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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2006 0:11    Onderwerp: 15 Maart Reageer met quote

March 15

1917 Czar Nicholas II abdicates

During the February Revolution, Czar Nicholas II, ruler of Russia since 1894, is forced to abdicate the throne on this day in 1917, after strikes and general revolts break out in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg).

Crowned on May 26, 1894, Nicholas was a relatively weak and ineffectual leader, which did not help the autocracy he sought to preserve over a people desperate for change. Russia’s disastrous loss to the Japanese in the Russo-Japanese War exacerbated discontent among the Russian population and led to the Russian Revolution of 1905, which the czar calmed only after signing a manifesto promising reform, representative government—in the form of Dumas, or assemblies—and basic civil liberties in Russia. Nicholas soon retracted most of these concessions, however, repeatedly dissolving the Dumas when they opposed him, and radical forces within Russia, most notably the Bolsheviks, a revolutionary-minded socialist group founded by Vladimir Lenin, begin to gain widespread support. In 1914, Nicholas led his country into another costly war—World War I—and discontent in Russia grew as food became scarce, ill-equipped soldiers became war-weary and devastating defeats on the Eastern Front demonstrated the czar's incompetent leadership.

After the outbreak of the so-called February Revolution in early March 1917 (Russia used the Julian calendar at the time), the army garrison at Petrograd joined striking workers in demanding socialist reforms, and Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. Nicholas and his family were first held at the Czarskoye Selo Palace, then in the Yekaterinburg Palace near Tobolsk, where they remained during the rise to power of Lenin’s Bolsheviks and Russia’s exit from World War I. In July 1918, the advance of counterrevolutionary forces during the Russian Civil War caused the soviet, or Bolshevik council, in power in Yekaterinburg to fear that Nicholas might be rescued. After a secret meeting, the soviet passed a death sentence on the imperial family, and, on July 16, 1918, Nicholas, his wife Alexandra, their children and their remaining servants were shot to death.
www.historychannel.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2006 6:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Events
1 1916 1st Aero is first U.S. tactical air unit in the field with Pershing's expedition into Mexico
2 1917 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates. Provisional government is declared

Births
1 1888 Willi Kampe
2 1890 Alfred Lenz
3 1892 Charles Nungesser
4 1898 Erich Meyer

Deaths
1 1918 Adolf von Tutschek
2 1920 Rudolf Berthold

Claims
1 1916 Hartmut Baldamus #1
2 1917 Edmond Thieffry #1
3 1917 Cecil Clark #1
4 1917 Cyril Lowe #1
5 1917 Christopher Quintin-Brand #2 #3
6 1918 Alfred Atkey #3
7 1918 Eric Gilroy #1
8 1918 Albert Waller #3
9 1918 Herbert Drewitt #6
10 1918 Charles Robson #3
11 1918 David Putnam #3
12 1918 John Chick #9 #10
13 1918 Francis Kitto #4
14 1918 Wilhelm Schwartz #4

Losses
1 1915 Otto Kissenberthwounded in action
2 1918 Adolf von Tutschekkilled in action; shot down by Harold Redler

http://www.theaerodrome.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 11:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

100 Events in the Gallipoli Campaign: March 1915

15 March 1915 - On learning that the Dardanelles forts were short of ammunition, the British broke off secret negotiations with Turkey aimed at a Turkish withdrawal from the war. British agents had been authorised to offer Turkey up to £4 million for such a withdrawal.

http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/march-1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 11:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 March 1915, Commons Sitting

GERMAN ATROCITIES.


HC Deb 15 March 1915 vol 70 cc1732-3 1733

Mr. R. MCNEILL asked whether, as soon as the Report of the Committee on German Atrocities is issued, he will have it, together with translations of the French and Belgian Reports on the same subject, printed in a volume in popular form for general circulation?

Mr. McKENNA I regret I am unable to make any statement until the Report has been received.

Mr. McNEILL Will the right hon. Gentleman bear in mind the extreme importance of having this authentic evidence printed in a volume in popular form?

