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22 november

 
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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 8:16    Onderwerp: 22 november Reageer met quote

1914 : Fighting suspended in Ypres Salient

On November 22, 1914, the first extended battle fought between Allied and German forces in the much-contested Ypres Salient during World War I comes to an end after over one month of fighting.


After the aggressive German advance through Belgium and eastern France was decisively halted by the Allied victory in the Battle of the Marne in late September 1914, the so-called "Race to the Sea" began, as each army attempted to outflank the other on its way northward, hastily constructing trench fortifications as they went. The race ended in mid-October at Ypres, the ancient Flemish city with fortifications guarding the ports of the English Channel.


On October 19, the Germans launched their so-called Flanders Offensive, aimed at breaking the Allied lines and capturing Ypres and other channel ports, thus gaining control of the outlets to the Channel and the North Sea beyond. The Allies held fast in their resistance, seeking the chance to go on the attack themselves whenever possible. On the last day of October, German cavalry units began a more concentrated assault, forcing British cavalry from their position at Messines Ridge, near the southern end of the salient. Further to the north, General Douglas Haig’s 1st British Corps managed to hold its lines with superior rifle fire, leading many Germans to mistakenly believe they were facing British machine guns. Another German attack on November 11 almost toppled the British in the town of Hooge, but a motley crew of British defenders--including cooks, medical orderlies, clerks and engineers--was able to exploit German indecisiveness and eventually drive the enemy back to its own lines.


Chaotic fighting continued without respite throughout the next three weeks at Ypres, with heavy casualties suffered on both sides. On November 22, fighting was suspended with the arrival of harsher winter weather. The protracted First Battle of Ypres--or simply "First Ypres" as British survivors referred to it--had taken the lives of more than 5,000 British and 5,000 German soldiers and the region would see far more bloodshed over the four years to come, as both sides struggled to defend the positions established during that first month of conflict. In the memorable words of one British soldier, Private Donald Fraser, "one was not a soldier unless he had served on the Ypres front."


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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 8:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914

Die Schlacht in Polen
Wien, 22. November. (W. B.)
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Die Verbündeten setzen ihren Angriff in Russisch-Polen energisch und erfolgreich fort. Unser südlicher Schlachtflügel erreichte den Szreniawa-Abschnitt. Vereinzelte Vorstöße des Feindes wurden abgewiesen. Bisher machten die K. K. Truppen über 15 000 Gefangene. Die Entscheidung ist noch nicht gefallen. Auch westlich von Dinajes und in den Karpathen sind größere Kämpfe im Gange.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Generalmajor. 2)





Der Feldzug in Serbien
Wien, 22. November. (W. B.)
Vom südlichen Kriegsschauplatz wird amtlich gemeldet:
Starke eigene Kräfte haben die Kolubara bereits überschritten; doch leistet der Gegner in mehreren gut gewählten befestigten Stellungen noch Widerstand. Die eigene Vorrückung, die durch den aufgeweichten Boden, überschwemmte Wasserläufe und im Gebirge durch meterhohen Schnee verzögert war, ist aber nicht aufgehalten worden. Eigene Nachrichtendetachements und große Patrouillen machten in den letzten zwei Tagen wieder 2440 Gefangene. Die Gesamtzahl der während der Kämpfe seit dem 6. November gemachten Gefangenen beträgt hiermit 13 000. 2)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Die Türken am Suezkanal
Konstantinopel, 22. November. (W. B.)
Das Hauptquartier teilt amtlich mit:
Die türkischen Truppen sind am Suezkanal eingetroffen. In einem Treffen bei Kantara wurden die Engländer geschlagen und ergriffen unter starken Verlusten die Flucht.

Konstantinopel, 22. November. (W. B.)
Ausführlichere Meldung aus dem Hauptquartier:
Mit Gottes Hilfe sind unsere Treppen am Suezkanal angekommen. In dem Kampfe, der zwischen Katasa und Kertebe, beide 30 Kilometer östlich vom Kanal, und bei Kantara am Kanal selbst stattfand, sind der englische Hauptmann Wilson, ein Leutnant und viele Soldaten gefallen und sehr viele sind verwundet worden. Wir haben ziemlich viel Gefangene gemacht. Die englischen Truppen haben sich in regelloser Flucht zurückgezogen. Englische Kamelreiter, die sich bei den Vorposten befanden, und Gendarmen, die bisher in englischen Diensten gestanden haben, haben sich uns ergeben. 2)





Der Heilige Krieg
Konstantinopel, 22. November. (W. B.)
Aus den Provinzen treffen fortgesetzt tetegraphische Berichte ein über die Volkskundgebungen anläßlich der Proklamierung des Heiligen Krieges. In Damaskus fand am Grabe Saladins eine Kundgebung statt, an der über 30 000 Personen teilnahmen. Die Menge zog sodann vor das österreichisch-ungarische und das deutsche Konsulat, wo es ebenfalls zu Kundgebungen kam.

Konstantinopel, 22. November. (W. B.)
Die Blätter legen Wert darauf, neuerdings zu betonen, daß der Heilige Krieg nicht gegen alle christlichen Mächte gerichtet sei, sondern ausschließlich gegen die bekannten Staaten, die den Islam vernichten wollen. - Ein Leitartikel des "Tasvir-i-Eskiar" befaßt sich mit dem Marsch der Senussi gegen Ägypten und hebt hervor, daß Italien, der Bundesgenosse der verbündeten Mächte, auch der Freund der Türkei sei. 2)





Der "Tennessee"-Zwischenfall
Amsterdam, 22. November. (Priv.-Tel.)
Man meldet aus Washington: Der Kapitän der "Tennessee" erklärte, daß die Beschießung seiner Schaluppen im Hafen von Smyrna nicht als ein feindliches Vorgehen aufzufassen sei. Hiermit ist der Zwischenfall der "Tennessee" erledigt, den die englische Presse gar zu gern zu einer großen Angelegenheit aufgeblasen hätte. Bekanntlich waren Schaluppen der "Tennessee" von den türkischen Hafenkanonen höchstwahrscheinlich irrtümlich beschossen worden, als die "Tennessee" in den Hafen von Smyrna einlaufen wollte.
Die Türkei gab freiwillig Aufklärung über den Zwischenfall von Smyrna. In amtlichen Kreisen in Washington wurde die Erklärung als befriedigend bezeichnet. 2)






Der Kaukasus, Armenien und Aserbeidschan
Als Schauplatz der Landkämpfe zwischen der Türkei und Rußland kann, da die Haltung Bulgariens einen Durchmarsch russischer Truppen nach Thrazien verbietet, voraussichtlich nur der große Länderraum südlich des Kaukasus in Betracht kommen, von dem Rußland einen als Transkaukasien bekannten Teil besitzt, während sich die Türkei und Persien in den Rest teilen. Keine natürlichen Grenzen bestimmen die Linien, die diese staatlichen Gebiete voneinander trennen. Mächtige Gebirgszüge durchschneiden den ganzen Raum, aber nur die kurdistanischen Alpen bezeichnen wenigstens streckenweise die Grenze der Türkei und Persiens, die weit höheren Gebirge, die von der Tiefebene der Kura als Rand eines mächtigen Hochplateaus aufsteigen, das wieder von Gebirgszügen durchsetzt ist, die weit über Montblanchöhe hinaufgehen, gehören ganz den Russen. Die Hochfläche wird gewöhnlich als Armenien bezeichnet, wozu dann in geographischem Sinn auch die persische Provinz Aserbeidschan, die um den Urmiasee gelegen ist, zu rechnen wäre, obwohl die armenischen Siedelungen hier nur ganz vereinzelt liegen. Den am dichtesten von Armeniern bewohnten Teil hat Rußland inne, den umfangreicheren aber die Türkei. Zum Kaspischen und zum Schwarzen Meere fällt dieses Hochplateau steil ab. Ein ausgesprochen kontinentales Klima mit heißen und trockenen Sommern, aber außerordentlich kalten Wintern kennzeichnet es. Die Bevölkerungsdichte wechselt stark; sie ist in einigen kleineren Bezirken ziemlich dicht, wo die hydrographischen Verhältnisse die Bebauung des Bodens ermöglichen, sinkt aber sehr tief hinunter, wo der vorherrschende Wassermangel das Land zur Steppe werden läßt. Nach Südosten geht dieses armenische Hochland in die iranischen Hochtäler über, deren Charakter nicht sehr verschieden von jenem ist. Südwestlich aber liegt Mesopotamien davor. Nördlich liegen das ebenfalls ziemlich wasserarme Tal der Kura im Osten und das mit Niederschlägen reich gesegnete und daher überaus fruchtbare Tal des Rion im Westen, durch eine hohe, den Kaukasus mit dem armenischen Nordrandgebirge, dem sogenannten "Kleinen Kaukasus" verbindende Bergkette voneinander geschieden.
Die ersten Kämpfe, die den Türken die ersten Siege gebracht haben, entwickelten sich zwischen den beiden Festungen von Erzerum und Kars, den stärksten, die in dem ganzen Gebiete liegen. Erzerum schützt das türkische Kleinasien vor einem russischen Einfall; es mußte 1878 durch den Vertrag von San Stefano ausgeliefert werden, kam aber beim Berliner Kongreß wieder an die Türkei. Kars, das sehr starke natürliche Stellungen bietet und in den letzten Jahren noch durch moderne Anlagen verbessert worden sein soll, gehört seit dem letzten russisch-türkischen Kriege zu Rußland. Die Russen haben es an ihr Bahnnetz angeschlossen, das fast nur nach strategischen Rücksichten angelegt, aber noch nicht ausgebaut worden ist. Vorläufig verbindet eine einzige Linie, die von Nordwesten kommend über Wladikawkas den Kaukasus umgeht, bei Petrowsk das Ufer des Schwarzen Meeres erreicht und südlich von Baku ins Tal der Kura einbiegt, Russisch-Transkaukasien mit Europa. Eine Kaukasusbahn, die von Wladikawkas mit zwei großen Tunnels nach Tiflis führen soll, ist erst geplant. Für Truppentransporte über das Gebirge kommen daher nur zwei Heerstraßen in Betracht, von denen die grusinische (Wladikawkas - Tiflis) vorzüglich ausgebaut ist, während die ossetische (Wladikawkas - Kutais) für Artillerietransporte ungeeignet sein dürfte. Beide Straßen erreichen Paßhöhen von über 2400 Meter, so daß sie im Winter tief verschneit sind. Da nun die türkische Flotte im Schwarzen Meer einstweilen die russische im Schach hält und bald die volle Herrschaft zur See erringen dürfte, ist Rußland für alle Nachschübe auf die einzige Bahnlinie angewiesen. Von Baku durchquert sie ganz Transkaukasien bis Batum; zwei Anschlußlinien verbinden sie mit Kutais, der alten georgischen Hauptstadt, und mit Poti, das vor Batum der russische Stützpunkt an dieser Küste war. Von Tiflis aus zweigt Südwärts eine Linie ab, die in starker Steigung das Randgebirge überwindet und bei dem befestigten Alexandropol in die armenische Hochebene eintritt. Von hier aus führt die eine Linie über Eriwan nach Dschulfa an die persische Grenze; ihre Fortsetzung bis Täbris, der Hauptstadt Aserbeidschans, ist im Bau. Eine Zweite Linie geht nach Kars; sie ist im Herbst vorigen Jahres bis Sarikamysch weitergeführt worden, so daß die Transporte bis nahe an die türkische Grenze herangeführt werden können. Auf halbem Wege von dieser Endstation der russischen Bahnen und Erzerum ist Köpriköi zu suchen, wo die Russen zurückgeschlagen worden sind. Sie haben demnach sofort auf der nächsten Straße einen Vorstoß nach der türkischen Festung versucht, der freilich weit vor den Befestigungswerken schon zusammengebrochen ist. Die Besetzung von Alaschkerd und Bajasid, wo nur schwacher türkischer Grenzschutz stand, hatte dagegen offenbar den Zweck, einen Vorstoß der Türken gegen Eriwan mit Umgehung von Kars zu verhindern; für einen Angriff auf Erzerum wäre die erste Anmarschlinie (über Köpriköi) günstiger. Auch ein Angriff von Ardahan über Olty gegen Erzerum wäre der Geländebildung nach denkbar, aber wegen des Mangels an brauchbaren Straßen außerordentlich schwierig. Nicht viel günstiger ist die Lage freilich für einen türkischen Einfall, der bei Kars auf ein starkes Hindernis stößt. Wenn die russische Okkupation von Bajasid aufgehoben wird, was nötigenfalls ohne besondere Anstrengung zu erreichen sein dürfte, so steht freilich den türkischen Truppen aus Erzerum der Weg nach Eriwan frei, der aber über hohe und schwierige Pässe führt, aber auch nach Choi, einer bedeutenden Stadt Aserbeidschans. Die Russen haben sich in richtiger Erkenntnis der strategischen Bedeutung dieses Punktes in dem halb unabhängigen Khan von Maku einen "Freund" geschaffen, dessen Gefühle aber einer Belastungsprobe kaum gewachsen sein dürften. Einstweilen hat sich die Türkei damit begnügt, den (auf unserer Karte nicht verzeichneten) Grenzort Kotbur zu besetzen, der westlich von Choi liegt.
Auf einen türkischen Angriff auf Aserbeidschan rechnete die russische Presse schon vor Beginn des Krieges. Der Kurdenaufstand, der westlich und südlich vom Urmiasee ausbrach, und die Russen zur Räumung von Sautschbulak zwang, war das Vorspiel zum Einmarsch türkischer Truppen, der außer bei Kotbur nunmehr auch weiter südlich erfolgt ist, da in der Umgebung von Salmas, an der Nordwestecke des Urmiasees, ein Gefecht stattgefunden hat. Urmia selber, wo vermutlich noch russische Truppen stehen, dürfte daher bald von diesen geräumt werden. Die reiche und wegen ihres Gewerbefleißes berühmte Stadt wird dann wieder eine türkische Besatzung aufnehmen, wie einige Jahre lang nach dem Einmarsch der Russen in Täbris. Damals tat die Türkei einen kühnen, aber strategisch durchaus gerechtfertigten Schritt. Um ihre Ostgrenze gegen eine Flankierung durch russische Truppen, die einer der wichtigsten Beweggründe zur russischen Besetzung Aserbeidschans war, schützen zu können, besetzte sie selber persische Gebietsteile bis ans Westufer des Urmiasees. Der Balkankrieg, der die ganze Aufmerksamkeit der Pforte auf Europa lenkte, gab den Russen die Gelegenheit die Aufhebung dieser türkischen Schutzmaßnahme zu erzwingen, worauf dann sofort russische Regimenter den abziehenden Türken folgten. Die Besetzung dieses Gebietes wird den Türken nicht nur den damals entrissenen Vorteil wiedergeben, sondern auch eine Operationsbasis für Angriffe gegen die Südgrenze des russischen Gebietes liefern. Ob der Kriegsplan Enver Paschas solche Operationen vorsieht, wissen wir natürlich nicht. Mit ihrer Möglichkeit muß aber jedenfalls die russische Heeresleitung rechnen, die dadurch zum Schutz wichtiger Interessen gezwungen wird. Die für solche Unternehmungen einzusetzenden Streitkräfte können, außer von Erzerum über Bajasid und Choi, auch aus Wan, dem Mittelpunkt des türkischen Teils von Armenien, und aus Mosul herangezogen werden; über die Grenzgebiete führen zwar keine Heerstraßen, doch dürfte ihre Überschreitung selbst im Winter nicht unmöglich sein, wenn die eingesessene kurdische Bevölkerung sich freundlich verhält. Ein Einbruch über den Mittellauf des Araxs (Aras), der etwa westlich von Dschulfa erfolgen könnte, würde ein Vorgehen auf Kars wirksam unterstützen. Noch eindrucksvoller würde sich ein freilich wegen der großen Entfernungen schwieriger Vormarsch über die nordöstlichen Teile Aserbeidschans gestalten, die schon in die Mugansteppe auslaufen, deren nördlicher Teil auf russischem Gebiete liegt. Hier bietet die der Grenze nicht allzu ferne russische Eisenbahn, deren Unterbrechung die ganze Herrschaft der Russen in Transkaukasien in Frage stellen würde, ein lohnendes Ziel; eine Besetzung von Baku würde sodann Rußland seines einzigen größeren Naphthagebietes berauben, das während des Krieges wegen des Mangels an Brennstoffen doppelt wichtig geworden ist. Ein Vormarsch durch diese Gebiete könnte den türkischen Führern um so verlockender scheinen, als die Bevölkerung, die bis 1828 zu Persien gehörte, tatarischen Stammes und mohammedanischen Glaubens ist und den Türken sicherlich einen freudigen Empfang bereiten würde.
Vorwiegend von Mohammedanern besiedelt ist auch das Gebiet, das von Lasistan, dem türkischen Bergland östlich von Trapezunt aus schon jetzt osmanische Truppen betreten haben. Artwin und Batum sind erst 1878 an Rußland abgetreten worden; außer der künstlich geschaffenen Hafenstadt, die Rußland überwiegend mit Griechen besiedelt hat, ist fast alles noch mohammedanisch, wenn auch einzelne Dörfer von christlichen Mingreliern oder Armeniern bewohnt sind. Das türkische Vorgehen in diesem Raume richtet sich, wie aus den Berichten des großen türkischen Hauptquartiers hervorgeht, gegen Batum, dessen Besetzung der Flotte einen wertvollen Stützpunkt bieten und zugleich einen kaum hoch genug einzuschätzenden moralischen Erfolg bedeuten würde. Die Türken haben bisher, in drei Kolonnen vorgehend, Liman besetzt, das am Meeresufer, etwa zehn Kilometer von der Grenze entfernt liegt, sodann Kura, ein im Gebirge gelegenes Dorf, das etwa in der Mitte zwischen Liman und Artwin zu suchen ist, und endlich bei Artwin am Oberlauf des Tschuruk festen Fuß gefasst. Der Fluß strömt dort durch wilde Schluchten, an deren Steilwänden die wenigen Ortschaften, darunter auch Artwin selbst, sich terrassenförmig aufbauen. Den türkischen Grenztruppen, die mit solchem Gelände vorzüglich vertraut sind, dürften aber diese natürlichen Hindernisse keine unüberwindlichen Schwierigkeiten bieten.
Die Haltung der Bevölkerung kann in dem Kampfraum südlich des Kaukasus viel wichtiger werden als irgendwo in Europa, wo sie doch immer noch eine bedeutende Rolle spielt. In dem von Gebirgen wild durchfurchten Land ist jedes Heer auf das Wohlwollen der Ansässigen angewiesen. Die Türken sind in dieser Hinsicht zweifellos im Vorteil. Auf eigenem Gebiete haben sie höchstens mit einem passiven Widerstande eines Teils der Armenier zu rechnen; zu feindlichen Handlungen wird sich auch der verblendete Armenier nicht hinreißen lassen. Vielleicht werden die Armenier sogar den Türken entgegenkommen. Sobald sie die Überzeugung haben, in ihnen den stärkeren Teil zu sehen. Innerliche Zuneigung knüpft sie auf keinen Fall an Russland. Die Kurden sind schon jetzt auf die Seite der Türken getreten; die großen Opfer, die Rußland für die Bearbeitung einiger ihrer Stämme gebracht hat, sind verloren. Die persische und tatarische Bevölkerung Aserbeidschans ist jetzt unbedingt türkenfreundlich. In Russisch-Transkaukasien ist die mohammedanische Bevölkerung, die außer den schon erwähnten Gebieten an der Südostküste des Schwarzen Meeres und im Osten, wo sie von den Grenzen Armeniens bis an den kaspischen See sitzt, auch noch den Osten des Kaukasus selber bewohnt und in allen übrigen Landesteilen wenigstens mit ansehnlichen Minderheiten vertreten ist, der russischen Herrschaft ausnahmslos abgeneigt. Der Aufstand der Daghestaner, der in den 50er Jahren unter Schamyls Führung die Russen zu einer gewaltigen militärischen Kraftprobe nötigte, ist noch nicht vergessen.
Aber selbst in der christlichen Bevölkerung findet Russland kaum einen sicheren Halt. Die Armenier werden sich kaum anders verhalten als die in der Türkei; ein Teil ihrer Jugend würde vielleicht eine entscheidende Niederlage der Russen als Signal zu einem Aufstande benützen, dessen Ziele aber ganz unklar wären. Die Georgier, die westlich von Tiflis bis ans Meer und nördlich bis über die Pässe des Kaukasus wohnen, neben den mohammedanischen Bergvölkern gewiß die tapfersten aller Kaukasier, sind politisch und sozial viel zu sehr zersplitterter, als daß sie sich zu einer einheitlichen Aktion zusammenschließen könnten. Ihre große Mehrheil ist aber unbedingt russenfeindlich; separatistische Neigungen würden gewiß auftauchen, wenn die Lage der russischen Herrschaft kritisch würde.
Klima und Bodengestaltung bedingen in dem ganzen Raum, der für die türkisch russischen Kämpfe in Betracht kommt, eine vorsichtige und nichts überstürzende Kriegsführung, die zwar kaum den Charakter langer Positionskämpfe annehmen wird, aber dennoch in weit langsamerem Tempo zu Entscheidungen führt, als wir es auf den Schlachtfeldern Polens sehen. Das wird man bei der Bewertung der kommenden Kriegsereignisse sich vor allem vor Augen halten müssen. 2)

