

VISCOUNT TEMPLETOWN My Lords, I desire to ask His Majesty's Government whether it is true that a ship full of foodstuffs was lately sunk while proceeding from one home port to another home port because no arrangements existed at the first port for disembarking the cargo; and, if true, why ships are not ordered in the first instance to proceed to ports where they can discharge their cargoes.

THE EARL OF LYTTON My Lords, I imagine that the case referred to in this Question is that of the steamer "La Blanca," and the circumstances are as stated—that is to say, the steamer put into an English port and being unable there to discharge her cargo proceeded to another port and was torpedoed on her way. But there was an explanation in this case. The steamer was not destined to the port which she first entered, but was obliged to call there on account of engine trouble. As soon as the defects to her engines were repaired she proceeded on her way, and was torpedoed before she could reach the port of her destination. I am sure the noble Viscount feels, as we all feel, that the loss of a ship carrying a valuable cargo of food is made all the more grievous by the knowledge that that cargo had once been in an English port. Your Lordships will remember that on a previous occasion, when I was discussing the case of the "Rotarua," I gave your Lordships an assurance that every possible effort would be made to enable cargoes of foodstuffs to be discharged whenever possible at the first port of call. The arrangements which I then had in contemplation have, in fact, been put in hand, and are very nearly completed. Accommodation for cold storage at the port in question is being erected and is nearly completed. If it had been completed the cargo of the "La Blanca" might have been saved. I hope that your Lordships will believe me when I say that every possible effort is being made to provide the necessary machinery for dealing with cargoes of Foodstuffs at all ports so as to prevent the recurrence of incidents of this kind.

LORD BERESFORD My Lords, the sinking of ships which have arrived at one English port and have been sent out to another because there is no storage for the cargo at the first port has been a frequent occurrence since the war began, and I think it is unpardonable. It is all a question of escort. The noble Earl will tell us that we have not enough escorts. I suggest that the ships should wait at the ports until they obtain escorts. We are getting so short of food in many directions that it appears to me to show a great want of administrative skill to allow any ship to come into this port, for any reason whatsoever, and then send her to another port 66 without escort, when she is almost certain to be torpedoed. I would ask the noble Earl whether he can assure the House that this will not occur again. It is nothing but the lack of escort that is responsible, and ships should be detained in poll until an escort is ready.

THE EARL OF LYTTON I am afraid I cannot give your Lordships any assurance that no such case will ever happen in future, but I can assure the noble and gallant Lord that the facts which he has mentioned are regarded just as seriously by the authorities as they are by him. All provision for the escort of ships is carried out by the Admiralty, and every effort is made to save ships from destruction. Your Lordships will understand, however, that the provision of arrangements for dealing with cargoes at particular ports must take time. They are being pushed on as quickly as possible, and when they are completed the cargoes can be unloaded whenever they are brought into port. The protection of ships passing from one port to another is provided for by the Admiralty, and so far as possible we do try to ensure the safety of such ships. We cannot be successful in every case, and I cannot give the noble Lord an assurance that no ship will ever be sunk in future when proceeding between two ports in this country. But I need hardly tell your Lordships that the loss of a ship is not due to any failure on the part of the Admiralty to provide escort for it.

LORD BERESFORD Very unsatisfactory.

VISCOUNT TEMPLETOWN Having listened to the noble Earl's reply, I would join in the opinion expressed by the noble and gallant Lord that it is most unsatisfactory. We are being asked throughout the country to save food and net waste it; yet the authorities allow a vessel to go out of port, with a cargo of food—I do not say how many thousand tons—to be the prey of the first submarine or mine that comes along. This is a thing that is raising the ire of the country. Surely there is an alternative. It would be better to allow the people living in the neighbourhood of the harbour to have the food rather than permit the ship to put out again and go to the bottom.

House adjourned at five minutes past five o'clock.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/lords/1917/dec/04/disembarkation-of-food-cargoes
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:41, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stanley Henry Parry Boughey

Stanley Henry Parry Boughey VC (9 April 1896 – 4 December 1917) was a Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross,[1] the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Boughey was born in Ayrshire on 9 April 1896. He was 21 years old, and a second lieutenant in the 1/4th Battalion, The Royal Scots Fusiliers, British Army during the First World War. He was awarded the VC for his actions on 1 December 1917 at El Burf, Palestine, against the Ottoman Army. He was wounded committing the act, and died three days later, on 4 December. (...)

Citation: For most conspicuous bravery. When the enemy in large numbers had managed to crawl up to within 30 yards of our firing line, and with bombs and automatic rifles were keeping down the fire of our machine guns, he rushed forward alone with bombs right up to the enemy, doing great execution and causing the surrender of a party of 30. As he turned to go back for more bombs he was mortally wounded at the moment when the enemy were surrendering.
—London Gazette, 12 February, 1918

Boughey was interred at the Gaza War Cemetery

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_Henry_Parry_Boughey
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Maria Faßnauer - South Tyrolean showwoman - (presumably) tallest woman of her time

Born 28 February 1879 in Ridnaun (South Tyrol)
Died 4 December 1917 in Ridnaun (South Tyrol)

Maria Faßnauer, the daughter of a farming family, was just like other little children. But when she was three she began to grow tremendously and by 15 had reached a height of 2.27 meters (7 and a half feet). Soon she was “discovered:” the Tyrolean media reported over and over about the “tallest female person of Tyrol.” After finishing school Maria did farm work until she caught the attention of side-show operators. They pressured her parents constantly and offered to pay the family richly for permission to put the young girl on display at fairs and festivals. But although her parents urgently needed money, they adamantly refused all offers.

In 1906 Maria Faßnauer yielded to the constant stream of propositions and began a seven-year tour through all of Europe, accompanied by her sister. Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg, London, Manchester – Maria was a star attraction at fairs and festivals, whether at the Kohlmarkt in Vienna, the Oktoberfest in Munich or the World’s Fair in Brussels. Newspaper advertisements were aimed at awakening curiosity about the “tallest woman who ever lived.” She saved the money she earned to give to her parents, investing little in clothing; in all her appearances she wore a traditional peasant costume and Tyrolean hat, designed to make her appear even taller and more grotesque.

Despite being in the limelight Maria Faßnauer led an isolated life. The side-show operators did not allow her to show herself in public outside of her performances – that would have reduced their profits. A deeply religious woman whose letters to her parents are full of laments about her loneliness and homesickness, Maria would betake herself solely to churches, in order to pray.