Mr. McKENNA I recognise the great value of the hon. Member's suggestion.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1915/mar/15/german-atrocities
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 11:44    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

German East Africa - 1915 Interim Bank Notes issued in the field by von Lettow-Vorbeck

I met Oberst Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck's grand daughter in the little town of Weenen, Natal, South Africa. She was married to a farmer and came into the bank agency that I worked in. When she heard of my interest in coins she told me that she had a few old German East African bank notes from the time of her grand father's days at war with the allies (1914 to 1918) and that I could have them as she was considering throwing out these relics from Lettow-Vorbeck's estate that she received when he died a pauper in 1964. She knew little of his extraordinary abilities in the field of battle but gave me six German East African bank notes passed on by the great commander.

Twenty Rupee notes both issued 15th March 1915 (VF Condition):
The book "Battle for the Bundu" record on page 90: "For most of 1915, Germany's enemies in eastern Africa were immobolised."

At this time the Germans were disrupting the rail link between the port of Mombasa and the inland centre of Nairobi and the German's battleship, the aging Konigsberg, was in hiding in the Rufiji delta.

The Germans were not so lucky on Lake Victoria where the British gunboat Winifred destroys their only armed boat on this massive inland lake bordering their territory.

The notes were printed on a three layer paper, a pink fiber paper on each side of a heavier middle layer. The serial number was printed on the back of the note and handwritten in at the top of the front margin.

In the neighboring colony of British East Africa, the British forged the notes in an attempt to destroy the economy of the German colony. The British forgeries are rare, but easy to identify. The paper is not three-layer, the color is a deeper shade of pink, and the handwritten serial number of the front of the note does not match the printed serial number on the back of the note.

Met foto's! http://www.tokencoins.com/gea00.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 11:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Emperor Nicholas II- As I Knew Him - Diary in Russia 1915

15th March 1915.

I met the Emperor on one of his long walks at Headquarters, and as usual got off the road so as to be out of his way, for which he called me over the coals at lunch.

He is a tremendous walker, fairly walks his staff off their legs, and said I must walk where I liked, and not mind meeting him and his retinue, which is a pretty large one, as there are mounted police scouring about all the time.

The Emperor spoke of an article in the Contemporary on the terms of peace when the time comes. He said that the only right terms would be the conditions of the Allies - i.e. that the naval and military power of Germany should be wiped out, carrying with them, of course, the disappearance from power of the Kaiser, who is the factor that keeps matters going as they are.

He inquired after my family, and later on sent me all the English papers, illustrated and others, which he kindly continued to do all the time I was at Headquarters. He is looking very well, and as attractive and goodtempered as ever.

http://www.alexanderpalace.org/hanbury/1915.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 16:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Pancho Villa Expedition

On March 15 [1916], on orders from President Woodrow Wilson, General John J. Pershing led an expeditionary force of 4,800 men into Mexico to capture Villa. The newly adopted airplane, Curtiss JN-4, was used by the 1st Provisional Aero Squadron to conduct aerial reconnaissance. Villa had already had more than a week to disperse and conceal his forces before the punitive expedition tried to seek them out in unmapped, foreign terrain.

Pershing divided his force into two columns to seek out Villa. Pershing made his main base encampment at Casas Grandes, Chihuahua. Due to disputes with the Carranza administration over the use of the Mexico North Western Railway to supply his troops, the Army employed a truck-train system to convoy supplies to Pershing's encampment. The Signal Corps set up wireless telegraph service from the border to Pershing's HQ. In June, Lieutenant George S. Patton raided a small community and killed Julio Cárdenas and two other men. Patton personally killed Cardenas, and is reported to have carved notches into his revolvers. Cárdenas was an important leader in the Villista military organization.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pancho_Villa_Expedition
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 16:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

His Imperial German Majesty's U-boats in WWI

At the end of 1915, about 855,000 tons of shipping had been lost, with 20 U-boats sunk. 94 ships were lost to mines laid by German mine laying "UC"-class U-boats operating under the command of the Flandern Flotilla (Commodore Andreas Michelsen) from the Belgian ports Brügge and Zeebrügge. Also stationed there were the "UB"-class coastal submarines. One of them, SM UB 13 under the command of Oblt.z.S. Metz, sank on 15th March 1916 the Dutch steamer SS Tubantia which was supposed to have had German gold treasures on board. This affair was accompanied by fairly mysterious involvements of intelligence agencies and until today the mystery of the Tubantia, her cargo and the reason of her sinking, has not been properly solved.