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Emiel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 8:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1915
Der Ausgang in das Labtal erzwungen
Großes Hauptquartier, 22. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die feindliche Artillerie zeigte lebhafte Tätigkeit in der Champagne, zwischen Maas und Mosel und östlich von Lunéville.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Ein schwacher russischer Vorstoß gegen den Kirchhof von Illuxt (nordwestlich von Dünaburg) wurde abgewiesen.
Balkankriegsschauplatz:
Bei Socanica (im Ibartal) wurden serbische Nachhuten zurückgeworfen. Der Austritt in das Labtal ist beiderseits von Podujevo erzwungen. Gestern wurden über 2600 Gefangene gemacht, 6 Geschütze, 4 Maschinengewehre und zahlreiches Kriegsgerät erbeutet.
Im Arsenal von Novibazar fielen 50 große Mörser und 8 Geschütze älterer Fertigung in unsere Hand.

Oberste Heeresleitung. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Mitrovica bedroht
Wien, 22. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Russischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Nichts Neues.
Italienischer Kriegsschauplatz:
Die Italiener setzten den Angriff auf den ganzen Görzer Brückenkopf ebenso hartnäckig wie erfolglos fort. Besonders erbittert war der Kampf im Abschnitte von Osiavija, wo die bewährte dalmatinische Landwehr, unterstützt durch das tapfere Krainer Infanterieregiment Nr. 17, den vorgestern noch in Feindeshand gebliebenen Teil unserer Stellung vollständig zurückeroberte. Der Südteil der Podgora wurde fünfmal angegriffen, die verzweifelten Vorstöße der Italiener brachen jedoch teils im Feuer, teils in Handgranatenkämpfen zusammen. Im Abschnitte der Hochfläche von Doberdo waren die Anstrengungen des Feindes hauptsächlich gegen den Raum von San Martino gerichtet. Nach starker Artillerievorbereitung vermochten die Italiener hier in unsere Kampffront einzudringen. Ein nächtlicher Gegenangriff brachte aber das Verlorene bis auf ein kleines vorspringendes Grabenstück wieder in unseren Besitz. Nördlich des Brückenkopfes von Görz überschritten schwächere feindliche Kräfte südlich Zagora den Isonzo, abends war aber das linke Flußufer von diesen Italienern wieder gesäubert. An der Tiroler Front hatte es der Gegner in der letzten Zeit auf den Col di Lana besonders abgesehen, wohl, um seinen zahlreichen Veröffentlichungen über Erfolge in diesem Gebiete gerecht zu werden. Das italienische schwere Geschützfeuer war hier gestern heftiger denn je; drei Angriffe auf die Bergspitze wurden abgewiesen.
Südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Die im Gebiete von Cajnice kämpfenden k. u. k. Truppen warfen die Montenegriner aus ihren Stellungen am Nordhange des Golesberges. Auch östlich von Gorazde sind Gefechte im Gange. Eine österreichisch-ungarische Gruppe aus Nova Varos nähert sich Prjepolje. In Novibazar erbeutete die Armee des Generals v. Koeveß 50 Mörser, 8 Feldgeschütze, 4000000 Gewehrpatronen und viel Kriegsgerät.
Der noch östlich der Stadt verbliebene Feind wurde von deutschen Truppen vertrieben, in deren Hand er 300 Gefangene zurücklief. Die im Ibartale vordringende österreichisch-ungarische Kolonne erstürmte gestern tagsüber 20 Kilometer nördlich von Mitrovica drei hintereinanderliegende serbische Stellungen. In der Dunkelheit bemächtigte sie sich durch Überfall noch einer vierten, wobei 200 Gefangene eingebracht und 6 Geschütze, 4 Maschinengewehre, eine Munitionskolonne und zahlreiche Pferde erbeutet wurden. Die Armee des Generals v. Gallwitz nahm in erfolgreichen Kämpfen südlich des Prepolacsattels 1800 Serben gefangen Örtlich und südöstlich von Pristina gewinnt der Angriff der ersten bulgarischen Armee trotz zähesten serbischen Widerstandes stetig an Raum.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes.
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 22. November.
An der Dardanellenfront aussetzendes Artilleriefeuer und Bombenkämpfe. Bei Anaforta zerstörte
eine unserer Patrouillen am rechten Flügel Schützengräben, die der Feind neuerdings anzulegen versuchte, und erbeutete 500 Sandsäcke und Draht. Unser Geschützfeuer vertrieb feindliche Transportschiffe, die sich der Küste von Ari Burun zu nähern versuchten. Am 21. November morgens verjagte unsere Artillerie ein feindliches Torpedoboot, das in die Meerengen einfahren wollte.
An der Kaukasusfront nichts von Bedeutung außer Scharmützeln zwischen den Patrouillen.