One chapter in Inga Hosp’s book »Die Riesin von Tirol« (The Giant Woman of Tyrol) bears the title “Monster for Millions.” Maria Faßnauer had to endure it when she heard: “Come one, come all! Come and see Mariedl, the giant woman of Tyrol!” It was hard for her to stand for such a long time, and she suffered from ulcerated legs, but: “No entrepreneur wants to exhibit a sitting giant.“ (Inga Hosp)

In 1913 Maria Faßnauer gave up her life as the “Monster for Millions” and returned to Ridnaun. Emotionally and physically damaged, she spent her last years on her parents’ farm, where she died, only 38 years old, on 4 December 1917.

The practice of offering up a person with unusual physical characteristics to a gaping public as an attraction is not limited to bygone times. Even today, in talk shows and on the Internet, such people are put on display like animals in the zoo.

http://www.fembio.org/english/biography.php/woman/biography/maria-fassnauer/#biography
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Dinsdag 4 December 1917.

Valkenswaard. 3 Dec. Gisteren ontstond bij den caféhouder M. Loos een begin van brand. Daar het spoedig ontdekt werd en het vuur met vereende krachten spoedig gebluscht werd, was de schade niet groot. Assurantie dekt de schade.

- Zaterdag kwam uit de richting Borkel een vliegmachine en vloog zuidelijk over onze gemeente. Blijkbaar meende hij in de vloeiweide te dalen, doch vloog weder verder over Bruggerhuizen in eene Oostelijke richting verder.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/1917.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 11:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

George Washington

The (...) George Washington was built as German passenger liner George Washington by the Vulcan Works, Stettin, Germany; and launched 10 November 1908. She was operated by the North Germany Lloyd Line until World War I when she sought refuge in New York, a neutral port in 1914. With the American entry into the war in 1917, George Washington was taken over 6 April and towed to the New York Navy Yard for conversion into a transport. She commissioned 6 September 1917, Captain Edwin T. Pollock in command.

George Washington sailed with her first load of troops 4 December 1917 and during the next 2 years made 18 round trip voyages in support of the A.E.F. During this period she also made several special voyages. President Wilson and the American representatives to the Paris Peace Conference sailed for Europe in George Washington 4 December 1918. On this crossing she was protected by Pennsylvania, and was escorted into Brest, France, 13 December by nine battleships and several divisions of destroyers in an impressive demonstration of American naval strength. George Washington also carried Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt and the Chinese and Mexican peace commissions to France in January 1919 and on 24 February returned President Wilson to the United States. The President again embarked on board George Washington in March 1919; arriving France 13 March, and returned at the conclusion of the historic conference 8 July 1919.

http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/g4/george_washington-ii.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:42, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:22    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Charles Bryant

Date of birth: 11 May 1883
Date of death: 22 January 1937

Born in Enmore, Sydney, Charles David Jones Bryant grew up in the beachside suburb of Manly, where he developed a fondness for the ocean and was a keen surfer and sailor. Bryant attended Sydney Grammar School and began a career as a clerk at the Bank of New South Wales (NSW), also studying art under W. Lister Lister and exhibiting with the Royal Art Society of NSW. In 1908 he travelled to London, first receiving instruction from John Hassell, then studying marine painting under seascape painter Julius Olsson RA at St. Ives in Cornwall. From early in his career he was interested in depicting coastal scenes and maritime subjects, once stating “I’m only happy when I am on the sea or near it”. Bryant also worked as an illustrator, as with the Cassell & Co. Publication, Our ships, as well as exhibiting at the Royal Academy and in the Paris Salons.

In November 1917, he was appointed an official war artist, and formally enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 4 December 1917 with the rank of honorary lieutenant. Eight days later, he travelled to Messines in Belgium attached to the 2nd Division of the AIF. He wrote to Captain H.C. Smart, “I am feeling very fit but conditions for painting are very bad owing to the extreme cold – paint freezing all the time”. The first month of his appointment was further hindered, as the bulk of his painting materials did not arrived until 15 January 1918. Yet, he persevered and managed several pictures before moving to the Western Front in France in early 1918, completing sketches and small paintings of bomb damaged villages and landscapes.

http://cas.awm.gov.au/art/ART00177
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:43, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:25    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rosa Luxemburg: "The Socialisation of Society"
First Published: Die junge Garde (Berlin), No 2,4, December 1918.

The proletarian revolution that has now begun can have no other goal and no other result than the realisation of socialism. The working class must above all else strive to get the entire political power of the state into its own hands. Political power, however, is for us socialists only a means. The end for which we must use this power is the fundamental transformation of the entire economic relations.

Currently all wealth – the largest and best estates as well as the mines, works and the factories – belongs to a few Junkers and private capitalists. The great mass of the workers only get from these Junkers and capitalists a meagre wage to live on for hard work. The enrichment of a small number of idlers is the aim of today’s economy.

This state of affairs should be remedied. All social wealth, the land with all its natural resources hidden in its bowels and on the surface, and all factories and works must be taken out of the hands of the exploiters and taken into common property of the people. The first duty of a real workers’ government is to declare by means of a series of decrees the most important means of production to be national property and place them under the control of society.

Only then, however, does the real and most difficult task begin: the reconstruction of the economy on a completely new basis.

At the moment production in every enterprise is conducted by individual capitalists on their own initiative. What – and in which way – is to be produced, where, when and how the produced goods are to be sold is determined by the industrialist. The workers do not see to all this, they are just living machines who have to carry out their work.

In a socialist economy this must be completely different! The private employer will disappear. Then no longer production aims towards the enrichment of one individual, but of delivering to the public at large the means of satisfying all its needs. Accordingly the factories, works and the agricultural enterprises must be reorganised according to a new way of looking at things:

Firstly: if production is to have the aim of securing for everyone a dignified life, plentiful food and providing other cultural means of existence, then the productivity of labour must be a great deal higher than it is now. The land must yield a far greater crop, the most advanced technology must be used in the factories, only the most productive coal and ore mines must be exploited, etc. It follows from this that socialisation will above all extend to the large enterprises in industry and agriculture. We do not need and do not want to dispossess the small farmer and craftsman eking out a living with a small plot of land or workshop. In time they will all come to us voluntarily and will recognise the merits of socialism as against private property.