Lees verder op http://www.uboat.net/history/wwi/part3.htm

SS Tubantia

SS Tubantia was an ocean liner for Royal Holland Lloyd (Dutch: Koninklijke Hollandsche Lloyd) built in 1913 by Alexander Stephen and Sons of Glasgow. She was built as a fast mail and passenger steamer for service between the Netherlands and South America. Tubantia was a sister ship of Gelria, also of Royal Holland Lloyd.

Tubantia was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine UB-13 on 16 March 1916 [ Confused - PT]. As a vessel of the neutral Netherlands, her sinking caused great fury amongst the Dutch public. The Germans initially claimed that Tubantia must have been sunk by a mine or a British torpedo, but when fragments of a German torpedo were found in one of Tubantia's lifeboats, the Germans claimed that UB-13 had fired the torpedo on 6 March at a British warship but it had remained active until hitting Tubantia ten days later. To redirect Dutch anger over Tubantia's sinking, Germany spread rumors of an impending British invasion of the Netherlands, which one author called a "propaganda coup".

Germany initially offered a settlement of £300,000—the ship's original cost—to Royal Holland Lloyd, but was rejected. In 1922, an international arbitration committee awarded the company £830,000 compensation from Germany for the loss of the ship.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Tubantia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 16:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Punch, or the London Charivari, Vol. 150, March 15, 1916

The Zeppelin which was "winged" while flying over Kent last week has not yet been found, and is believed to be still in hiding in the densely wooded country between Maidstone and Ashford. Confirmation of this report is supplied by a local farmer, who states that on three successive nights the cat's supper has been stolen from his scullery steps. This strange circumstance, considered in the light of the Germans' inordinate passion for cats' meat, has gone far to satisfy the authorities that the capture of the crippled monster is only a question of time.

Some slight irritation has been caused by the announcement of Sir Alfred Keogh that Naval men engaged on the home service cannot be supplied with false teeth at the expense of the Government. Nevertheless we may rest assured that, come what may, these gallant fellows will uphold the traditions of the Navy and stick to their gums.

From a Parliamentary report: "In his reply Mr. Asquith stated that the 'Peace Book' which was being prepared to meet problems which would arise after the War corresponded with the 'War Book' which was compiled years ago in anticipation of the War." This ought to put heart into the enemy.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22988/22988-h/22988-h.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2010 23:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Abdication of Nicholas II

Nicholas II signed his abdication on 15 March 1917 (2 March, Julian Calendar), at 3.05 pm. The document was countersigned by the Minister of the Imperial Court, and directed to the Chief of Staff.

In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for nearly three years have tried to enslave our fatherland, the Lord God has been pleased to send down on Russia a new heavy trial. Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war. The destiny of Russia, the honor of our heroic army, the welfare of the people and the whole future of our dear fatherland demand that the war should be brought to a victorious conclusion whatever the cost. The cruel enemy is making his last efforts, and already the hour approaches when our glorious army together with our gallant allies will crush him. In these decisive days in the life of Russia, We thought it Our duty of conscience to facilitate for Our people the closest union possible and a consolidation of all national forces for the speedy attainment of victory. In agreement with the Imperial Duma We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power. As We do not wish to part from Our beloved son, We transmit the succession to Our brother, the Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, and give Him Our blessing to mount the Throne of the Russian Empire. We direct Our brother to conduct the affairs of state in full and inviolable union with the representatives of the people in the legislative bodies on those principles which will be established by them, and on which He will take an inviolable oath.