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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 8:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916

Der Einzug der deutschen Truppen in Craiova
Großes Hauptquartier, 22. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Nebliges Wetter hinderte großenteils die Gefechtsmäßigkeit.
Südlich des La Basseée-Kanals drangen Patrouillen des anhaltischen Infanterieregiments Nr. 73 und des Magdeburgischen Pionierbataillons Nr. 4 in die englischen Gräben ein und brachten nach Zerstörung der Verteidigungsanlagen über 20 Gefangene und 1 Maschinengewehr zurück. Auch im Somme-Gebiet blieb das Artilleriefeuer tagsüber gering und verstärkte sich abends nur auf beiden Ancre-Ufern und am St.-Pierre-Vaast- Walde. Ein Angriff der Engländer nordwestlich von Serre brach in unserem Abwehrfeuer zusammen.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Südwestlich von Riga holten Stoßtruppen deutschen Landsturms aus der russischen Stellung ohne eigenen Verlust 33 Gefangene und 2 Maschinengewehre.
Im übrigen vom Meer bis zum Karpathenkamme bei Kronstadt (Brasso) keine größeren Gefechtshandlungen. Nördlich von Campolung wiederholten sich die vergeblichen rumänischen Angriffe gegen die deutsche und österreichisch-ungarische Front. An der Roten Turm Paßstraße und in den Seitentälern des Alt wurde kämpfend Boden gewonnen. Widerstand des geschlagenen Gegners durch Bajonettangriff und Attacke schnell brechend, drangen vormittags von Norden west- und ostpreußische Infanterie, von Westen her Eskadrons Ihrer Majestät Kürassierregiment Königin als erste deutsche Truppe in Craiova ein.
Balkan-Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe des Generalfeldmarschalls v. Mackensen:
In der Dobrudscha nahe der Küste Vorfeldgefechte, an der Donau stellenweise Artilleriefeuer.
Mazedonische Front:
Zwischen Ochrida- und Prespasee, sowie in der Ebene von Monastir kamen Vortruppen der Entente in den Bereich der deutsch-bulgarischen Stellungen. Östlich von Paralova gewannen unsere Gardejäger eine Höhe zurück und hielten sich gegen mehrere starke Angriffe.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister.
Ludendorff. 1)





Feindliche Angriffe nördlich Monastir gescheitert
Berlin, 22. November, abends.
Im Somme-Gebiet nichts von Bedeutung.
Bei Orsova Fortschritte.
Nordöstlich Monastir scheiterten Ententeangriffe an deutsch-bulgarischer Front. 1)





Einführung der Zivildienstpflicht
Berlin, 22. November.
Dem Reichstage ist der Entwurf eines Gesetzes betreffend den vaterländischen Hilfsdienst zugegangen. Der Entwurf bestimmt in der Hauptsache: Jeder männliche Deutsche vom vollendeten 17. bis zum vollendeten 60. Lebensjahre, soweit er nicht zum Dienste in der bewaffneten Macht einberufen ist, ist zum vaterländischen Hilfsdienst während des Krieges verpflichtet. Als vaterländischer Hilfsdienst gilt außer dem Dienste bei Behörden und behördlichen Einrichtungen insbesondere die Arbeit in der Kriegsindustrie, in der Landwirtschaft, in der Krankenpflege und in kriegswirtschaftlichen Organisationen jeder Art sowie in sonstigen Betrieben, die für Zwecke der Kriegführung oder Volksversorgung unmittelbar oder mittelbar von Bedeutung sind. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 22. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Krajova ist nach kurzem Kampf genommen worden. Beiderseits des Olt- (Alt-) Flusses wichen die Rumänen weiter zurück. Nördlich von Campolung blieben alle Anstrengungen des Feindes, durch erbitterte Angriffe Erfolg zu erringen, abermals ergebnislos.
Italienischer und südöstlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Unverändert.

Der Stellvertreter des Chefs des Generalstabes
v. Hoefer, Feldmarschalleutnant. 1)




Der bulgarische Heeresbericht:

Erbitterte feindliche Angriffe im Cerna-Bogen gescheitert
Sofia, 22. November. (Amtlicher Heeresbericht.)
An der mazedonischen Front zwischen Ochrida- und Prespa-See Gefechte zwischen Vorposten. Feindliche, nördlich von Bitolia vorrückende Infanterie wurde zurückgeworfen. Im Cerna-Bogen scheiterten alle erbitterten Angriffe des Feindes auf Höhe 1050 östlich von Paralovo an dem hartnäckigen Widerstand deutscher Gardejäger. Südlich von Bitolia wurde durch unser Artilleriefeuer ein feindliches Flugzeug abgeschossen, das in Flammen hinter den feindlichen Linien niederfiel. Auf beiden Seiten des Wardar, am Fuße des Belasica Planina und an der Struma-Front schwaches Artilleriefeuer. An der Küste des Ägäischen Meeres Ruhe.
Rumänische Front:
Längs der Donau in einigen Abschnitten nur Infanterie- und Artilleriefeuer. Die Rumänen versenken ihre Boote auf der Donau. Sie zerstörten die Brücke bei dem Hafen Corabia. In dieser Stadt legten sie Feuer an die Patronenlager.
In der Dobrudscha schwache Artillerietätigkeit und Vorpostengefechte auf unserm rechten Flügel. An der Küste des Schwarzen Meeres Ruhe.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Konstantinopel, 22. November.
Amtlicher Bericht vom 22. November:
Tigrisfront: Unsere Flugzeuge zwangen feindliche Flugzeuge, die unsere Stellungen überflogen, zur Flucht. Wir zwangen ein feindliches Flugzeug zu landen. Zwei andere Flugzeuge, die Le Chate (?) überflogen, warfen Bomben auf die Bevölkerung der Umgebung.
Persische Front: Wir zogen in das Dorf Mihr Abad, 30 Kilometer nordöstlich von Bidjar, ein. Kaukasusfront: Auf dem rechten Flügel Ruhe. Im Zentrum und auf dem linken Flügel schlugen wir Überfälle des Feindes mit Verlusten für ihn ab.





Ein britisches Hospitalschiff gesunken
London, 22. November. (Reuter-Meldung.)
Die Admiralität teilt mit, daß das britische Hospitalschiff "Britannic" (47 500 Brutto-Registertonnen) am Morgen des 21. November im Zea-Kanal (Ägäisches Meer) durch eine Mine oder einen Torpedo zum Sinken gebracht worden ist. Es wurden 1106 Personen gerettet, von denen 28 verletzt sind. Man glaubt, daß 50 Personen ums Leben gekommen sind. 1)




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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 8:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1917

Fortdauer der Schlacht von Cambrai -
Höhen zwischen Brenta und Piave erstürmt

Leutnant v. Eschwege

Großes Hauptquartier, 22. November.
Westlicher Kriegsschauplatz:
Heeresgruppe Kronprinz Rupprecht:
In Flandern beschränkte sich der Artilleriekampf auf Störungsfeuer, das erst am Abend zwischen Poelkapelle und Passchendaele an Heftigkeit zunahm.
Vorstöße englischer Abteilungen nördlich von Lens und südlich von der Scarpe wurden abgewiesen.
Der starken Feuersteigerung am gestrigen Morgen bei Riencourt folgten nur schwächere englische Angriffe, die in unserem Feuer zusammenbrachen.
Die Schlacht südwestlich von Cambrai dauert an.
Durch Masseneinsatz von Panzerkraftwagen und Infanterie und durch Vortreiben seiner Kavallerie suchte der Feind den ihm am ersten Angriffstage versagt gebliebenen Durchbruch zu erzwingen. Er ist ihm nicht gelungen. Wohl konnte er über unsere vorderen Linien hinaus geringen Boden gewinnen. Größere Erfolge vermochte er nicht zu erzielen.
Die von unserer Artillerie und den Maschinengewehren wirksam gefaßten und stark gelichteten Verbände traf der Gegenstoß unserer tapferen Infanterie. Auf dem Westufer der Schelde warf sie den Feind auf Anneux und Fontaine, auf dem östlichen Ufer in seine Ausgangsstellungen südlich von Rumilly zurück.
Vor und hinter unseren Linien liegen, auf das ganze Schlachtfeld verteilt, die Trümmer zerschossener Panzerkraftwagen. An ihrer Zerstörung hatten auch unsere Flieger und Kraftwagengeschütze hervorragenden Anteil.
Mit Einbruch der Dunkelheit ließ die Gefechtstätigkeit auf dem Schlachtfelde nach.
Südlich von Vendhuille hat der Feind seine Angriffe nicht wiederholt.
Eine starke französische Abteilung drang in der Südfront von St. Quentin in unsere Linie ein. Im Gegenstoß wurde sie hinausgeworfen.
Heeresgruppe Deutscher Kronprinz:
Im Zusammenhang mit dem englischen Angriff hat auch der Franzose zwischen Craonne und Berry-au-Bac mit starken Vorstößen gegen unsere Stellungen begonnen. Heftiger Feuerkampf, der vom frühen Morgen mit kurzer Feuerpause den ganzen Tag über anhielt, ging ihnen voraus.
Nordöstlich von La Ville-aux-Bois ist ein Franzosennest zurückgeblieben. In den anderen Abschnitten haben wir den Feind im Feuer und dort, wo er eindrang, im Nahkampf zurückgeschlagen.
Eigene Unternehmungen hatten Erfolg und brachten Gefangene ein.
Leutnant Böhme errang durch Abschuß eines feindlichen Fliegers seinen 22. Luftsieg.
Östlicher Kriegsschauplatz und mazedonische Front:
Nichts Besonderes.
Leutnant v. Eschwege brachte einen feindlichen Fesselballon zum Absturz und errang damit seinen 20. Luftsieg.
Italienische Front:
Tiroler Kaiserschützen und württembergische Truppen erstürmten zwischen Brenta und Piave die Gipfel des Monte Fontana Secca und des Monte Spinuccia.

Der Erste Generalquartiermeister
Ludendorff. 1)





U-Boot-Beute im Oktober: 674000 Tonnen
Berlin, 22. November.
Im Monat Oktober sind durch kriegerische Maßnahmen der Mittelmächte insgesamt 674000 Brutto -Registertonnen des für unsere Feinde nutzbaren Handelsschiffsraums versenkt worden. Hiermit erhöhen sich die bisherigen Erfolge des uneingeschränkten U-Boot-Krieges auf 7649000 Brutto-Registertonnen.

Der Chef des Admiralstabes der Marine. 1)




Der österreichisch-ungarische Heeresbericht:
Wien, 22. November.
Amtlich wird verlautbart:
Westlich des Monte Meletta wurden italienische Angriffe durch Gegenstoß abgewiesen. Zwischen Brenta und Piave erstürmten Kaiserschützen vom 1. Regiment und Württemberger den Monte Fontana Secca und den Monte Spinuccia. Auf der Fontana Secca nahmen wir 200 Alpini gefangen.

Der Chef des Generalstabes.




Der türkische Heeresbericht:

Englische Angriffe an der Palästina-Front gescheitert
Konstantinopel, 22. November.
Sinai-Front:
Nach den Gefechten bei Gaza und Bir es Seba leisteten unsere Truppen bei den weiteren Operationen dem Gegner Widerstand und brachten ihm mehrfach Verluste bei. Zurzeit stehen unsere Truppen hinter dem Audscha- und Abu-Ledscha- Abschnitt, anschließend
etwa in der Linie Dschenanniye bei Likja Karjetel-Inab Safa. Weiter südlich stehen sie mit den Patrouillen des Feindes in Berührung. Zu einem ernsten Gefecht kam es erst vorgestern wieder. In breiter Front und mit der Absicht, beide Flügel zu umfassen, griff der Feind am 20. November eine unserer Gruppen an. Mehr als eine Kavalleriedivision und mehrere Infanteriebrigaden, unterstützt durch Artillerie und Kavallerie, setzte der Gegner ein. Der Angriff scheiterte auf der ganzen Linie. Der auf dem rechten Flügel abgeschlagene Angreifer wurde durch das geschickte Eingreifen von Reserven in Richtung Beth Kja flankiert und zum Zurückgehen gezwungen. Mehrere Maschinengewehre und Gefangene blieben in unserer Hand. In der Front wurden alle Angriffe abgeschlagen und eine Umgehungsbewegung gegen unseren linken Flügel frühzeitig verhindert.




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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 15:46    Onderwerp: Re: 22 november Reageer met quote

Emiel @ 22 Nov 2006 8:16 schreef:
1914 : Fighting suspended in Ypres Salient
On November 22, 1914, the first extended battle fought between Allied and German forces in the much-contested Ypres Salient during World War I comes to an end after over one month of fighting.



En dit was dus de apotheose.
Of : de kers op de Ieperse taart.
Of : het verjaardagscadeautje für den Kaiser.

Aurel



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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 15:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Mijn verontschuldigingen dat mijn foto te groot uitgevallen is. Confused
Kan een moderator mij laten weten - voor de toekomst - wat de optimale breedte is in pixels ? Ik dacht dat beneden de 1000 pixels breed (die van daarnet was 979 pixels) oké was, maar blijkbaar toch liefst een stuk minder ? 900 ? 800 ? 700 ?

Aurel
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2006 16:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Geen probleem, heb hem aangepast. het handigst is om de afbeelding 1024x768 te doen, dit kan je instellen als je de afbeelding upload bij www.imageshack.us
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 17:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

First battle of Ypres, 19 October-22 November 1914

(...) The last major attack on the British lines came on 11 November (battle of Nonne Bosschen). This became famous as the attack of the Prussian Guards, mostly because they were the only unit to break into the British lines. Eventually the 1st Guards Brigade was forced to take shelter in the woods of Nonne Bosschen (Nun’s copse), before being driven out by a counterattack.

There is no overall agreement about the end date of the battle. The French put the end of the battle as 13 November, the British as 22 November and the Germans as 30 November, although the German official history of the battle stops ten days earlier. Fighting continued on the Ypres front after the attack of 11 November, but not at the same level of intensity. The BEF and the French had held the line around Ypres. (...)

http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_ypres1.html

[O]p 22 november 1914 besloot het Duitse oppercommando het offensief te staken. Ieper was aan flarden geschoten.

http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/wiki/index.php/Eerste_Slag_om_Ieper

The Battles of Ypres ("First Ypres")
19 October - 22 November 1914

Elements of the British Expeditionary Force which took part in this engagement:

Lees verder op http://www.1914-1918.net/bat7.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Lakenhalle (Cloth Hall) Grote Markt


The Lakenhalle (Cloth Hall), Ypres, in flames, 22 November 1914. [Photo Anthony, Ypres, Stedelijke Musea, Ieper]

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/ieper/grote-markt.html
Zie ook http://www.1914-1918.ca/ypres.html
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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2010 18:06, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

David Henderson (British Army officer)



Lieutenant General Sir David Henderson KCB, KCVO, DSO, LLD (11 August 1862 – 17 August 1921) was an officer in the British Army who came to be considered as the leading authority on tactical intelligence during the early years of the 20th century. Henderson was also the first commander of the Royal Flying Corps in the field and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force as an independent service. (...)

On 22 November 1914, Henderson was appointed General Officer Commanding the 1st Infantry Division and his Chief of Staff Frederick Sykes took up command in his stead. However, Henderson did not spend long commanding the 1st Infantry Division. The decision to post Henderson and replace him with Sykes was not to Lord Kitchener's liking and he ordered a reversal of the appointments. On 20 December 1914, Henderson resumed command of the Royal Flying Corps in the Field and Sykes was once again his Chief of Staff.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Henderson_(British_Army_officer)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Medal Information Sheet 1914 Star
1914 Star (5th August - 22nd November 1914)

Face A four pointed star, the top point replaced by a crown. Across the face of the star are two crossed swords, the points and handles of which form what might appear to be four additional points. Partly covering the swords are a wreath and, within it, three scrolls. The centre scroll bears the date 1914, the upper and lower scrolls bear respectively `AUG.' and `NOV.'. Over the base of the wreath is the cipher `GV'.