Secondly: in order that everyone in society can enjoy prosperity, everybody must work. Only somebody who performs some useful work for the public at large, whether by hand or brain, can be entitled to receive from society the means for satisfying his needs. A life of leisure like most of the rich exploiters currently lead will come to an end. A general requirement to work for all who are able to do so, from which small children, the aged and sick are exempted, is a matter of course in a socialist economy. The public at large must provide forthwith for those unable to work – not like now with paltry alms but with generous provision, socialised child-raising, enjoyable care for the elderly, public health care for the sick, etc.

Thirdly, in accordance with same outlook, i.e. for the general well-being, one must sensibly manage and be economic with both the means of production and labour. The squandering that currently takes place wherever one goes must stop. Naturally, the entire war and munitions industries must be abolished since a socialist society does not need murder weapons and, instead, the valuable materials and human labour used in them must be employed for useful products. Luxury industries which make all kinds of frippery for the idle rich must also be abolished , along with personal servants. All the human labour tied up here will be found a more worthy and useful occupation.

If we establish in this way a nation of workers, where everybody works for everyone, for the public good and benefit, then work itself must be organised quite differently. Nowadays work in industry, in agriculture and in the office is mostly a torment and a burden for the proletarians. One only goes to work because one has to, because one would not otherwise get the means to live. In a socialist society, where everyone works together for their own well being, the health of the workforce and its enthusiasm for work must be given the greatest consideration at work. Short working hours that do not exceed the normal capability, healthy workrooms, all methods of recuperation and a variety of work must be introduced in order that everyone enjoys doing their part.

All these great reforms, however, call for a corresponding human material. Currently the capitalist, his works foreman or supervisor stands behind the worker with his whip. Hunger drives the proletarian to work in the factory or in the office, for the Junker or the big farmer. The employers take care that time is not frittered away nor material wasted, and that both good and efficient work is delivered.

In a socialist society the industrialist with his whip ceases to exist. The workers are free and equal human beings who work for their own well-being and benefit. That means by themselves, working on their own initiative, not wasting public wealth, and delivering the most reliable and meticulous work. Every socialist concern needs of course its technical managers who know exactly what they are doing and give the directives so that everything runs smoothly and the best division of labour and the highest efficiency is achieved. Now it is a matter of willingly following these orders in full, of maintaining discipline and order, of not causing difficulties or confusion.

In a word: the worker in a socialist economy must show that he can work hard and properly, keep discipline and give his best without the whip of hunger and without the capitalist and his slave-driver behind him. This calls for inner self-discipline, intellectual maturity, moral ardour, a sense of dignity and responsibility, a complete inner rebirth of the proletarian.

One cannot realise socialism with lazy, frivolous, egoistic, thoughtless and indifferent human beings. A socialist society needs human beings from whom each one in his place, is full of passion and enthusiasm for the general well-being, full of self-sacrifice and sympathy for his fellow human beings, full of courage and tenacity in order to dare to attempt the most difficult.

We do not need, however, to wait perhaps a century or a decade until such a species of human beings develop. Right now, in the struggle, in the revolution, the mass of the proletarians learn the necessary idealism and soon acquire the intellectual maturity. We also need courage and endurance, inner clarity and self-sacrifice, to at all be able to lead the revolution to victory. In enlisting capable fighters for the current revolution, we are also creating the future socialist workers which a new order requires as its fundament.

The working class youth is particularly well-qualified for these great tasks. As the future generation they will indeed, quite certainly, already constitute the real foundation of the socialist economy. It is already now its job to demonstrate that it is equal to the great task of being the bearer of the humanity’s future. An entire old world still needs overthrowing and an entirely new one needs constructing. But we will do it young friends, won’t we? We will do it! Just as it says in the song:

We surely lack nothing, my wife, my child,
except all that which through us prospers,
to be as free as the birds:
only the time!


Note
Introduction: The question of how a future socialist society may look is scarcely found in the Marxist literature. Rosa Luxemburg took up this question in an article written in the heat of the revolution, in December 1918. It was reproduced in various newspapers and journals: in the Hamburger Volkszeitung on 20th December 1918, in the Jugend-Internationale (Stuttgart) on 28th December under the title German Bolshevism and in the Volksblatt (Halle/Saale) on 6th Janurary 1919 under the title Nationalisation [Vergesellschaftung].


http://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/12/20.htm

Fascinerend... hieronder een heel andere vertaling van hetzelfde stuk, in een vertaling van ene Sally Ryan fvoor de site marxists.org uit augustus 2002:

Rosa Luxemburg: What is Bolshevism?
First Published: Die junge Garde (Berlin), No 2,4. December 1918.

The revolution that has just begun can have but one outcome: realization of Socialism! The working class, in order to accomplish its purpose, must, first of all, secure entire political control of the state. But to the Socialist political power is only a means to an end. It is the instrument with which labor will achieve the complete, fundamental reconstruction of our entire industrial system.

To-day all wealth, the largest and most fruitful tracts of land, the mines, the mills and the factories belong to a small group of Junkers and private capitalists. From them the great masses of the laboring class receive a scanty wage in return for long hours of arduous toil, hardly enough for a decent livelihood. The enrichment of a small class of idlers is the purpose and end of present-day society. To give to modern society and to modern production a new impulse and a new purpose – that is the foremost duty of the revolutionary working class.

To this end all social wealth the land and all that it produces, the factories and the mills must be taken from their exploiting owners to become the common property of the entire people. It thus becomes the foremost duty of a revolutionary government of the working class to issue a series of decrees making all important instruments of production national property and placing them under social control.

But this is only the first step. The most difficult task, the creation of an industrial state upon an entirely new foundation, has only just begun.

To-day production in every manufacturing unit is conducted by the individual capitalist independently of all others. What and where commodities are to be produced, where, when and how the finished product is to be sold, is decided by the individual capitalist owner. Nowhere does labor have the slightest influence upon these questions. It is simply the living machine that has its work to do.

In a Socialist state of society all this will be changed. Private ownership of the means of production and subsistence must disappear. Production will be carried on not for the enrichment of the individual but solely for the creation of a supply of commodities sufficient to supply the wants and needs of the working class. Accordingly factories, mills and farms must be operated upon an entirely new basis, from a wholly different point of view.