In the name of Our dearly beloved homeland, We call on Our faithful sons of the fatherland to fulfill their sacred duty to the fatherland, to obey the tsar in the heavy moment of national trials, and to help Him, together with the representatives of the people, to guide the Russian Empire on the road to victory, welfare, and glory. May the Lord God help Russia!

http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Abdication_of_Nicholas_II

15 March 1917, Commons Sitting

ABDICATION OF THE CZAR.


HC Deb 15 March 1917 vol 91 cc1419-26 1419

Sir HENRY DALZIEL I intervene only for a moment in order to invite the Leader of the House to make a statement on a matter which is indirectly dealt with in this Vote and which, I am sure, is of considerable public interest. For many days there have been rumours, some of them very wild, about the condition of affairs in the country of one of our Allies, namely, Russia. I was hopeful this afternoon that as this Vote dealt with advances to our Allies the Leader of the House perhaps might have given us some information which I doubt not is already in the possession of the Government as to matters in Russia. No doubt from high public policy he refrained from mentioning the matter. But I think that, after all, the House of Commons is the place where important information should be conveyed to the nation. I am sure that no one would endorse that more than the Leader of the House himself. I want to ask the Leader of the House whether he can give us any information before we separate to-night as to the internal condition in the coun- 1420 try of our great Ally, Russia. Is it true that the Czar has abdicated? Is it the case that the Duma has refused to be dissolved and has placed under arrest the members of the Russian Cabinet? It is important not only to the Government but important to the country and, above all, to the success of the great War in which we are engaged, that the House of Commons should be taken as fully as possible into the confidence of His Majesty's Government. For my part, so far as I have read the news that has come to hand, I think there is nothing to be alarmed at so far as this country is concerned. I would invite the Leader of the House, if he can, to give us a reassuring statement in regard to the situation. A revolution at any time is undoubtedly a disturbing factor, and more especially at the present time, but so far as the information which has reached this country is concerned—and there has, of course, been information for several days which has not been published —it points to the fact that those who have caused this revolution are not only sincere friends of this country, but that they are anxious to ally themselves with us to carry this War to a successful issue. In fact, I would invite the Leader of the House to say that this is no pro-German success, and that, so far as we can judge from the result, it is really an anti-German movement. I hope, therefore, that in a matter of this importance, especially when we are passing money which I understand will probably reach our Allies, it is pertinent to ask the Government to make some statement, first of all, to allay the many wild rumours that are in progress; and, secondly, to give us a reassuring statement as to the general situation.

Mr. BONAR LAW I quite agree with my right hon. Friend that in a matter of this gravity it is the duty of the Government, if it is in their power, to give the House of Commons all the information which can be safely imparted to it; and I am strongly of the opinion with him that the House of Commons is the proper place in which information of that kind should first be communicated to the public.

Lees verder op http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1917/mar/15/abdication-of-the-czar
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mrt 2010 0:07    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Voor de kleintjes onder ons... en voor mij... Wink