Reverse Flat and plain, except for the number, rank, name and regiment of the recipient impressed upon it.

Size Approx. 44 mm wide and 62 mm long including the ring suspension.

Composition Medal and bar of bronze. Emblem of silver.

Ribbon Approx. 32mm wide. From left to right as seen on the wearer the colours are red, white and blue shaded and watered.

Suspension The ribbon passes through a ring, approx. 13mm in diameter which is integral with the piece - the whole being stamped out solid.

Naming The number, rank, name and regiment of the recipient are stamped on the reverse in block capitals in three lines. The style of lettering varies somewhat from medal to medal.

Bars One bar bearing the dates "5th Aug.: 22nd Nov. 1914"; one emblem, a rosette, to be worn in place of the bar on the ribbon on the tunic when medals are not worn.

Awarded The medal was authorised in 1917 for award to all who served on the strength of a unit or service in France or Belgium between 5th August and 22nd November 1914. This was principally an army award, although a few Navy personnel qualified, having served ashore at Antwerp during the qualifying period. A few women also received the award having served in France and Belgium as nurses or auxiliaries during the qualifying period. The award of the bar and emblem was authorised in October 1919 to all who had been under fire in France or Belgium between the above dates. The award of the medal was automatic, but in order to gain the bar and emblem a claim had to be submitted and substantiated. Since this could only be done well after the war ended, some who had the necessary qualifying service made no claim and received no bar or emblem. This applies particularly to those who qualified but died later in the war, as many next-of-kin made no claim. Around 378,000 Stars were issued.

http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/W.Langdon/fandf/1914star.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1914 - ‘Private Jack’s Medals’ - "First Wipers" (from the book "Neath a Foreign Sky" by Paul Allen)

R.I.P.
- Private John Megginson

By the end of ‘First Wipers’ during November 1914, the 2ND Battalion of the Yorkshire had been a mere shattered skeleton of its once proud former self. A pre war Regular Army unit, the battalion had landed in the Belgian port of Zeebrugge with the remainder of 7TH Division on the 6TH of October 1914, and had initially been intended to take part in the defence of Antwerp. However soon after the ‘Immortal Seventh’s’ arrival Antwerp had fallen to the advancing German hordes and the Division had marched westwards to begin digging the first trenches in front of the soon to become notorious Belgian city of Ypres. The story of the ensuing ferocious battle for the city known as ‘First Wipers’ has already been told elsewhere and needs little further attention other than to say the 2ND Yorkshire, like many of the other fine British infantry units, that had taken part in the battle could barely muster a handful of officers and men.

Relieved from the terrible bloodshed that had taken place in the defence of Ypres during the night of the 15TH of October1914, the Battalion had gone into battle with a fighting strength of around one thousand rifles and by the time that it had left the line the unit had lost ten of its officers killed, and another eighteen had been wounded, whilst the ‘other ranks’ had lost somewhere in the region of six hundred and fifty men, killed, wounded, and missing, leaving just one Captain, three Second Lieutenants, and three hundred sorry looking other ranks to march away from the smouldering ruins of Ypres and their many dead and missing comrades.

The 2ND Yorkshire had at first been marched to the village of Locre where the survivors had been given their first hot meal in many a day before they had moved into comfortable billets where the majority of the battle weary men had fallen asleep within minutes of their arrival. Rest for the Battalion, had however, been short for within a few short hours the still dishevelled unit had crossed over the border into France where the 2ND Battalion had eventually taken up positions near to the village of Ploegsteert, where once again the battalion had been afforded little rest, for during the next few days the unit had been engaged in digging trenches.

Over the ensuing days the 2ND Yorkshire had received large numbers of replacement troops and the Battalion had gradually been rebuilt into a cohesive fighting unit. By the 16TH of October the battalion had been considered fit enough for further active service and had duly marched to the French town of Fleurbaix, where the men had taken up positions in the nearby front line. Beset with almost constant heavy rain, the battalion had rotated with three days in, and three out of these often flooded and collapsing trenches throughout the remainder of 1914.

Fortune had nevertheless shone on Battalion at Christmas that year, the unit being fortunate enough to be in billets throughout the festive period. On Christmas Day each man had received ‘plum puddings galore and other additions from home’, in addition each had received a Christmas card from their King and Queen, along with a tin of sweets or cigarettes, a gift from Princess Mary.

During the same period in the area of Fleurbaix the Germans had asked for a temporary armistice in order to bury a number of their dead that had lain out in No Man’s Land. The request had duly been granted and up until the fall of night of the first day of 1915 Germans and Britons had walked freely about their respective entrenchments and even the usually lethal No Man’s Land. Much to the annoyance of the top brass the officers and men of 2ND Yorkshire had been amongst the large number of British troops that had openly fraternised with the enemy during that first Christmas of the war, the Yorkshiremen exchanging cigarettes for cigars, and their cap badges for German emblems. However, by the opening of the second day of 1915 it had been business as usual, and bullets and shells had once again begun to be exchanged by the two sides.

By the start of February 1915 the 2ND Yorkshire had still been in their waterlogged positions near Fleurbaix. Of this period the Battalion’s Historian reports;

The heavy and continuous rain had reduced the trenches to a deplorable condition, and in places the water was above the men’s knees; if pumping ceased for any reason, the trenches became flooded, while the parapets continually giving way’…[1]

To afford the men some shelter during that particularly wet period of the war it had been customary to hold a number of officers and men in ‘Battalion Reserve’ often in farm buildings away from the front line. This had been the case during the 28TH of February when the officers and men of the 2ND Battalion’s ‘A’ Company had been ‘resting’ in farm buildings close to Fleurbaix. Despite their distance from the front these buildings had been under observation by the enemy and had duly come under attack from German artillery that day. At some point during the bombardment a chance shell had hit one of the farm buildings killing two soldiers and wounding a number of others. One of the dead had been nineteen years old; 3/7696 Private John Megginson.

Born in Scarborough on the 22ND of July 1895 at No.38 Durham Street, John, popularly known as ‘Jack’, had been the youngest son of Margaret Ann, and ‘cab driver/ groom’ Stephen Smithson Megginson, who had been residing in the town at No.83 Trafalgar Road at the time of their son’s death. [2]

A pupil of Scarborough’s Central Board School and a prominent member of the town’s East End Football Club, Jack Megginson had also been a member of the choir of St Mary’s Parish Church. Employed in the Newborough shop of ‘tea dealer, grocer and provisioner’ Abraham Altham prior to the outbreak of war, Megginson had enlisted into the Yorkshire Regiment at Scarborough during late August 1914 shortly after the beginning of hostilities and had duly been posted for training to the regiment’s Depot at Richmond, where he had joined the 3RD [Reserve] Battalion.

In training until the start of October 1914, Megginson had barely learnt the rudiments of military expertise by the time he had been included in a large draft of replacements destined for service with the sorely depleted 2ND Battalion. Nevertheless, the nineteen years old, along with many young men of a similar age, had found himself amongst a draft of five officers and five hundred and thirteen non commissioned officers and men that had eventually joined the unit in Northern France, near the village of Bailluel, on the 16TH of October 1914, the same day that the 2ND Battalion had begun its march towards the trenches at Fleurbaix.

With little chance of saying his goodbyes to his family before he had been sent to France, Jack had eventually written a letter to his anxious mother in an attempt to ally the many fears she had carried for her young son. It says; ‘Dear mother, I am sorry that I could not say goodbye to you but I say so now, with all my heart. Don’t get worried on my account, as I will be alright. I will write and let you know how I get on and I will get my photo taken and send it to you. Lots of love to you from Jack, your loving son’…[3]

Despite Jack’s assurance of his safety shortly after Margaret Megginson had received the above letter, during March 1915 she had received news of her son’s death in the form of a letter from his commanding officer that had subsequently been included in ‘The Scarborough Mercury’ of Friday the 12TH of March 1915;

‘Dear Madam, --I am sorry to inform you that your son, Private Megginson of the A Company, was killed in action on the 28TH February. We were in battalion reserve in occupation of some farm buildings. Your son was sitting in a room with the men of his section when a shell hit the wall of the building and burst inside the room killing two, one of which was your son, and wounding five others. We had just finished breakfast about 8.30, when the shell struck the house. Death was instantaneous and he could have uttered no pain. I t will be some consolation to you to know he had died a soldier’s death and that he always bore his share of the hardships of the campaign with that fortitude which distinguishes the men of his regiment. He was buried along with his comrade near a military dressing station close to his comrades. We erected a wooden cross over his grave. His grave will be well looked after, as some of the officers and men of his regiment are buried near the spot. With sincere sympathy in your great loss. —Yours truly’…

B.L. Maddison, Capt.

Commanding A Company, 2ND Batt. Yorks. Regt. [4]

Shortly after his demise, the remains of Jack Megginson, and fellow nineteen years old 10366 Private Horace Fields had been taken to a small burial ground located near to the village of Bois Grenier known as ‘Croix-Blanche British Cemetery’, where the two young soldiers had been interred alongside each other. However, at the war’s end the two burials had for some unknown reason been separated when the two men’s remains had been re located to larger cemeteries. Those of Sheffield born Private Fields had gone to ‘Y Farm Cemetery’ at Bois Grenier, whilst those of Private Megginson had been taken for burial to ‘Rue-David Military Cemetery at Fleurbaix, where Jack’s final resting place is located in Section 1, Row A, Grave 18.

Amongst Scarborough’s first casualties of the Great War Jack Megginson’s name is commemorated on the town’s Oliver’s Mount Memorial, and in addition the former choirboy’s name is included on the large ‘Roll of Honour’ located on the north interior wall of St Mary’s Parish Church that contains the names of 156 former members of the Parish that had lost their lives whilst on active service during the First World War

One of four brothers that had served during the First World War, unlike their younger sibling Corporals Rueben and George Megginson had served together with the 18TH Hussars throughout the war, and despite both being wounded during 1914 had survived to tell the tale. Jack’s eldest brother, Private William Stephen Megginson, had served with the West Yorkshire Regiment during the war and had also survived.

Having served under fire in France and Belgium during the qualifying period of 5TH of August to midnight of the 22ND/23RD of November 1914 Jack had been awarded with a 1914 Star with a clasp bearing the inscription ‘5 August—22 November 1914’. Sometimes, incorrectly known as the ‘Mons Star’ he had also qualified for a British War Medal and a Victory Medal, a trio of British Medals that are often referred to a ‘Pip Squeak, and Wilfred’ after a threesome of cartoon characters that had been popular at the time of the Great War.

These three medals had been forwarded to Jack Megginson’s relatives after the war and like most of those mementoes of the Great War had eventually been lost to the family of Private Jack Megginson, only to reappear many years later in an auction that was to be held in London. My local newspaper had got hold of the story of ‘Private Jack’s Medals and the ‘Scarborough Evening News’ of Tuesday the 22ND of April 2008 had reported the story of the nineteen years old Scarborough soldier who had lost his life over ninety years earlier. The auction at London’s Spink at Bloomsbury had duly taken place two days later, Jack’s Medals being sold for £264. Sadly, as far as is known, not to a buyer from Jack’s hometown, which is a pity.

[1] Wylly; The Green Howards in the War 1914-1919;
[2] Married in Scarborough’s St Mary’s Parish Church during 1887, Stephen and Margaret [formally Pennock] Megginson had been residing with the remainder of their family in Scarborough at No.11 Wrea Lane by the time of the 1901 Census and had consisted of Stephen, aged 38 years of age, Margaret, 32 years, William S., 14 years, Edith, 12 years, Violet, 10 years, Rueben, 8 years, George, 7 years, John, 5 years, and Margaret aged 3 years. All the family had been native to Scarborough.
[3] Jack’s letter is extracted from an article that had appeared in the Scarborough Evening News of Thursday the 1ST of May 2008, and I am indebted to Mrs Lesley Penny of Highfield, Scarborough for bringing the story of her great uncle, Private Jack Megginson, to light.
[4] Captain, later Lieutenant Colonel Bertram Lionel Maddison, had subsequently also been killed in action, on the 1ST of July 1916, the first day of the Somme Offensive, whilst on attachment and commanding the 8TH Battalion of the York and Lancaster Regiment. His remains are interred in Blighty Valley Cemetery, Authuile Wood, in the French Department of the Somme.


http://www.scarboroughsmaritimeheritage.org.uk/greatwar/f7-battle-ypres.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Australia and the Gallipoli Campaign

22 November 1915 - Preliminary plan drawn up for the evacuation of all three British held areas of Gallipoli — Helles, Anzac and Suvla. An evacuation plan was devised by Lieutenant Colonel Charles Brudenell White, chief of staff, Anzac Corps.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/australia-gallipoli-campaign/november-1915.html

22 November 1915 - Lord Kitchener advised that Gallipoli should be evacuated. This would involve taking off more than 93,000 troops, 200 guns and more than 5,000 animals as well as vast quantities of stores and ammunition.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/november-december-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Battle of Ctesiphon (1915)

The Battle of Ctesiphon (Turkish: Selman-ı Pak Muharebesi) was fought [22-25] November 1915 by the British Empire and British India, against the Ottoman Empire, within the Mesopotamian Campaign of World War I.

Indian Expeditionary Force D, mostly made up of Indian units and under the command of Gen. Sir John Nixon, had met with success in Mesopotamia since landing at Al Faw upon the Ottoman Empire's Declaration of War on November 5, 1914.