In the first place, now that production is to be carried on for the sole purpose of securing to all a more humane existence, of providing for all plentiful food, clothing and other cultural means of subsistence, the productivity of labor must be materially increased. Farms must be made to yield richer crops, the most advanced technical processes must be introduced into the factories, of the mines only the most productive, for the present must be intensively exploited. It follows, therefore, that the process of socialization will begin with the most highly developed industries and farm lands. We need not, and will not deprive the small farmer or artisan of the bit of land or the little workshop from which he ekes out a meager existence by the work of his own hands. As time goes by he will realize the superiority of socialized production over private ownership and will come to us of his own accord.

In order that all members of society may enjoy prosperity, all must work. Only he who performs useful service to society, manual or mental, will be entitled to a share of products for the satisfaction of his needs and desires. Idleness must cease and in its stead will come universal compulsory labor for all who are physically capable. Obviously those who are unable to work, children, invalids and the aged, must be supported by society. But not as it is done to-day, by niggardly charity. Bountiful sustenance, socialized education for the children, comfortable care for the aged, public health service for the sick – these must form all important part of our social structure.

For the same reason, i.e., in the interest of general welfare, society will be more economical, more rational in the utilization of its commodities, its means of production and its labor power. Waste such as we find to-day on every hand, must cease. The production of munitions and other implements of warfare must pass out of existence, for a Socialist state of society needs no tools of murder. Instead the precious materials and the enormous labor power that were devoted to this purpose will be used for useful production. The manufacture of useless and costly foolishness for the edification of wealthy idlers will stop. Personal service will be prohibited, and the labor power thus released will find more useful and more worthy employment.

While we are thus creating a nation of workers where all must be productively employed for the general welfare, labor itself must be completely revolutionized. Today labor in industry, on the farm and in the office is usually a torture and a burden to the proletariat. men and women work because they must in order to obtain the necessities of life. In a Socialist state of society, where all work together for their own well-being, the health of the individual worker, and his joy in his work must be conscientiously fostered and sustained. Short hours of labor not in excess of the normal human capacity must he established: recreation and rest periods must be introduced into the workday, so all may do their share, willingly and joyously.

But the success of such reforms depend upon the human beings who will carry them out. Today the capitalist with his whip stands behind the workingman, in person or in the form of a manager or overseer. Hunger drives the worker to the factory, to the Junker or the farm-owner, into the business office. Everywhere the employer sees to it that no time is wasted, no material squandered, that good, efficient work is done.

In a Socialist state of society the capitalist with his whip disappears. Here all workingmen are free and on an equal footing, working for benefit and enjoyment, tolerating no waste of social wealth, rendering honest and punctual service. To be sure, every Socialist plant needs its technical superintendents who understand its workings, who are able to supervise production so that everything runs smoothly, to assure an output commensurate with the labor power expended by organizing the process of manufacture according to most efficient methods. To insure successful production the individual workingman must follow his instructions entirely and willingly, must maintain discipline and order, cause no friction or confusion.

In a word: the workingman in a Socialist industrial state must show that he can work decently and diligently, without capitalists and slavedrivers behind his back: that of his own volition he can maintain discipline and do his best. This demands mental discipline, moral stamina, it demands a feeling of self-respect and responsibility, a spiritual rebirth of the workingman.

Socialism cannot be realized with lazy, careless, egotistic, thoughtless and shiftless men and women. A Socialist state of society needs people everyone of whom is full of enthusiasm and fervor for the general welfare, full of a spirit of self-sacrifice and sympathy for his fellow men, full of courage and tenacity and the willingness to dare even against the greatest odds.

But we need not wait centuries or decades until such a race of human beings shall grow up. The struggle, the Revolution will teach the proletarian masses idealism, has given them mental ripeness, courage and perseverance, clearness of purpose and a self-sacrificing spirit, if it is to lead to victory. While we are enlisting fighters for the revolution, we are creating Socialist workers for the future, workers who can become the basis of a new social state.

The young people of the proletariat are obtained to carry out this great work as the true foundation of the Socialist state. They must show, even now, that they are equal to the great task of bearing the future of the human race upon their shoulders. There is still an old world to be overthrown. A new world must be built!

https://www.marxists.org/archive/luxemburg/1918/12/20-alt.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:48, in toaal 2 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Comeback December 4, 1918 - first edition

This is the top section of the first page of the first edition of The Comeback (Come-back), a Walter Reed Army Medical Center newspaper directed at soldiers returning from World War 1. "First Paper in History Longing for Quick Death."

http://www.flickr.com/photos/22719239@N04/2231271352/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:43, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Bezetting van het Duitse Rijnland 1918-1919

(...) Het Bezettingsleger stond onder bevel van Luitenant-generaal Michel. Zoals reeds gezegd bestond het uit de 4é en 5é L.A., de Cavaleriedivisie zonder het Regiment Gidsen, de zware artilllerie, 6 escadrilles van de Militaire Vliegdienst en twee compagnies kabelballons.
Op 4 december 1918 bereikte de ruiterij de Rijn en zet een net van wachten uit van Neuss tot Urdingen. De 4é L.A. die als eerste aankwam te Gladbach stuurde haar Infanteriedivisies naar Neuss (de 4é I.D.) en Crefeld (de 10é I.D.). De 5é L.A. die noordelijker oprukte via Geilenkirchrn, Viersen en Kempen stelden hun wachten op tussen Mors en Wesel. De cavalerie trok stroomafwaarts richten Kleve. Het Hoofdkwartier installeerde zich te Mönchen-Gladbach. Op 14 december was de Rijn door het Belgische leger bezet van Neuss tot aan de Nederlandse grens. (...)

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=14839
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Air Force Association (AFA)

Wednesday, December 04, 1918 -- First trans-continental flight, under the command of Maj. Albert D. Smith. Four JN-4s leave from San Diego, Calif., en route to Jacksonville, Fla. Only Maj. Smith's plane completes the trip.

http://www.afa.org/
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:46    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geschiedenis De Standaard

De geschiedenis van het dagblad De Standaard kan niet los gezien worden van de Vlaamse Beweging. Die stelde zich tot doel de belangen van het Nederlandssprekende deel van de bevolking te verdedigen binnen een België dat gedomineerd werd door Franstalige burgerij. Bij de aanvang van de twintigste eeuw was het nog steeds zo dat in Vlaanderen, het noordelijke Nederlandstalige deel van België, het Frans de voertaal was in administratie, gerecht, leger en onderwijs.

Een groep Vlaamse intellectuelen vond dat elke Vlaming recht had op onderwijs in zijn moedertaal. Administratieve formaliteiten in Vlaanderen moesten volgens hen in het Nederlands afgehandeld kunnen worden. Om die eisen kracht bij te zetten was nood aan een eigen Vlaamse krant, meenden enkele voormannen uit de Vlaamse beweging.