CAUSES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF MARCH 1917

Ben I’ve got to do an essay on the Causes of the Russian Revolution of March 1917.
Anne The Revolution of February – of March – was a popular uprising: so you’re looking for the reasons why a whole system of government that had lasted for three centuries collapsed … you’re looking at big movements – large-scale changes.
Ben Sounds impressive.
Anne It is. It’s the historical equivalent of an unstoppable tidal wave striking a mighty – yet weak and crumbling – tower … and sweeping it away…
Ben … so we’re looking at two areas of causation: the forces which caused the mighty tower to be old and crumbling…
Anne … and the forces which created the unstoppable tidal wave. [pause]Which doyou want to do first?
Ben The crumbling tower! Why was the monarchy weak and crumbling in 1917?
Anne Russia was vast, 125 million people across an entire continent – too BIG to rule!!! – and it had an out-of-date farming economy: desperately poor peasants …
Ben Does that count? I thought the Russian revolution was a revolution of workers in Petrograd.
Anne Yeah, but we’re talking about why the monarchy was weak, and you’ve got to realise that the loyalty of the peasantry was a key foundation of the Tsar’s power. The Tsar relied on the same power-base as the monarchy had in medieval times – nobility-church-peasantry … it was just so old-fashioned. And of course that old world was being swept away by the forces of industrialisation and modernisation. The Revolution of February/March…
Ben What’s this with the double dates?
Anne Oh, the Russian calendar in 1917 was still the old-style Julian calendar, which was 13 days behind the Gregorian calendar used by the rest of the world.
Ben How inconvenient of the Russians.
Anne I’ll stick to modern dates from now on, but the calendar shows how out-of-date the Tsarist state was.
Ben Were there any key developments which weakened the Tsar’s government?
Anne In 1904, Russia lost a war with Japan ... a third-rate power – I mean, a TOTAL humiliation … it totally undermined the credibility of the Tsar. It caused a
revolution all by itself.
Ben Bloody Sunday, 1905
Anne Well yes, but Bloody Sunday was a factor all of its own, because it lost him the love of the poor people …
Ben … which was a key foundation of his power.
Anne Exactly.
Ben What about Rasputin?
Ann Well, Rasputin did discredit the monarchy, and made Nicholas look silly … but I don’t think you can have him as a major cause of the Russian Revolution. If he had been the cause, murdering him in 1916 would have stopped it happening. I think the factor behind the influence of Rasputin – the BIG secret … that the Tsarevich was haemophiliac – that was the REAL weakness of the monarchy: the fact that the succession to this feudal family-business was not secure.
Ben And Nicholas himself?
Anne A fool – weak – pig-headed – insisted on reading and signing everything
personally – making mistakes right up to the last minute, when he ignored
Rodzianko’s telegram begging him to act. Deserved to lose his throne…
Ben What about the unstoppable tidal wave? What forces were gathering to sweep Nicholas away?
Anne The forces of the modern world! Russia was just starting its Industrial Revolution, towns were growing and conditions were dreadful. Millions of workers, living – often sleeping – together in the factories where they worked, were easy to recruit by left-wing opposition groups such as the Social Revolutionaries, and the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. They formed a growing proletariat, up for revolution.
Ben And a rising middle class wanting political power too?
Anne Absolutely – the Kadets – wanting a constitutional government like Britain’s. In 1905 the Tsar had given them a Duma … a Parliament … but they were plotting all the time to get rid of him, you know.
Ben It makes you wonder why Nicholas lasted so long?
Anne Hmmm. Don’t under-estimate the strengths of the monarchy. This was an institution which had survived 300 years, you know. There was the Okhrana, rooting out dissent … and supporters in the Duma – called the Octobrists … and in the last resort, the monarchy was based on the Cossacks … on the army.
Ben And [realising] … of course! … The First World War!
Anne Yes, the War took 15 million men from the farms, and trains had to be used for transport, so food didn’t get through to the towns, and that meant prices rose and in the winter of 1916–17 there was famine. So it created the unrest which unseated the monarchy – on 8th March the women went on a Bread March, which turned into riots …
Ben So it was the war which sent the tidal wave away?
Anne Yes, but at the same time defeats such as Tannenburg – and Nicholas’s insistence of taking personal responsibility for the disaster!!! –
Ben Aha! – THAT’S IT OF COURSE … those things had lost him the support of the soldiers…
Anne … so they turned and joined the revolution…
Ben … and that’s when the Kadets in the Duma saw their chance …
Anne … and they forced Nicholas to abdicate, 15th March 1917.
Ben Goodbye Nicholas.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/audio/history/pdf/causes_of_the_russian_revolution_of_march_1917.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mrt 2010 0:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN ARMY IN THE UKRAINE: MARCH-NOVEMBER 1918

Large Austro-Hungarian Units in the Ukraine.