One of the primary reasons for initiating the campaign in Mesopotamia was to defend the oil refinery at Abadan at the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab. Adopting a forward defence policy, the British army under General Townshend fought off a series of small Ottoman forces. Then after a year of a string of defeats, the Ottoman forces were able to halt the British advance in two days of hard fighting at Ctesiphon.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Ctesiphon_(1915)
Zie ook http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ctesiphon.htm


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Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 21 Nov 2010 18:22, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische vluchtelingen in Bedum 1914 –1915

De Commissaris der Koningin is aan het inventariseren welke goederen er zijn aangeschaft in verband met eventuele declaraties bij de provinciale Commissie te Groningen: No. 318/18 november 1914/aan de Commissaris der Koningin/…..dat de Belgische vluchtelingen grotendeels bij particulieren zijn ondergebracht. In het gemeentelijk armenhuis werden 15 personen gehuisvest die wat de ligging betreft geen uitgave noodzakelijk maakte daar het reservemateriaal der stichting voldoende was of bij particulieren geleend kon worden. Voorwerpen voor huiselijk gebruik behoefden niet aangeschaft te worden, terwijl eetgerei, voorzover nodig, van een hotelhouder geleend is. Het opmaken van een inventaris is dus niet wel mogelijk…..

De burgemeester schrijft de Commissaris der Koningin op eigen initiatief een brief: No. 320/21 november 1914/aan de Commissaris der Koningin/…..dat maandag 16 november jl. 11 Belgische vluchtelingen zijn vertrokken en dat maandag 23 november a.s. verder 3 personen zullen vertrekken, waarna de gemeente Bedum bevrijd is van Belgische vluchtelingen. Wel blijven er nog twee, maar deze zijn in dienstbetrekking gegaan n.l. Jeanne Peijs, oud 20 jaar, naaister, bij de heer W. Bazuin te Bedum en Gabriëlle Rosalia Meersman bij de heer dominee Beversluis te Zuidwolde…..

(...)

Eind november 1915 informeert het vanuit Amsterdam werkende Nederlandse Comité tot steun van Belgische en andere vluchtelingen nog eens naar de mogelijkheden van eventuele opvang van vluchtelingen in een voorkomend geval. De burgemeester schrijft een brief met een terughoudende inhoud: No. 558/22 november 1915/aan het Nederlands Comité te Amsterdam/….. heb ik de eer u het navolgende te berichten: Sinds eind november bestaat in de gemeente Bedum geen vluchtelingencomité meer. Behoudens zeer buitengewone omstandigheden zal het hoogst moeilijk zijn weer een dergelijk comité in het leven te roepen. In het vorige jaar werden hier 65 Belgische vluchtelingen onderdak gebracht, waarvan 44 bij particulieren en 21 in het gemeentelijk Armenhuis, waar toen twee kamers onbewoond waren, gehuisvest werden. Het is niet te verwachten dat dit thans nogmaals zou kunnen geschieden. Over gebouwen, waarin vluchtelingen te herbergen zijn, kan hier niet worden beschikt. De kosten, in het vorige jaar gemaakt te dezer zake, werden gedekt uit een bij de ingezetenen gehouden collecte. Moeilijk is te zeggen hoe de offervaardigheid zich in de toekomst zal uiten. Belangrijk verminderd is ze zeer zeker. Wanneer het beslist noodzakelijk wordt in deze gemeente vluchtelingen onderdak te brengen zal dit toch slechts voor zeer korte tijd kunnen zijn…..

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/opvang-in-bedum.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 November 1916 → Commons Sitting

GALLIPOLI (ENGLISH GRAVES).


HC Deb 22 November 1916 vol 87 c1394 1394

Mr. MALCOLM asked the Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs whether he has received from the Vatican a Report from the Apostolic delegate at Constantinople upon the state of English graves in Gallipoli; and, if so, how soon he will be able to publish it?

Mr. FORSTER No such Report has been communicated to us; we are informed, however, that photographs of the graves have been taken and that the Vatican will supply us with reproductions. I need hardly say that we very highly appreciate the Pope's solicitude in this matter.

Mr. MALCOLM Do I understand from that answer that it is untrue that on 7th November such a report had been sent, not to the Treasurer of the Household or the War Office, but to the Foreign Office, and, if so, when the report does arrive will the hon. Gentleman see that it is circulated, because the parents in Great Britain, New Zealand and Australia are anxiously awaiting information?

Mr. FORSTER Certainly.

Mr. HOGGE Will the hon. Gentleman also inquire about the Scottish case?

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/nov/22/gallipoli-english-graves
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jack London's death certificate, from County Record's Office, Sonoma Co., Nov. 22, 1916



http://london.sonoma.edu/Documents/I0040981.html
Uit The Jack London Online Collection, http://london.sonoma.edu/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

1916 - Geschiedenis van Zijtaart

Op 22 november 1916 werd in de parochie Zijtaart opgericht: 'Voor Eer en Deugd' (mannenafdeeling). Wat was dit voor een beweging?

Binnen het bisdom Roermond was op 8 december 1904 voor de kostschool-leerlingen van Rolduc de vereniging ‘Voor Eer en Deugd’ opgericht. De leden moesten zich ten doel stellen de deugd en reinheid uit te dragen en een deugdzaam leven te leiden. Meteen bij de oprichting werd de vereniging officieel erkend door Paus Pius X en goedgekeurd door de bisschop van Roermond, zodat de leden geestelijke gunsten en aflaten konden verkrijgen. Vanaf 1906 kreeg de vereniging landelijke rijkwijdte door de oprichting van vele plaatselijke afdelingen waarvan mannen lid konden worden. A.F. Diepen, de latere bisschop van ’s-Hertogenbosch en oud leerling van Rolduc, trad toe tot het hoofdbestuur. In 1910 werden de insignes ingevoerd die de leden moesten dragen; later kwamen er ook hangers bij. In 1917 werden afdelingen voor vrouwen en meisjes opgericht. Vanaf 1918 konden ook zij aflaten verdienen. Het bestrijden van onzedelijke vrouwenkleding was een belangrijk item. De mannelijke leden hadden de taak te waken over de eer en zedelijke kleding van de vrouwen en meisjes in hun omgeving en indien nodig hen hierover aan te spreken. Jongens moesten bijvoorbeeld weigeren in damesgezelschap te verschijnen indien de aanwezige dames te uitdagend gekleed gingen, ook al betrof het hun eigen moeder of zus en haar vriendinnen. Op die soep in Zijtaart ook zo heet gegeten werd is onzeker. Voor Eer en deugd gaf een tijdschrift uit voor haar leden, aanvankelijk Voor eer en deugd, in 1910 gevolgd door Volksadel voor jongemannen en Mannenadel en Vrouweneer voor volwassen mannen en vrouwen. Op nationaal vlak begon de vereniging vanaf 1925 weg te kwijnen. In het bisdom Den Bosch bleef monseigneur Diepen de vereniging steunen, maar op 14 juni 1938 werd deze uiteindelijk toch opgeheven door een al jaren tanend ledental.

http://www.oudzijtaart.nl/Kroniek/K1916.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Officer's service record: J R R Tolkien

Trench fever - After four months in the trenches - a period that strongly influenced the world that he later created in books such as The Hobbit (1937) and The Lord of Rings (1954-55) - Tolkien fell victim to the typhus-like condition known as 'trench fever' and returned to England in November. Unable to fully shake off its debilitating effects, he spent the rest of war either in hospital or in home service camps, where he did sufficiently well to earn promotion to the rank of lieutenant.

The papers in Tolkien's service record file (WO 339/34423) are largely concerned with the various health problems that dominated his time in the army during the First World War. There are numerous reports made by army medical boards between December 1916 and September 1918 on Tolkien's recovery from trench fever - a slow process punctuated by relapses.

The file also contains the document (dating from 22 November 1916) confirming his initial return to England from France because of illness, and two short letters written by Tolkien himself (in January and February 1917), in which he informs the War Office that he is once again fit for duty.

http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/people/tolkien.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 18:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

AUCKLAND WEEKLY NEWS - 22 NOVEMBER 1917

The Royal Humane Society’s bronze medallion and certificate were presented at Wellington to Sergeant Major HOLMES who jumped from a fast moving train on 26 June to rescue Private LAKE who had fallen from the platform, having his leg severed by the wheels. By rendering first aid promptly he saved LAKE’s life.

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~sooty/awn22nov1917.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Polley voos Fransay by Norman Rockwell
November 22, 1917 Issue of Life Magazine




"Parley vous Francais?" the little girl is asking the American soldier.
Judging by the publication date of this issue, this soldier must have been one of the first American soldiers to arrive. America had barely entered the "Great War" in November 1917.
This girl has probably never seen an American soldier before now. She does not know which country he may be from. Then she notices the "US" on his hat and belt buckle.
Now she knows who he is. Still she asks "Parley vous Francais?"
The soldier responds with hand gestures. We still do not know if he speaks French or not.
I bet he will "Parley vous Francais" before his tour of France is concluded.

http://www.best-norman-rockwell-art.com/norman-rockwell-life-magazine-cover-1917-11-22-polley-voos-fransay.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Cambrai operations, 20 November - 30 December 1917

(...) On 22 November, the GOC 40th Division at Beaumetz-les-Cambrai received orders to relieve the 62nd Division the next day. The 40th was a division of Bantams, men under regulation height. By now the roads were breaking up under the strain of thousands of men, wagons and lorries. It took 40th Divisional HQ 15 hours to travel the 9 miles to Havrincourt. A relief and assault plan was quickly drawn up: 121 Brigade to capture Bourlon, 119 Brigade to go for the wood, both jumping off from the sunken lane. On their right, the 51st would move forward to Fontaine. On the left, the 36th would go in again at Moeuvres. 92 tanks would support these units. They attacked through ground mist on the morning of the 23rd. Some of the units of the 40th had to cross 1000 yards down the long slope from Anneux, across the sunken lane and up the final rise into the wood, all the while under shell fire. There was close and vicious fighting in the wood, but after 3 hours the Welsh units of 119 Brigade were through and occupying the northern and eastern ridges at the edge of the undergrowth. 121 Brigade was cut down by heavy machine gun fire, and few men got as far as the village. 7 tanks did but were unsupported and the survivors withdrew. On the flanks, the 36th and 51st Divisions made little progress, against strengthening opposition. (...)

http://www.1914-1918.net/bat21.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Daily Mirror Headlines: The Hindenburg Line, Published 22 November 1917

Great British Victory
Over 8,000 Prisoners 'Important Progress' - German Reinforcements Driven from Villages.

Scottish troops advance over five miles

Counter-attacks Against Our New Positions Smashed - Tanks Again Give Great Assistance in the Push
Our Great Victory

The surprise attack on the Hindenburg Line, delivered by General Sir Julian Byng, has been crowned with magnificent success. British troops, aided by the fine work of the tanks, have penetrated German defences to a depth of five miles, captured many villages and strong points, and taken over 8,000 prisoners. Our cavalry are also reported in action and are pouring through the Hindenburg Line.

French Push
Our Allies have also struck a blow in the Craonne sector, advancing a quarter of a mile on a front of 1,100 yards south of Juvincourt.

Byng's Drive Through Hindenburg Line
Splendid Successes West and South West of Cambrai

(British Official)

General Headquarters, Wednesday 10.30pm: Important progress has again been made today west and southwest of Cambrai, though rain has fallen continuously. The reinforcements which the enemy has hurried up to the battlefield to oppose our advance have been driven out of a further series of villages and other fortified positions, and many additional prisoners have been taken.

Tanks have again given great assistance to the advance. On our right we have made progress in the direction of Crevecoeur-sur-L'Escourt. North east of Mannières we have captured the enemy's double line of trenches on the east bank of the Canal de L'Escourt (the Scheldt Canal).

Sharp fighting has taken place in this neighbourhood and hostile counter-attacks have been driven off. North of Marcoing, the village of Noyelle de L'Escourt was captured early in the morning. Here also heavy fighting has taken place, and hostile counter-attacks have been successfully repulsed.

During the morning Scottish troops moving north east from Flesquieres captured the German defensive lines south west of Cantaing and the village itself, together with 500 prisoners.

Later in the day they contained their advance and have established themselves in positions more than five miles behind the former German front line.

North of Annex West Riding battalions have been engaged with the enemy south and south west of Bourlon Wood.

Further west Ulster regiments have crossed the Bapaume-Cambrai road and have entered Moeuvres.

During the day strong hostile counter-attacks against our new positions in the neighbourhood of Bullecourt have been defeated.

The number of prisoners which have passed through our collecting stations exceeds 8,000 including 180 officers.

The number of guns captured has not yet been ascertained.

TopLed By Tanks
(British Official)

Germany, Headquarters, Wednesday 12.15pm: Yesterday morning the Third Army, under the command of General the Hon. Sir Julian Byng, delivered a number of attacks between St Quentin and the River Scarpe.

These attacks were carried out without previous artillery preparation and in each case the enemy was completely surprised.

Our troops have broken into the enemy's positions to a depth of between four and five miles on a wide front, and have captured several thousand prisoners and a number of guns. Our operations are continuing.

At the hour of the assault on the principal front of the attack, a large number of tanks moved forward in advance of the infantry and broke through the successive belts of German wire which were of great depth and strength.

Second for System Taker
Following through the gaps made by the tanks, English, Scottish and Irish regiments swept over the enemy's outposts and stormed the first defensive system of the Hindenburg Line on the whole front. Our infantry and tanks then pressed on in accordance with programme and captured the German second system of defence more than a mile beyond. The latter is known as the Hindenburg Support Line. In the course of this advance East County troops took the hamlet of Besavia and Lateau Wood after stiff fighting.

English rifle regiments and light infantry captured La Vacquerie and formidable defences of the spur known as Welsh Ridge.

Other English county troops stormed the village of Ribecourt and fought their way through Costelet Wood.

Rapid Progress
Highland Territorial battalions crossed the Grand Ravine and entered Flesquieres, where fierce fighting took place. West Riding Territorials captured Havriacourt and the German trench system north of the village, while Ulster battalions covering the latter's left flank moved northwards up the west bank of the Canal du Nord.

Later in the morning our advance was continued and rapid progress was made at all points. English, Scottish, Irish and Welsh battalions secured the crossings of the canal at Mannières and captured Marcoing and Neuf Wood.