In mei 1914 richtten Alfons Van de Perre, Arnold Hendrix en Frans Van Cauwelaert in Antwerpen het dagblad De Standaard op. In november van dat jaar had de krant voor het eerst moeten verschijnen. De Eerste Wereldoorlog gooide echter roet in het eten. Het Duitse leger bezette België en de publicatie werd afgelast.

Onmiddellijk na de oorlog bleek dat de Vlaamse beweging in tweestromingen was uiteengevallen. Een radicale groep omvatte zowel Vlaamse soldaten die zich in de loopgraven hadden verzet tegen de eentalig-Franse bevelstructuur van het Belgisch leger als een kleine groep die tijdens de bezetting met het Duits militair bestuur had samengewerkt. Ze eiste prompte inwilliging van alle Vlaamse taaleisen.

Een gematigde stroming wilde die eisen geleidelijk via het Belgische Parlement realiseren. Volksvertegenwoordigers en Standaard-initiatiefnemers Van de Perre en Van Cauwelaert behoorden tot die laatste, gematigde groep. Op 4 december 1918 was het eindelijk zover. Het eerste nummer van De Standaard rolde van de persen.

http://www.standaard.be/info.aspx?topic=geschiedenisds
Zie ook https://www.dbnl.org/tekst/_ons003199401_01/_ons003199401_01_0182.php
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 04 Dec 2018 8:44, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Daily News, London, Wednesday, 4 December 1918

Ben Greet's Shakespearean company visits the East End of London, 1918
'As You Like It for school-children was produced by Mr. Ben Greet and his company at the Pavilion Theatre, Mile End, yesterday afternoon, and was rapturously received by an audience of nearly 3,000. This is the third Shakespearean play produced under an arrangement with the teachers. Chelsea, Hammersmith, Stoke Newington, and probably other districts are to be visited.'

http://www.gabrielleray.150m.com/ArchivePressText2003/20030308.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 12:50    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Why is Jack Mudd’s name on the Tyne Cot memorial?

John (known as Jack) Mudd served as a Private in the London Regiment.
He was married to Elizabeth (Lizzie) and they had three children; Ann
born in 1913, Mary born in 1909 and John who was born in 1911.

Jack was reported missing on 26 October 1917 during the Third Battle of
Ypres (Passchendaele). Being reported missing ‘does not necessarily mean
that he has been killed…’. Jack’s family placed an advert in the Daily
Sketch newspaper in January 1918 asking for information about his
whereabouts. Many families were in the same position as the Mudds as
many of the soldiers reported as missing during the war were never
found.

Lizzie finally received official confirmation that Jack was presumed dead on
4 December 1918.

http://www.theirpast-yourfuture.org.uk/upload/pdf/Jack_Mudd_Tyne_Cot_memorial_-_TA.pdf
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 13:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Meierijsche Courant, Donderdag 4 December 1919.

Valkenswaard. De van ouds bekende St. Andriesmarkt, welke Dinsdag werd gehouden, was maar slapjes. Slechts enkele kramen waren er. In de café’s ging het er oudergewoonte bij die gelegenheid druk toe, zoo zelfs dat er op eene plaats ruzie ontstond.

http://www.shgv.nl/KrantenArtikelen/19192.htm
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 03 Dec 2010 13:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

An interview with Lenin
Thursday, 4 December 1919 - The Guardian

The interview with Lenin had been a matter of some difficulty to arrange; not because he is unapproachable - he goes about with as little external trappings or precautions as myself - but because his time is so precious. He, even more than the other Commissaries, is continuously at work. But at last I had secured a free moment and drove from my room, across the city, to one of the gates of the Kremlin.
I had taken the precaution at the beginning of my stay to secure a pass that set me free from any possible molestation from officials or police, and this gave me admission to the Kremlin enclosure.

Entrance to the Kremlin is naturally guarded; it is the seat of the Executive Government; but the formalities are no more than have to be observed at Buckingham Palace or the House of Commons. A small wooden office beyond the bridge, where a civilian grants passes, and a few soldiers, ordinary Russian soldiers, one of whom receives and verifies the pass, were all there was to be seen at this entrance.

It is always being said that Lenin is guarded by Chinese. There were no Chinese here. I entered, mounted the hill, and drove across to the building where Lenin lives, in the direction of the large platform where formerly stood the Alexander statue, now removed. At the foot of the staircase were two more soldiers, Russian youths, but still no Chinese. I went up by a lift to the top floor, where I found two other young Russian soldiers, but no Chinese, nor in any of the three visits which I paid to the Kremlin did I see any.

I hung up my hat and coat in the ante-chamber, passed through a room, in which clerks were at work and entered the room in which the Executive Committee of the Council of People's Commissaries holds its meetings - in other words, the Council Chamber of the Cabinet of the Soviet Republic.

I had kept my appointment strictly to time, and my companion passed on (rooms in Russia are always en suite) to let Lenin know that I had arrived. I then followed into the room in which Lenin works and waited a minute for his coming. Here let me say that there is no magnificence about this suite of rooms. They are well and solidly furnished; the Council Chamber is admirably arranged for its purpose, but everything is simple, and there is an atmosphere of hard work about everything.

Of the meretricious splendour I had heard so much there is not a trace. I had but the time to make these observations, mentally, when Lenin entered the room. He is a man of middle height, about fifty years old, active, and well proportioned. His features at first sight seem to have a slight Chinese cast, and his hair and pointed beard have a ruddy brown tinge. The head is well domed, and his brow broad and well raised. He has a pleasant expression in talking, and indeed his manner can be described as distinctly prepossessing.

He speaks clearly in a well-modulated voice, and throughout the interview he never hesitated or betrayed the slightest confusion. Indeed, the one clearly cut impression he left on me was that here was a clear, cold brain, a man absolutely master of himself and of his subject, expressing himself with a lucidity that was as startling as it was refreshing. My companion had seated himself on the other side of the table to act as interpreter in case of need; he was not wanted.

After a word of introduction I asked what I should speak, French or German. He replied that if I did not object he would prefer to speak English, and that if I would only speak clearly and slowly he would be able to follow everything. I agreed, and he was as good as his word, for only once during the three-quarters of an hour that the meeting lasted did he stumble at a word, and then only for an instant; he had seized my meaning almost immediately.