The West Riding troops, who had taken Havriacourt, made remarkable progress east of the Canal du Nord, storming the villages of Graincourt and Annex and, with the Ulster troops operating west of the canal, carried the whole of the German line northwards to the Bapaume-Cambrai road.

TopTerritorials' Fine Work
West Lancashire Territorials broke into the enemy's positions east of Epehy and Irish troops have captured important sections of the Hindenburg Line between Bullecourt and Fontaine-les-Croisilles. The number of prisoners, guns and material captured cannot yet be estimated.

The spell of fine dull weather which favoured our preparations for our attacks broke early yesterday. Heavy rain fell during the night and the weather is now stormy. (Reuters' correspondent, British Army)

France, Wednesday: It is believed that during yesterday's operations over 5,000 prisoners were captured.

The Air Ministry
Mr Bonar Law, in answer to a question, told the House of Commons yesterday that Lord Cowdray's resignation as Air Minister had been accepted. A successor had not yet been appointed.

Berlin Hiding the Truth of Haig's Surprise
Foe Says British Attack Was Heralded by 'Strong Artillery'

(French Official)

To the west of the Miette, about 3pm today, we attacked a salient in the German line to the south of Juvincourt on a front of about 1,100 yards and an average depth of 440 yards.

Our troops reaching all their objectives captured the strong defences of the enemy. In the course of this operation we took 175 prisoners.

Between the Miette and the Aisne our patrols brought back about 40 prisoners. The artillery fighting was lively throughout this region.

(German Official)

Wednesday night: In the afternoon strong French advances were commenced on the front from Craonne to Berry au Bac.

(The distance from Craonne to Berry au Bac is about six miles. Craonne on the Chemia des Dames, is about 12 miles south east of Laon. The Hindenburg Line runs: Douai-Cambrai-La Cateau to St Quentin-La Fère-Laon.)

Our Cavalry Pour Through the Gap
Horsemen Take Batteries And Cut Down Gunners

(From a Special Correspondent)

War Correspondent's Camp, Wednesday: We have torn to shreds the Hindenburg Line. At its strongest points the cavalry are pouring through. Early yesterday afternoon all the trustworthy news pointed to a glorious success.

The cavalry were moving up to cross the German lines in the direction of Cambrai many hours, indeed before them, and there was a sense of open fighting as opposed to years of underground warfare which exhilarated the whole Army.

But great progress has been made since then and today one passed along numerous lines of horsemen moving in the right direction.

Two bodies of them charged enemy batteries, cut down the gunners and captured the guns - in our case three, in the other, I think, seven guns.

TopByng's Secret
Rarely has a more dramatic stroke been delivered in war than we dealt the Germans yesterday, says Reuters' special correspondent at the Correspondent's Headquarters, France. We have penetrated into the great impregnable Hindenburg Line at numerous points in a wide thrust, and it was primarily the tanks that did it.

The attack seems to have come upon the Germans as a complete surprise. Care had been taken to render it a surprise, the greatest secrecy being offered in regard to our plans. A fleet of tanks had to be brought up close to the line.

The ground, except for certain narrow areas is dry and well covered with thick grass, the withered growth of last summer making excellent going for tanks or men.

Ten Big Ships Down

The Admiralty shipping returns shows that ten big ships were sunk last week, as compared with one during the preceding period.

Airmen Give Foe No Rest
(British Air Official)

10.30pm On 20 November: Our aeroplanes attempted to work throughout the day in conjunction with our operations between St Quentin and the River Scarpe.

Low clouds and mist and a strong westerly wind, with drizzle and occasional rain throughout the day, made it necessary for our pilots to fly at 50 feet from the ground. Even at that height they were at times quickly lost in the mist.

Continual attempts were made to regain contact with our advancing troops, but this was rendered almost impossible by the weather conditions. Many bombs were dropped on the enemy's batteries, lorries, aeroplanes, transports and railways.

Batteries and small groups of infantry were attacked with machine-gun fire.

Valuable information was gained despite the very difficult conditions.

Only five hostile machines were seen all day on the battlefront. Eleven of our machines are missing, their loss being due to the mist and the exceptionally low height at which they were compelled to fly.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/mirror06_01.shtml
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Grey River Argus , 22 November 1917





http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=GRA19171122.2.13
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Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States 1918 Russia Vol. I - The Bolshevik "Coup d'Etat" November 7, 1917

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/ch5menu.asp

Hieruit:

Foreign Relations of the United States : 1918 The November Revolution. The Russian Ambassador (Bakhmeteff) to the Secretary of State

File No. 861.00/3477

The Russian Ambassador (Bakhmeteff) to the Secretary of State
[A copy of the following unsigned telegram to the Russian Embassy at Washington was left by the Ambassador at the Department of State on November 27, 1917 :]

PETROGRAD, November 22, 1917.

On the 7th of November the action of the "bolsheviki" took place, having for its result the arrest of the members of the Provisional Government. On the 11th General Manikovski took temporarily charge of the Ministry of war, on condition of a complete non-interference into his activities and so as to enable the Ministry of war, standing out of politics, to resume its work necessary for the defense of the country.

The activities of the Ministry of war had recommenced and no measures were taken in order to secure the safety of foreign Embassies and Legations as well as to the promptest restoration of the telegraph communications. The general headquarters of the armies were informed of the situation and a reply was received stating that the conditions there were analogical. General Dukhonin sent a wireless on the 14th of November communicating that on account of the absence of Kerensky and lack of information as to his whereabouts, he is assuming temporarily the high command of the armies and called the troops, awaiting the solution of the crisis, to remain calm on the front fulfilling their duty towards the country so as to prevent the possibility for the enemy to take advantage of the situation and to penetrate further into boundaries of the motherland.

In view of the fact that the Foreign Office not as yet resumed its aetivities, the Chief of the General Staff has considered it necessary to enter into direct relations with the Allied Embassies in order to carry on, as far as possible, the current affairs. Following the instructions given by the Chief of the General Staff, the Director of the Military Intelligence called on the British Ambassador, dean of the Diplomatic Corps, and made the following suggestions:

(1) The Foreign Office having temporarily interrupted its activities, relatlons concerning urgent current affairs to be established directly with the General Staff.

(2) With regard to the Allied conference in Paris it was stated that the Russian delegates were unable to leave for Paris on account of the events of 7-12th of November. Nevertheless, under the present conditions it would be highly undesirable for the interest of the common cause to enable the strengthening of an impression that Russia by the force of the events is practically out of the ranks of the belligerents and is no more considered by her allies as an active member amongst them. Consequently it seems advisable either to postpone the conference until a time when Russian delegates could participate, or to organize simultaneously in Petrograd another conference of a purely military character pertaining to matters already elaborated and prepared by the Russian General Staff, and so as to communicate to the Paris conference the proceedings of the Petrograd meeting, the latter to be vice verse kept informed of the results attained in Paris.

(3) Rumors, which appeared in the Russian press, about the departure of the Allied representatives have an extremely unfavorable action on public opinion; any impression which might be created to the effect that the Allies are abandoning the Russian people in the present critical situation could rouse a feeling of the nation that Russia is freed from responsibility for the disrupture of the Allied action.

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/ch527.asp
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The Attack on Bourlon Wood, commencing 22nd November 1917
[i]Major H.P.B. Gough Commanding 17th Battalion The Welsh Regiment[/][Transcribed from his handwritten report ]

Ref: MOEUVRES special sheet 1/20000

On November 23rd 1917, the 119th Infantry Brigade with the assistance of "Tanks" and Artillery attacked the enemy positions in BOURLON WOOD. At the same time BOURLON VILLAGE was attacked by the 121st Infantry Brigade on our left and FONTAINE-NOTRE-DAME by the 51st Division on our right.

The 119th Infantry Brigade attacked on a two Battalion Front. The 19th R.W.Fusiliers on the right and the 12th S.W.Borderers on the left. The divide up line between the 2 Battalions was roughly the road running N & S through the wood. The road itself being given to the 19th R. W. F.

The 17th Welsh was in Support

The 18th Welsh was held in Reserve in and about GRAINCOURT

On the evening of Nov 22nd the 17th Welsh Regiment moved forward from DOIGNIES and spent the night 22nd/23rd November in the Sunken Roads in E.30.c.

Shortly before ZERO hour (10.0 a.m. 23/11/19 17) the Battalion moved forward to its assembly position. A and D Companies through ANNEUX to the S edge of the CAMBRAI Road in F. 19 central, B & C Companies to the sunken road in E 24B.

Orders were issued to Company Commanders as follows:
(1) A & D Companies to Support the 19th R. W. F.
(2) C & B Companies to Support the 12th S. W. B.
(3) "D" Company to secure the Sunken Road through F. 14 and establish a Strong Point there.
(4) "B" Company to establish a Strong Point at about E.18.A.1.9.
(5) All 4 Companies to be prepared to throw out defensive Flanks and to keep touch with troops on right & left
(6) The advance to be checked on the road running E & W through F.13 a & b and posts left to secure a position on the high ground on that General Line
When the 2 leading the Battalions entered the Wood A & C Coys moved forward in Artillery Formation followed out at 200 yards distance by D & B Companies.

Early in its advance "A" Company became aware of a large party of the enemy on its right flank directing fire against the Division operating on our right. This party was successfully attacked and fifty prisoners taken without materially interfering with the forward movement of our troops.

After "A" Company had passed North of the Old Quarry in F. 14 c two small parties of the enemy appeared behind them and opened fire. These were successfully dealt with by "D " Company several being killed and seventeen captured. Therefore except for occasional snipers and a few small enemy parties no further resistance was encountered on the right until the first objective (Road E & W through F. 13. a & b) was reached by A Company at 11.45 a.m. 23/11/1917.

On the Left little opposition was met by C & B Companies. A few Snipers were accounted for and "B" Company cleaned up a dugout the bag being 30 prisoners including an Officer and a Machine-Gun. "C" Company reached the first Objective at 11.55 a.m. 23/11/1917 and B Company established a Strong Point at about E.18.a 1. 9. by a.m.

At an early hour on the 23rd it became evident that the attack on BOURLON VILLAGE was not progressing satisfactorily and the O/C "B" Company (Lieut A. R. Jones M.C.) was ordered to send another platoon to reinforce the garrison of the Strong Point on the left and form a defensive flank on be S. W. edge of the Village.

By 11.30 a.m. the 12th S. W. B. were hard pressed by the enemy in the North West portion of the wood and Captain DUNN (O.C. 'C' Company) sent up 2 platoons under Lieut ENSOR to reinforce there.

Enemy pressure increasing still further, Captain DUNN took the two remaining platoons of his Company forward into the firing line with the results that the Enemy advance in was for the time being "checked". Meanwhile the enemy was counter attacking vigorously from BOURLON VILLAGE and the O.C. 'B' Company was ordered to move his remaining two platoons to the left flank. The whole of 'B' Company was then hotly engaged and did splendid work under the leadership of Lieut A. R. Jones M.C. 2Lieutenant T. T. DAVIES of this company fought hard in an endeavour to clear the path of the Middlesex Regiment on his left but without avail, and in a little while 'B' Coy were fighting hard to maintain its own ground against the ever increasing pressure of Enemy troops debouching from the Village.

The condition of affairs on the left flank had now become very serious and at 1.30 pm a message was sent back asking for reinforcements. The 12th S. W. B. and the two Companies of the 17th Welsh though disputing every inch of ground were being forced slowly back when at p.m. the 18th Welsh arrived. Enemy progress was immediately stayed and our troops in their turn began to gain ground. For some time the line surged backwards and forward but when night fell and the fighting ceased our troops held all the High Ground and were within sight of the houses of BOURLON VILLAGE.

On the right rapid progress was made at first but at 12.45 p.m. a message was received from the 19th R. W. F. asking for reinforcements to be sent to the Eastern edge of the Wood. This request had been anticipated. One company having been ordered to make good the the N.E portion of the Wood as soon as it became known that the R. W. F. had passed beyond the N edge giving to the left of the line being driven back from the N. EAST portion of BOURLON VILLAGE the R. W. F. were forced to drop back to the N edge of the wood and being subjected to considerable enemy pressure were reinforced by 2 platoons of 'A' Coy. 17th Welsh.

An attempt was made to dig in along the N & NE edges of the wood, but heavy shell fire and M-gun fire forced the line to drop back to a position about 100 to 150 yards inside. This line was worked on during the night of 23rd/24th November.

Towards evening however the right centre had been driven back and a message was sent to o.c. 'A' Coy to throw his left back towards the track running diagonally through a F. 13.b and link up with the right of 'C' Coy. At midnight 23/24th November this function was effected and the line was continuous from F. 7.b.2.6 to F. 8.C..5.4 and thence by means of posts to the sunken road at F. 14.A..3.3 .

This operation was rendered the more difficult because by the time that the 17th Welsh and the 19th R. W. F. were very much mixed up and re-organisation was hampered by darkness.

At about 8.0 p.m. a 23rd of November the left of 'C' Company was at F.7.b. 2.6 and touch had been lost with 'B' Company 17th Welsh and 18th Welsh and the 12th S. W. B. Before midnight the right of the 18th Welsh had been located at F. 7.C..5.5 and instructions issued for O.C. 'C' Coy 17th Welsh to establish posts along the road running from the N.E to S. W. through F. 7.C & for the 18th Welsh to throw back and extend their right in order to gain touch. This was satisfactorily effected and the whole line was then continuous.

At dawn on the 24th November the enemy delivered a very heavy counter attack along the greater part of the front but mainly against the centre. In the heavy fighting that follow 'B' and 'C' Company 17th Welsh lost all their remaining Officers and the Companies suffered very heavy losses. On the right centre the line was driven back a considerable distance and the remnants of A & D Companies in the N. E. and E. portion of the wood were completely cut off. These two Companies were almost surrounded and though putting up a determined resistance suffered very heavy losses.

The arrival of reinforcements stiffened the defence and despite all efforts of the enemy the whole of the High Ground in the Wood remained firmly in our hands. During the day two efforts were made by Dismounted Cavalry and A & SH, to recover the Eastern portion of the wood where some parties of A & D Companies 17th Welsh were still holding out. These efforts failed but at dusk a considerable number of our men continued to get back and join up with the troops holding the main line of resistance on the High Ground.

At about midnight 24th/25th November a Battalion of Scots Guards and some King's Own Royal Lancs were brought up in an endeavour to re-establish our line around the edge of the wood. The King's Own proceeded along the main road running N & S through the Wood with the object of securing the N edge.

The Scots Guards proceeded to the Sunken road at F. 14 a.3.3 with the intention of securing the Eastern edge of the Wood. On arrival at the Sunken road it was at once evident that the enemy held that portion of the wood East of the road running from N.W to SE through F. 7.d very strongly, and it was deemed advisable to wait till the morning before endeavouring to clear it. The attempt was made on the morning 25th November but was only partially successful since the Guards withdrew once again to the High Ground.

At p.m. 25th a general advance of the line was ordered. Progress was made by the Scots guards on the right of their attack the Units of the. 119th Infantry. Brigade on their left. The Guards gamely left & the 119th Infantry Brigade right however were able to make little or no progress and the attack came to a standstill.

During the 24th/25th November an immense amount of work was done in reorganising groups of leaderless men of different units & sending them back to the firing line as fighting units under a recognised leader. The promptness with which this was done and the alacrity with which orders were obeyed alone rendered it possible to stiffen the line of resistance at the critical periods and enabled our troops to hold on to the all important High Ground in the wood. The astonishing valour and tenacity displayed by all units of the 119th Infantry Brigade in the face of extremely heavy shelling and continuous counter attacks, the valuable aid rendered by the Scots Guards and Dismounted Cavalry enabled the 119th Inf. Bde to hold the important tactical position BOURLON WOOD until handed over to the 62nd division on the night 25/26 November 1917.



http://www.17thwelsh.ukf.net/Nov_17_Pages/Nov_17_Gough_BourlonWood.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Leon Trotsky: Official Government Documents from the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs

21 November 1917
Herewith I have the honour to inform you, Mr. Ambassador, that on 26 October (8 November) of this year the All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies established a new Government of the Russian Republic in the form of the Council of People’s Commissars. The President of this Government is Vladimir Ilich Lenin and the conduct of foreign policy was entrusted to me as People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs.

In drawing your attention to the text of the proposal for an armistice and a democratic peace without annexations or indemnities based on national self-determination, a proposal approved by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, I have the honour to request you, Mr Ambassador, to regard the above-mentioned document as a formal proposal for an immediate armistice on all fronts and for the immediate opening of peace negotiations – a proposal which the authorized Government of the Russian Republic is addressing simultaneously to all belligerent nations and to their Governments. I beg you, Mr Ambassador, to accept the assurance of the profound respect of the Soviet Government for the people of your country, who, like all the other peoples exhausted and racked by this unparalleled butchery, cannot do otherwise than ardently desire peace.

STATEMENT BY TROTSKY ON THE PUBLICATION OF THE SECRET TREATIES, 22 November 1917
In publishing the secret diplomatic documents from the foreign policy archives of Tsarism and of the bourgeois coalition Governments of the first seven months of the revolution, we are carrying out the undertaking which we made when our party was in opposition. Secret diplomacy is a necessary tool for a propertied minority which is compelled to deceive the majority in order to subject it to its interests. Imperialism, with its dark plans of conquest and its robber alliances and deals, developed the system of secret diplomacy to the highest level. The struggle against the imperialism which is exhausting and destroying the peoples of Europe is at the same time a struggle against capitalist diplomacy, which has cause enough to fear the light of day. The Russian people, and the peoples of Europe and the whole world, should learn the documentary truth about the plans forged in secret by the financiers and industrialists together with their parliamentary and diplomatic agents. The peoples of Europe have paid for the right to this truth with countless sacrifices and universal economic desolation.

The abolition of secret diplomacy is the primary condition for an honest, popular, truly democratic foreign policy. The Soviet Government regards it as its duty to carry out such a policy in practice. That is precisely why, while openly proposing an immediate armistice to all the belligerent peoples and their Governments, we are at the same time publishing these treaties and agreements, which have lost all binding force for the Russian workers, soldiers, and peasants who have taken power into their own hands.

The bourgeois politicians and journalists of Germany and Austria-Hungary may try to make use of the documents published in order to present the diplomacy of the Central Empires in a more advantageous light. But any such attempt would be doomed to pitiful failure, and that for two reasons. In the first place, we intend quickly to place before the tribunal of public opinion secret documents which treat sufficiently clearly of the diplomacy of the Central Empires. Secondly, and more important, the methods of secret diplomacy are as universal as imperialist robbery. When the German proletariat enters the revolutionary path leading to the secrets of their chancelleries, they will extract documents no whit inferior to those which we are about to publish. It only remains to hope that this will take place quickly.

The workers’ and peasants’ Government abolishes secret diplomacy and its intrigues, codes, and lies. We have nothing to hide. Our programme, expresses the ardent wishes of millions of workers, soldiers, and peasants. We want the rule of capital to be overthrown as possible. In exposing to the entire world the work of the ruling classes, as expressed in the secret diplomatic documents, we address the workers with the call which forms the unchangeable foundation of our foreign policy: ‘Proletarians of all countries, unite.’

http://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/commissar/gov.htm
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Harold Williams, Daily Chronicle (22nd November, 1917)

Lenin is an interesting figure. It is absurd to regard him as a mere German agent. I imagine that in pursuit of his ends Lenin is willing to use all available means, and if the Germans like to supply money or officers for the purpose of effecting a social revolution in Russia he gladly accepts even their services.

Mere money for his personal use could not tempt such a man. He is utterly headstrong, oblivious of realities, oblivious of what he regards as bourgeois morality, oblivious of immediate consequences. He sees only his goal, the complete and forcible establishment of Socialism in Russia.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSwilliamsH.htm
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I Have Seen Sights Which No Man Should See.....

The account of Private 41946 Charles Victor Holman, with the 1st Battalion Essex Regiment (1916-1919)

"When I was 18 I volunteered like everyone else. I had two brothers who also joined with me. One was older, Herbert, but he didn't go to France. He stayed on as an instructor and my younger brother, he fought with the Royal Field Artillery and he survived as well.

Thinking back to Cambrai I remember that on 22nd November 1917 the 1st Essex were relieved by the Lancashire Fusiliers and we were billeted in a village called Marcoing. Then on 30th November we lost our Company Captain of our platoon, who was Captain Grant. That was a very sad day for me as we got on very well. He was the one I found out later had put me forward for an award but he was never to live to see it done as he gave me a message to take to the Battalion Headquarters and as I looked back I saw him fall back after being hit in the head".

Lees beslist verder op http://www.hellfire-corner.demon.co.uk/holman.htm
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Frederik II van Baden



Frederik Willem Lodewijk August (Karlsruhe, 9 juli 1857 - Badenweiler, 9 augustus 1928) was van 1907 tot 1918 de laatste groothertog van Baden.

Frederik was de oudste zoon van groothertog Frederik I en Louise, dochter van de Duitse keizer Wilhelm I. Zoals zoveel vorstenzonen begon hij een militaire carrière en diende als kolonel van de infanterie in de legers van Oostenrijk, Pruisen en Württemberg. Op 20 september 1885 trad hij in het huwelijk met Hilda Charlotte Wilhelmine van Nassau-Weilburg, dochter van Adolf van Nassau. Het paar bleef kinderloos.

Frederik II besteeg na de dood van Frederik I op 28 september 1907 de Badense troon. Hij zette het liberale beleid van zijn vader voort zodat Baden zijn status als "Musterländle" (voorbeeldlandje) behield. Bij gebrek aan nakomelingen werd zijn neef Max, later rijkskanselier van het Keizerrijk, als troonopvolger aangewezen.

De revolutie die in 1918 door Duitsland stormde liet ook Baden niet onberoerd. Frederik werd op 22 november gedwongen troonsafstand te doen. Men prees hem evenwel openlijk voor zijn beleid, dat gunstig afstak bij het Pruisische. Na de revolutie ontstond de Vrijstaat Baden die in 1951/1952 opging in het nieuwe bondsland Baden-Württemberg. De ex-groothertog bracht de rest van zijn leven zeer teruggetrokken door in zijn slot in Freiburg. Hij stierf op 9 augustus 1928.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederik_II_van_Baden
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

22 November 1918: foundation of the 'DNVP'





http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/revolution(1).html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische vluchtelingen in Dordrecht

Bekend zijn ook een aantal blijken van dankbaarheid van de Belgische vluchtelingen voor de genoten gastvrijheid. Zo betuigden enkele Belgische vluchtelingen aan het Comité Noordhove hun hartelijke dank voor de gastvrije opvang en brengen speciaal hulde aan de gezinnen, waar zij veertien dagen waren ondergebracht. Het gemeentebestuur kreeg een door 328 vluchtelingen ondertekend gedenkschrift.

Op 22 november 1918 schrijft de Dordrechtse Courant over de Belgische feestavond, die de avond tevoren in Schouwburg Kunstmin heeft plaatsgevonden. Ondermeer burgemeester Wichers en comité-voorzitter Steiner werden als eregasten per rijtuig van huis gehaald. De Belgische voorzitter heeft veel lof voor de Dordtenaren en hun bestuur van de hier nog aanwezige 600 Belgische families. Binnen enkele dagen zullen allen zijn vertrokken.

(...)

Gedicht, dat een Belgische vluchteling op 27 november 1914 in de Dordrechtse Courant publiceerde.

VLUCHTEN NAAR HET NOORDEN
Huis en hof moest ik verlaten,
Vluchten naar het Noorden heen.
De vijand maakte van ons huisje,
een ruwe massa, hoopen steen.

Achter mij een ware vuurzee,
Arme lieve Scheldestad,
Eenmaal onze hoop en weelde,
Schoone have, dierbre schat.

Wij bereiken onze grenzen,
Landden aan, op Hollands pand.
Met ons hebben en houwen,
Reikte men ons de broederhand.

'k Zal u, o Holland, nooit vergeten,
Wat gij voor ons Belgen deed,
Nu gij voor altijd, ja voor eeuwig
Wereldvrede hebt gesmeed.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/dordrecht.htm
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 19:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

November 1918 in Alsace

(...) In October 1918, the Kaiserliche Marine, whose surface ships had largely remained in port after the Battle of Jutland (1916), was ordered to leave port to fight the British Royal Navy. However, the naval troops refused to obey: this led to a sailors' mutiny at Kiel. The mutineers took over the main military port and were quickly joined by workers and the trade unions. The revolution spread quickly across Germany, overthrowing the monarchy within a few days. At that time, about 15,000 Alsatians and Lorrainers had been incorporated into the Kaiserliche Marine. Several of them joined the insurrection, and decided to rouse their homeland to revolt.

On 8 November, the proclamation of a Republic of Councils in Bavaria was aired in Strasbourg, the capital of Alsace. Inspired by this, thousands of demonstrators rallied on the Kléber Square, the main square in Strasbourg, to acclaim the first insurgents returning from northern Germany. A train controlled by insurgents was blocked on the Kehl bridge, and a loyal commander ordered to shoot on the train. One insurgent was killed, but his fellows took control of the city of Kehl.

The insurgent seamen established a Soldiers' Council of Strasbourg, and took control of the city. A council of workers and soldiers was then established, with the leader of the brewery workers' union presiding. Red flags flew all over the city, including on the spire of the cathedral. An amnesty was declared, and the freedom of the press was proclaimed. Factory workers went on strike, demanding higher wages; the Soviets (councils) raised the wages by decree against the opposition of the factory owners. The social-democrat party leader in Strasbourg, Jacques Peirotes, then asked the French generals to send in their troops to restore order.

Eleven days later, France occupied and incorporated Alsace-Lorraine. French soldiers under the command of general Henri Gouraud entered the suburbs of Strasbourg on November 22, 1918, strikes were terminated by force, and agitators were arrested. The streets named "Rue du 22 novembre" in Strasbourg and Mulhouse commemorate the union of Alsace to France. The region lost its recently acquired autonomy and reverted to the centralised French system as the départements of Moselle and Upper and Lower Alsace. (...)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_1918_in_Alsace
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 20:31    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The King and Queen of the Belgians in Brussels at the Victory Parade, 22nd November, 1918



http://www.greatwardifferent.com/Great_War/Belgium_Free/Belgium_Free_01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 20:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Geschiedenis van Wieringen, 1918-1923: een keizerlijke bezoeker

Na de wapenstilstand van 1918, die in feite neerkwam op een Duitse nederlaag en de socialistische opstanden in Duitsland vluchtten de Duitse keizer en zijn zoon, kroonprins Friedrich Wilhelm V.E.A. von Hohenzollern, Prinz von Preussen, van het Vlaamse oorlogsfront naar Nederland. Zij vroegen hier asiel aan, wat hen zonder veel moeite werd verleend. De Nederlandse regering had er wel even een probleem bij, want de beide bannelingen moesten gehuisvest worden. In 1918 was Wieringen nog dusdanig afgelegen dat het voldeed als verbanningsoord voor de voormalige kroonprins van Duitsland. Op 22 november 1918 arriveerde hij met zijn gevolg en nam zijn intrek in de oude pastorie van Oosterland, aan de Akkerweg. Deze gebeurtenis, want een grote gebeurtenis was het voor het kleine Wieringen, beschrijft de kroonprins later zelf in zijn memoires. Eventjes was Wieringen wereldnieuws en foto’s van de prins die hoefijzers smeedde in de smederij van zijn vriend de smid Luyt, aan de Nieuwstraat in Hippolytushoef gingen de hele wereld over.