I ought to state here that the thought of this interview had engaged me from the moment I had entered Russia. There were so many things I wanted to know, scores of questions occurred to me, and to secure the answers I longed to have would have required a discursive talk of hours had I begun my task with this interview. But by leaving it to the last my month's work had brought the answer to many of the questions, and others had been settled by a radiographic interview submitted from Lyons by a combination of American journalists.

It behoved me therefore to utilise to the best advantage the time rigidly apportioned- to me, wedged in between two important meetings. I had therefore reduced all my curiosity to three questions, to which the authoritative answers could be given only by Lenin himself, the head of the Government of the Soviet Republic.

He knew quite well who I was; he did know what I wanted. There could therefore be no question of preparation so far as he was concerned. I had spoken of my questions to only one man, the Commissary who accompanied me, and he became very depressed, and gave it as his opinion that Lenin would not answer them.

To his unfeigned astonishment the questions were answered promptly, simply, and decisively, and when the interview was ended my companion naively expressed his wonderment. The guidance of the interview was left to me. I began at once. I wanted to know how far the proposals which Mr. Bullitt took to the Conference at Paris still held good. Lenin replied that they still held good, with such modifications as the changing military situation might indicate. Later he added that in the agreement with Bullitt it had been stated that the changing military position might bring in alterations.

Continuing, he said that Bullitt was unable to understand the strength of British and American capitalism, but that if Bullitt were President of the United States peace would soon be made. Then I took up again the thread by asking what was the attitude of the Soviet Republic to the small nations who had split off the Russian Empire and had proclaimed their independence. He replied that Finland's independence had been recognised in November 1917; that he (Lenin) had personally handed to Swinhufvud, then head of the Finnish Republic, the paper on which this recognition was officially stated; that the Soviet Republic had announced sometime previously that no soldiers of the Soviet Republic would cross the frontier with arms in their hands; that the Soviet Republic had decided to create a neutral strip or zone between their territory and Esthonia, and would declare this publicly; that it was one of their principles to recognise the independence of all small nations, and that finally they had just recognised the independence of the Bashkir Republic - and, he added, the Bashkirs are a weak and backward people.

For the third time I took up the questioning asking what guarantees could be offered against official propaganda among the Western peoples, if by any chance relations with the Soviet Republic were opened. His reply was that they had declared to Bullitt that they were ready to sign an agreement not to make official propaganda. As a Government they were ready to undertake that no official propaganda should take place. If private persons undertook propaganda they would do it at their own risk and be amenable to the laws of the country in which they acted.

Russia has no laws, he said, against propaganda by British people. England has such laws; therefore Russia is the more liberal-minded. They would permit, he said, the British, or French, or American Government to carry on propaganda of their own. He cried out against the Defence of the Realm Act, and as for freedom of the Press in France, he declared that he had just been reading Henry Barbusse's novel Clarte, in which were two censored patches.

'They censor novels in free, democratic France!' I asked if he had any general statement to make, upon which he replied that the most important thing for him to say was that the Soviet system is the best, and that English workers and agricultural labourers would accept it if they knew it. He hoped that after peace the British Government would not prohibit the publication of the Soviet Constitution. That, morally, the Soviet system is even now victorious, and that the proof of the statement is seen in the persecution of Soviet literature in free, democratic countries.

My allotted time had expired and, knowing that he was needed elsewhere, I rose and thanked him, and, making my way back through Council Chamber and clerks' room to the stair and courtyard, where were the young Russian guards, I picked up my droshky and drove back across Moscow to my room to think over my meeting with Vladimir Ulianoff.

http://century.guardian.co.uk/1910-1919/Story/0,,98448,00.html
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:30    Onderwerp: 4 December 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 4 December 1917

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Western Front

Bourlon Wood evacuated by British.

West Verdun: enemy efforts to reach Avocourt and Forges sectors fail.

Southern Front

Austrian artillery very active towards Brenta river.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Minor actions north of Jaffa and on Jerusalem road.

British seaplanes active.

Naval and Overseas Operations

Operations at Aden described in House of Lords.

Political, etc.

President Wilson's message to Congress.
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:32    Onderwerp: 4 December 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 4 December 1916

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Eastern Front

Fighting in Stanislau and Tarnopol (Galicia).

Russians capture peak commanding Jablonitsa Pass.

Struggle continues round Bucharest.

Southern Front

French and Serbs advance eastwards of Monastir.

Quieter at Athens; detachments (Allies) continue to re-embark.

Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres

Great aerial activity on Tigris front (Mesopotamia).

Naval and Overseas Operations

"Caledonia" (Anchor Line) torpedoed in Mediterranean by submarine.

Crew saved, Captain Blaikie prisoner.

Political, etc.

The King approves of re-construction of Government.

Lord R. Cecil on situation in Greece.
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:34    Onderwerp: 4 December 1915 Reageer met quote

Encyclopedia - The Allied Conference at Calais, 4 December 1915

French Premier Aristide Briand The Allied Conference of 4 December 1915, called by the British, was one of a number of Allied summits convened at the French port of Calais in northern France.

Attending the conference was the British minister of war Lord Kitchener (together with Chief of the General Staff William Robertson) and the French Prime Minister Aristide Briand (alongside French Commander-in-Chief Joseph Joffre).

Britain's intention in calling the conference was simple - to persuade the French to abandon the campaign in Salonika, which the former regarded as a pointless, wasteful backwater of the wider offensive. Britain's position was that the Allies could ill-afford the manpower resources diverted to Salonika while shortages were experienced on the Western Front and Gallipoli.

Briand and Joffre ultimately agreed to abandon the Salonika campaign, although not without much reluctant hesitation. Astonished however by the extent of French popular and political opposition to the withdrawal however, the French seized the opportunity presented by the major inter-allied conference convened at Chantilly just two days later - at which Joffre fortuitously presided - to reverse the decision over the heads of the British.

With a continued Allied commitment to Salonika the British promptly resolved to evacuate the Gallipoli peninsula; the decision was however pending in any event.
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !


Laatst aangepast door Peter L op 18 Dec 2010 20:37, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:36    Onderwerp: 4 December 1914 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 4 December 1914

Spotlights over Paris Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)

Western Front

French strengthen hold on Vermelles, and capture Langemarck in Belgium.

Eastern Front

Galicia: Russians advancing more on Cracow, occupy Vieliczka.

Naval and Overseas Operations

South Africa: Rebels heavily defeated near Reitz by Botha.

Political, etc.

Belgium: King George visits Belgian headquarters and confers K.G. on King Albert.
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:41    Onderwerp: 4 December 1914 Reageer met quote

British Royal Family visits St.-Omer :

RFC Headquarters

On the outbreak of the First World War, four RFC squadrons (2, 3, 4 and 5 Squadron equipped with a wide range of aircraft types) had flown to France to join the British Expeditionary Force (BEF). Assigned to the General Headquarters (GHQ), the RFC provided reconnaissance during the critical first few months of the war as the Germans sought to outmanoeuvre the British and French Armies. The fluid military situation meant that HQ RFC and its four squadrons moved repeatedly, closely following the GHQ as the fighting edged north towards the Channel ports. Eventually, on the evening of Monday 8 October 1914, HQ RFC arrived at St Omer and took up residence in a small chateau. The squadrons arrived over the next few days, together with the recently formed HQ Wireless Telegraphy Unit. These aircraft supplemented by 6 Squadron – newly arrived from England with a mixture of BE2s, Bleriots and BE8s – would comprise the RFC’s frontline strength until spring 1915.

HQ RFC was a modest affair, initially comprising some eight staff officers under the command of Brigadier-General Sir David Henderson, GOC RFC. Even so, the accommodation proved extremely cramped, the few rooms having to double as both offices and bedrooms. Maurice Baring’s diary provides a vivid picture of the work of the Headquarters during this initial period together with an affectionate account of the personalities involved. 'We arrived at St Omer at 8.30 and took up our residence in a small chateau on the hill between the town and the aerodrome. We didn’t expect to stay there long, so no real steps were taken to make ourselves comfortable at the start. The chateau was a modern stucco building, red and white. Downstairs there were two drawing rooms, and one bedroom, and a small sitting room. The small sitting room was Colonel Sykes’ office. One of the drawing rooms was made into an anteroom, the other into an office. The bedroom downstairs was Brooke-Popham’s. Upstairs General Henderson had one big bedroom and a small office. Salmond, Barrington-Kennett and I shared a second, Murat had a third and the fourth was to be occupied by other members of the staff”. As it transpired, the Headquarters remained at St Omer until 1916 and returned again in 1917, occupying the same small chateau throughout – leased from its owner at a rental of 20 francs per day.

St-Omer rapidly became the RFC’s airhead in France. It was the destination for the majority of squadrons deploying to the Western Front. This, together with the ferrying of replacement and time-expired aircraft and depot test flying made for a very active airfield. Over the course of the war many thousands of aircraft were ferried between England and France – a total of 3,226 in 1917 and 6,217 in 1918. Given the vagaries of the weather and the rudimentary navigation of the time, the journey was never without its hazards – the deployment of 29 Squadron from Gosport to St Omer in March 1916, resulting in the loss of 14 DH2s en-route, was probably the most spectacular example of the difficulties that could arise. The direct route lay between Dover / Folkestone and Cap Gris-Nez, some 21 miles. When squadrons deployed it was usual for them to fly their aircraft on a southeasterly heading across the Channel, aiming to reach the French coast between Cap Blanc-Nez and Calais and then follow the canals south to St Omer. Groundcrew – including observers – and transport would travel by sea to Le Havre, Rouen or Boulogne, normally only rejoining their pilots and aircraft at their operational airfield. Individual pilots joining the RFC in France reported to the Pilots’ Pool at St Omer pending allocation to a squadron. The first step for all newly arrived aircrew was to obtain a billeting allocation from HQ RFC – generally in St Omer itself as the messes around the airfield were invariably full. For many RFC personnel this was their first time overseas and thus St Omer came to symbolise all that was new or different whether it was the cooking, the size of the bed covers or the washing arrangements!

The sudden influx of military personnel and the increasing demand for both temporary and permanent accommodation caused serious difficulties in the town and the surrounding villages. Maurice Baring records numerous incidents in the early part of the war relating to billeting problems. On one occasion he mentions how he ended a sharp discussion with the Mayor of Longuenesse by holding up a German ten-pfenning piece he had found on the drawing-room floor – only to be chased after by a gendarme who insisted that the Mayor was not a German spy. Another, more humorous incident involved the arrival of two old ladies at HQ RFC with a complaint about the behaviour of two officers billeted with them. They would only speak to General Trenchard since it was a matter of ‘grave indelicatesse’. Eventually it transpired that the officers concerned had had the temerity to wash their socks in the kitchen sink.

As the RFC’s strength grew so did the size of the headquarters. Although it remained sufficiently small to be able to deploy forward as the operational situation demanded, it’s role grew in importance as the number of squadrons increased, notably between October 1915 and July 1916 when the frontline strength grew from just over 100 to more than 400 aircraft. With the decentralisation of the RFC into brigades and wings, with effect from 30 January 1916, it became necessary to re-organise the headquarters on a higher basis. Up to then responsibility for technical issues had been a subsidiary duty of Lieutenant-Colonel H.R.M. Brooke-Popham, GSO1. The expansion in the front line and increase in operational tempo generated a host of engineering and administrative issues that necessitated a new establishment – organised on the basis of a corps staff – that provided for a Deputy Adjutant and Quarter Master General. Robert Brooke-Popham was appointed to this new post, in the rank of brigadier-general, from 12 March 1916. An experienced staff officer, Lieutenant-Colonel P.W. Game was found to take over the operational side of the HQ.

HQ RFC’s day to day activities encompassed responsibility for the management of the units in the field, as well as the higher strategic direction of the RFC in France, including liaison with GHQ and the French Aviation Service. This necessitated, in addition to technical specialists, intelligence, medical, photography, supply and transport staffs as well as dedicated liaison officers. As the intensity of the air war grew, so did the number of forms and the volume of paperwork to be handled, including the production – from the middle of 1915 – of a weekly communiqué describing RFC operations on the Western Front (familiarly known as Comic Cuts).

Sir David Henderson remained in command of the RFC until 19 August 1915 when he returned to the War Office being replaced by Colonel H.M. Trenchard who was promoted to brigadier-general on 25 August 1915 and major-general on 24 March 1916. Hugh Trenchard was to remain GOC until December 1917, commanding the RFC through the great battles of the Somme and Third Ypres. Both of these offensives involved moving the headquarters temporarily from St Omer to bring it closer to the operational area.