De kroonprins op de stoep bij de burgemeester

Lees verder op http://www.pagowirense.nl/wr-ges5a.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:02    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Op 22 november 1918 verklaart de Koning voor de verenigde Kamers van het Parlement:

“ Mijne Heren, Ik breng U de groet van het Leger!
Wij komen terug van de Ijzer, mijn soldaten en Ik, door onze bevrijde steden
en contreien en thans sta Ik hier voor de vertegenwoordigers van dit land.
Voor vier jaren hebt U mij het Leger toevertrouwd om het gevaar dat ons
Vaderland bedreigde af te wenden. Ik kom U rekenschap geven van wat wij
gedaan hebben….”

http://www.2de-artillerie.be/geschiedenis/PDF/04_Geschiedenis_2A_Deel_3_1918-1939.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Women Police - The First Women Police Officers

The utility of women in preventing crime and maintaining public order on the streets was seen by some senior police officers. Indeed, the Commissioner paid for a small number of the women's patrols. As can be seen in his 1918 report, the Commissioner was keen to stress that while this work was 'not strictly the duty of the police, [it] is yet closely allied to it'. He proposed to bring the women patrols under the control of the Metropolitan Police, using the supervisor of the NUWW, Mrs Sophia Stanley, to superintend their work. In a subsequent letter the Commissioner explained how he envisaged the women police functioning.

On 16 November 1918 formal notice was given to the NUWW that existing arrangements would be terminated, this was followed by an outline of the Commissioner's proposals for a women police force.

The other womens' police organisation, the Women Police Service, was sidelined largely because of its link with militant feminist causes. Police Orders for 22 November 1918 outline the formation of the Women Police with the appointment of Mrs Stanley as its Superintendent. It proposed ten supervisors to direct 100 female police officers.

An order issued a month later outlined the qualifications required for potential recruits and the conditions of enrolment. In line with requirements for male officers, a minimum height was established, though at 5 feet 4 inches this was considerably lower than that for men. There are three important things worth noting here: first, women with dependant young children were barred from service; second, alongside pay and conditions, the order stresses that women officers were not to be sworn in as constables; and third, they had no right to a pension.

By 17 February, 25 women officers had been appointed. The last officer to be detailed in Police Orders is a notable figure. Lilian Wyles, as her central record of service demonstrates, ended her career as an inspector. Alongside publishing her memoirs (Woman and Scotland Yard (1952)), on her retirement she lectured and broadcast on police matters and child welfare. On her death, in 1975, she was listed in Who Was Who. Wyles's record details her date of birth, appointment, commendations, promotions and pension; by the time of her retirement the pension was awarded to women. It is also notable that, in 1949, she was awarded the British Empire Medal.


WPC 18 Ellis and Inspector Clayden patrolling outside Bow Street Police Station, 1924.

While women had proved themselves during the war, their success as women police officers (without the full powers of a constable) was short-lived. Britain in the years following the First World War was in dire economic straits. On 23 November 1918 the Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, promised a package of social reforms for the nation. These included the extension of pensions and national insurance, and a pledge to improve the low quality of housing. However, middle-class concern at rising public expenditure – fuelled by rising taxes – and a widespread belief that Britain needed to adopt the pre-war gold standard (a system of fixed exchange rates which valued £1 at $4.86) severely restricted post-war reconstruction. A National Committee on Expenditure recommended cuts in public expenditure; the ensuing cuts became known as 'Geddes Axe' in 1922. As we saw earlier, the commissioner had stressed that the activities of women officers were not 'proper' police work. The women were an easy target for cuts in public expenditure, and the Women Police was abolished.

Disbandment led a number of female officers to complain to their superintendent. One of the signatories was Lilian Wyles. The women officers wished their concerns to be forwarded to the Prime Minister. The resolution states:

Women Patrols of all ranks having received today from the Superintendent the memorandum from the Commissioner of Police terminating their services, and having read the statement in the Geddes Report that "their utility from a Police point of view is, on the evidence submitted negligible", in view of the fact that no evidence was taken from any officer of the Women Patrols Division, nor any record of recent work called for to submit to the Geddes Committee, respectfully ask permission to approach the Prime Minister by means of a deputation, with their Superintendent to speak for them and lay their case before him.

It is notable that the women were keen to resolve the matter through police channels rather than pursuing their grievance through any of the 'women's organizations'. They stressed also 'their utmost loyalty to you, to the Commissioner and to all the officials under whom they are proud to serve'. Some women suffered directly as a result of the temporary disbandment. The National Council of Women later wrote to the Commissioner to complain that Mrs Westlake, for example, was not eligible to a pension, as the disbandment of the women police meant that she failed to complete 10 years of service. The police refused to treat her as a special case.

But abolition under the Geddes Axe was short lived. In 1923 fifty officers were re-sworn, and this time with full powers of arrest, under the leadership of Inspector Clayden. By 1939 the Metropolitan Police employed 155 officers. London was the largest city in the country but this was a significantly higher number than were employed in other urban areas such as Glasgow (14), Birmingham (13) and Manchester (6). Changes in society ushered in by the First World War contributed to the desire to develop and maintain women police. For example, the 'public' was no longer viewed as an inherently masculine sphere – the work of women in munitions factories was one change that had laid rest to that idea. Chaperoning was on the wane, and a number of new leisure venues, such as cafes and teashops, catered for a female clientele. Big cities, and London in particular, were believed to pose special opportunities, and threats, to women and the tasks of women police were strictly confined by gender perceptions.

http://www.open.ac.uk/Arts/history-from-police-archives/Met6Kt/WomenPolice/wpFwp.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hudson Observer, Friday, November 22, 1918:

Heights Boy Died On French Battlefield.
Private Louis J. Freudenberg reported killed in action October 16, was a member of company M, 309th U.S. Infantry. He entered the service April 4, last and went overseas May 19. He was twenty-four years old and was born in Hoboken but his family moved to 63 Concord Street, Jersey City twenty years ago. Private Freudenberg graduated from Public School Number 6, Jersey City and at the time he joined the colors he held a responsible position with Butler Brothers, Jersey City. The young hero is survived by his parents Max and Eloise Freudenberg; three sisters, Ada, Clara and Grace, and by four brothers, Arthur, Eugene, Ralph and Richard, the last name being in the service at Camp Meade, Maryland.

http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Louis_Julius_Freudenberg_I_(1894-1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Surrender of the German High Seas Fleet

April’s item of the month is a newly catalogued letter (HSR/D/9) from persons unknown to an unknown correspondent. It is not even possible to say what the correspondents’ relationship was. The subject however is very clear. The letter is dated 22nd November 1918 and written from the battleship HMS Hercules. It describes the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet, at the very end of the First World War, 1914-1918.


Description of the manoeuvre of the German and British fleets in the Firth of Forth.

This must have been a very poignant day for German and Briton alike. The rivalry between the Royal Navy and the Imperial German Navy stretched back almost beyond living memory. Britain had almost bankrupted herself trying to build more battleships and battle cruisers than Germany.

Yet to be eclipsed by aircraft, bombs and torpedoes, the battleship was at its apogee as the symbol of national will and industrial domination. So after four years of conflict, the battles of Dogger Bank and Jutland, the undefeated Imperial German Navy steamed into the Firth of Forth to surrender. Accompanied by American and French ships, the British Grand Fleet, including 33 battleships and 90,000 men were assembled in what must have been a once in a life time scene:

‘When I went on deck, the German fleet was steaming down between our two fleets, in an opposite direction, led by one of our light cruisers, the Cardiff. Each British fleet was about 3 miles distant from the Germans. After we had passed them, the two British fleets did a magnificent 16 points turning movement and steamed down the German line, closing in on them at the same time, and so they were escorted into the Forth’.

The scene is depicted in the painting Charles Dixon’s painting HMS 'Cardiff' leading the surrendered German fleet, 18 November 1918.


HMS 'Cardiff' Leading the Surrendered German High Seas Fleet into Rosyth’

Declaring ‘The censorship has been removed, so I can now write with freedom’, the writer simply signs himself as ‘T. Smith’. He doesn’t appear among the officers of the Hercules in the Navy List and the only clue to his rank is the passing remark ‘I was down below, screwed down at my action station’, implying he was a rating rather than an officer. Regardless of his rank, he was clearly very moved by the sight. Despite the fact that the Hercules had been at Jutland, Smith wrote ‘The scene is impossible of description’. Instead he drew a diagram:


Diagram of the manoeuvre of the German and British fleets in the Firth of Forth.


Second diagram of the German and British fleets in the Firth of Forth.

This grand turning movement, shown above, was part victory parade and part warning demonstration against the futility of continuing hostilities. It was concluded with the German fleet being entirely surrounded.

Not simply grandiose, the manoeuvre was designed to over awe the German seamen, making it clear for Smith makes it plain, ‘The fleet was never in more readiness for action, for we never trusted them at any time’ wrote Smith.

I checked The Royal Navy Day by Day for further inspiration and came across the following observation by Rear Admiral WS Chalmers:

‘So at dusk as the sky reddened over the Scottish hills, the buglers of the British fleet sounded the call “Sunset”, the ensigns of the Imperial German Navy fluttered slowly down for the last time. And darkness closed like a curtain on the final act of this mighty drama at sea’.

In a final irony, the Hercules was broken up in Germany three years later. It is unlikely the irony was entirely lost on the German shipyard workers.

Martin (Archive and Library)

http://www.nmm.ac.uk/explore/collections/by-type/archive-and-library/item-of-the-month/previous/surrender-of-the-german-high-seas-fleet
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De Rijnbode, 22 november 1919

http://www.groenehartarchieven.nl/kranten/rijnbode/1919-11-22
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis

Iemand die hier chocola dan wel kaas van kan maken?

November 22, 1919 in History
Event: 15,000 men are cremated at Domela Newenhouse, Amsterdam


http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1919/november_22_1919_80364.html

schater fuck nee he

Op Wikipedia staat wel dit te lezen: (...) Nadat hij eind 1919 op 72-jarige leeftijd in Hilversum was overleden, werd hij gecremeerd (een van de eersten) op Westerveld in Velsen. Zijn rouwstoet, waar 12.000 sympathisanten aan deelnamen, trok door Amsterdam. (...)

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_Domela_Nieuwenhuis#Overlijden
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 23:27    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Caesar Gazelle

‘Den 22sten November [1914] komt er al met eens eene razernij over de vijand: hij schiet, zou men zeggen, met alles wat er onder zijne hand valt en de lucht huilt met een kruisvuur van bommen, geslingerd door veertig kanonnen, uit drie hoeken te gelijk’, schreef de Vlaamse auteur Caesar Gazelle in zijn oorlogsdagboek ‘De dood van Ieper’.

http://geschiedenis.vpro.nl/artikelen/9140750/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 23:30    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Letter from Bugler Harold Marshall to his father Robert Marshall, Bell Street, Preston

Marshall was wounded in the first days of fighting at Gallipoli and perhaps his casual remark "will not arrive in England" suggests that the troops in fact believed that were headed to Britain before the ill fated Dardanelles plan was devised and they were diverted to Egypt in preparation for the Gallipoli landings.

"Troopship Omrah A5

22 November 1914

“On November 1st we left Albany with the New Zealanders. After passing the heads, the troopships formed columns of three, making nine vessels in each column with the New Zealanders in our rear. The convoy was posted all round us – the sight was one never to be forgotten … we passed the mail boat Osterley bound for London off Capricorn on the 5th, the passengers giving us a splendid reception. Measles have broken out on board and great precautions are being taken. Flying fish are very plentiful in the Indian Ocean …

… a German vessel was sighted on the 8th, the cruiser Sydney being sent after it, and after a fight, put out of action. From a report received, the German boat was the Emden. The Sydney's first shot missed, the second hit the engine room, the third shot hit the conning tower, and the fourth shot cleared the Emden's deck of everything including men …

… on the 15th we arrived off Colombo – a lovely place with its large and fine lawns. Hundreds of natives in fishing smacks are sailing around the ships selling fruit, etc. and diving for money. They are champion cadgers ... the German prisoners [about 30 of the Emden's crew were taken on board the Ourah] boasted to the guard that the day they were captured arrangements had been made to attack the British troopships from the rear, hoping to account for at least six of the boats. Pretty fortunate for us they were captured in time as our boat was amongst the last six … they also boasted that we will not arrive in England because we will get "larry dooley" from their vessels on the way …"

http://www.northernbullants.com.au/media/Archives/OurTown/1914LetterAtSea.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 21 Nov 2010 23:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

This Day in African History: 22 November

1917, 22 November - World War I: East Africa
German L59 Zeppelin starts flight from Bulgaria to Khartoum carrying much needed supplies to General von Lettow in East Africa.

http://africanhistory.about.com/od/november/a/td1122.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2010 0:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

YPRES RESERVOIR CEMETERY - Ieper - West-Vlaanderen - Belgium

Shot at Dawn:

Private T. L. Moles, 54th Bn. Canadian Expeditionary Force, executed for desertion 22/10/1917, plot 1. H. 76.

Private E. Lawrence, 2nd Bn. Devonshire Regiment, executed for desertion 22/11/1917, plot 1. I. 45.

Private C. F. McColl, 1/4th Bn. East Yorkshire Regiment, executed for desertion 28/12/1917, plot 4. A. 6.

http://www.ww1cemeteries.com/ww1cemeteries/ypresreservoircemetery.htm
Zie ook http://www.forumeerstewereldoorlog.nl/viewtopic.php?t=12997
Zie ook http://www.eyfhs.org.uk/content/resources/SAD/pardons.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 22 Nov 2017 22:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Return of the Royal Family in the capital of Brussels on 22 November

Although the armistice was signed on 11 November 1918, for the Belgian people the true end of the War was marked by the return of the Royal Family in the capital of Brussels on 22 November. A military parade by over 6000 Belgian and allied soldiers and a series of ten temporary monuments scattered around the city along the route of the cortege, added luster to the grand tour taken by King Albert I, Queen Elisabeth and their Children.

This film was made by a camera man of the American Red Cross and was offered as a gift to King Albert afterwards.

Filmpje... http://filmgeschiedenis.be/portfolio/22-november-1918
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