In closing this section, it is worth noting that St Omer, as a major garrison and centre of British military activity, attracted numerous visitors throughout the war. This included the Royal Family who first visited HQ RFC and the airfield on 4 December 1914, when King George and the Prince of Wales arrived as part of a tour of the Western Front. Later visits included that by Queen Mary on 5 July 1917 when, in the company of GOC RFC, she reviewed aircraft at the Depôt and witnessed a flying display. A photographer was evidently on hand as a famous series of still photographs has recorded the event for posterity.
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 20:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

@ Peter L: Graag bronvermelding bij alle geplaatste posts. Dank!
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Peter L



Geregistreerd op: 25-12-2008
Berichten: 96
Woonplaats: Tienen, peterstad 4de Regiment Lansiers

BerichtGeplaatst: 18 Dec 2010 22:45    Onderwerp: 4 December 1914 Reageer met quote

Beste Collegae,

Sorry, dit had ik even over het hoofd gezien. Hieronder alsnog de bronvermelding :

http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_12_04.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_12_04.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1915_12_04.htm
http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1914_12_04.htm

Groeten

Peter L
_________________
Comme à Orsmael, je tiendrai !
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht Verstuur mail
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2017 8:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From the archive, 4 December 1914: Football to go on - except internationals

A meeting of representatives of the four National Football Associations decides to abandon all international matches but continue with league and cup competitions

A meeting of representatives of the four National Football Associations took place yesterday at the offices of the Football Association in London. The resolutions were as follows:—

1. It was decided to recommend to each National Association that the International matches for this season be abandoned.

2. This meeting recommends that except as regards the International matches it is not right that football should be stopped or suspended.

The Football Problem
With the exception of the international matches, which are to be dropped, football in the United Kingdom is still to go on. At least, the four Football Associations' meeting in London yesterday saw no reason why it should not, and if people care to attend in sufficient numbers, on will go the League and, we suppose, the Cup competitions.

There are two points in the Associations' case which it is but fair to recognise. They contend that there is no evidence that the playing of football has hindered, or is hindering, recruiting, and some independent observers of repute say the same. Further, they contend that to deprive the working people of the country of their Saturday afternoon recreation would he unfair and mischievous. There is something in this point, too, for those who have to carry on the business of the country will do it none the worse for keeping themselves fit and fresh.

Beyond this, it may be allowed that if people want to see football there can be no question of forcibly preventing them, especially while racecourses are left open. And yet there is a rather tragic contrast between the cry of the men in the trenches for every man to go out and do his part and the shouts of the crowds whom professional players entertain at home. We fancy that none of the other nations engaged in the war feels itself equally free to amuse itself. And the spectacle of a great part of the able-bodied manhood of England diverting itself with looking on at races and football while our men in France are taking part in a life-or-death struggle is one that brings searchings of conscience, in spite of the Football Associations' business-like arguments for going on with their programme.

At the end of the 1914-15 season the FA Cup and League Championship were postponed for the remainder of the war.

These archive extracts are compiled by members of the Guardian's research and information department. Email: research.department@theguardian.com


https://www.theguardian.com/theguardian/2010/dec/06/archive-football-to-go-on-except-internationals-1914
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2017 9:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

WO I: Sinterklaas en Kerstmis in 1914 | Koninklijke Bibliotheek

(...) De Tilburgsche Courant (3 december 1914) constateerde dat ondanks alles de ‘voorbereidingen tot het St. Nicolaasfeest’ in volle gang waren. Het was als vanouds ‘gezellig-druk en leuk-rumoerig in onze winkelstraten’ met hel verlichte etalages. Het moest alleen iets minder ‘vanwege den duren tijd’. Toch was er genoeg om familie en kennissen te verrassen en eventueel ook nog een ander … De Courant riep de lezers op ‘onze “Jantjes” aan de grenzen, in de forten’ niet te vergeten. Want ‘onze landverdedigers hebben een streepje voor’ en zij zouden blij verrast zijn door de goede Sint eens extra bedacht te worden.
Meer van dergelijke oproepen verschenen in de kranten. De oorlog had vele gezinnen in een benarde financiële positie gebracht door werkloosheid, doordat de kostwinner gemobiliseerd was of door de prijsstijgingen.
Een ingezonden brief in het Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad (4 december) bevatte ook een aansporing aan ‘elk die er financieel toe in staat is’ dit keer ook aan ‘anderen dan d’eigen familie te denken’. De briefschrijver voorzag dat nu zoveel kinderen een slechte of heel geen sinterklaas te wachten stond, een gul gebaar welkom was. (...)

https://www.kb.nl/themas/geschiedenis-en-cultuur/nederland-tijdens-de-eerste-wereldoorlog/wo-i-sinterklaas-en-kerstmis-in-1914
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Percy Toplis



Geregistreerd op: 9-5-2009
Berichten: 15502
Woonplaats: Suindrecht

BerichtGeplaatst: 04 Dec 2017 9:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Where Belgium greeted Britain, 4 December 1914

Jasper Olivier, relative of artist Herbert Arnould Olivier stands in front of the painting Where Belgium greeted Britain, 4 December 1914 at a First World War Centenary Commemoration event in London, 4 August 2014.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Where_Belgium_greeted_Britain,_4_December_1914_(14639931048).jpg

Hier het originele schilderij:

Where Belgium Greeted Britain, 4 December 1914, the Meeting of King George V and Albert I, King of the Belgians, at Adinkerke, then the Last Remnant of Belgian Territory, on 4 December 1914

Herbert Arnould Olivier (1861–1952)

https://artuk.org/discover/artworks/where-belgium-greeted-britain-4-december-1914-the-meeting-of-king-george-v-and-albert-i-king-of-the-belgians-at-adinkerke-then-the-last-remnant-of-belgian-territory-on-4-december-1914-28973
_________________

"I don't aim to offend."
- Billy Connolly
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
Berichten van afgelopen:   
Plaats nieuw bericht   Plaats Reactie    Forum Eerste Wereldoorlog Forum Index -> Wat gebeurde er vandaag... Tijden zijn in GMT + 1 uur
Ga naar Pagina 1, 2  Volgende
Pagina 1 van 2

 
Ga naar:  
Je mag geen nieuwe onderwerpen plaatsen
Je mag geen reacties plaatsen
Je mag je berichten niet bewerken
Je mag je berichten niet verwijderen
Ja mag niet stemmen in polls


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2002 phpBB Group