4th Army: It was dissolved on 15 March 1918 and its Command, together with the 10th Army Corps, formed the 4th General Command in Lwów (Lemberg, L'vov, L'viv). However, it used as a name the unofficial title of the Command of the Kirchbach Army Group (also called the Kherson Army Group) and it subsequently became the "4th Army Group at Odessa" as of 3 March 1918. Further details about the structure of this Army Group are unknown.

http://membres.multimania.fr/dgrecu/AUtxt.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mrt 2010 0:20    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918)

Kaiser Wilhelm recognised the creation of Courland, as a German vassal by writing to Courland's Landesrat in March 8, 1918 (in German):

Wir Wilhelm, von Gottes Gnaden Deutscher Kaiser, König von Preußen etc. beauftragen hiermit Unseren Reichskanzler, den Grafen von Hertling, dem Kurländischen Landesrat zu erklären, daß Wir auf den Uns durch seine Vertreter übermittelten Wunsch und auf den Bericht Unseres Reichskanzlers im Namen des Deutschen Reiches das Herzogtum Kurland als freies und selbständiges Staatswesen anerkennen und bereit sind, im Namen des Deutschen Reiches diejenigen Staatsverträge mit Kurland abzuschließen, die eine enge wirtschaftliche und militärische Verbindung beider Länder gewährleisten. Gleichzeitig beauftragen Wir Unseren Reichskanzler, den Abschluß dieser Verträge vorzubereiten. Urkundlich haben Wir diesen Auftrag Allerhöchst Selbst vollzogen und mit Unserem Kaiserlichen Insiegel versehen lassen.
Gegeben ................ , den 15. März 1918
Wilchelm
Graf von Hertling.

We, Wilhelm, by the grace of God German Emperor, King of Prussia, etc., herewith command Our Chancellor, Count von Hertling, to inform the Government of Courland, that, upon the wish communicated to Us by its ambassador, and upon the report of Our Chancellor, in the name of the German Empire, We recognize the Duchy of Courland as a free and independent state; in the name of the German Empire, to negotiate such treaties with Courland as will guarantee a close economic and military union between both lands. At the same time, we command Our Chancellor to prepare for the negotiation of these treaties. Our Majesty has commanded that this order be documented, and affixed with Our Imperial Seal.
Given at [unknown], the 15th of March 1918
[signed] Wilchelm
Count von Hertling


http://wapedia.mobi/en/Duchy_of_Courland_and_Semigallia_(1918)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mrt 2010 0:23    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

From The Times, March 14, 2008

March 1918 offensive marked the beginning of the end of the Great War

On March 15, 1918, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig received a momentous piece of news. His wife had borne him a son. He was 57 and had almost lost hope of there being an heir to the ancient title of Laird of Bemersyde. His biographer Duff Cooper recounts how Haig embraced the RAMC colonel who had been in attendance and, to his astonishment, “kissed me like a Frenchman”.

Less welcome news struck the field marshal after his return to France, where he was commanding almost two million Commonwealth soldiers of the British Expeditionary Force. Few British commanders in the field have carried such protracted responsibility as Haig and none survived in so senior a command having never enjoyed the confidence of the Prime Minister. Lloyd George would have sacked him on taking over in December 1916 if he felt his Coalition colleagues, parliamentary and public opinion would have accepted it.

Their difference hinged as much on policy as on personalities. Haig never swerved from the view that Germany could only be beaten on the Western Front, Lloyd George favoured a holding position there in hope that an alternative — less costly in lives — might emerge in the Balkans. In the event, the decisive battle was launched by Germany and it paved the way to Allied victory.

As Haig dressed on the morning of March 21, he was informed that the anticipated German offensive had begun with a massive onslaught 43 miles wide, stretching southwards from Arras to La Fère. The weight of the attack fell on General Sir Hubert Gough’s 5th Army, on ground recently taken over from the French Army under Petain. Its aim was to split the Allied front, cut off the BEF from the Channel ports and — in conjunction with intensification of the submarine campaign against merchant ships bringing essential supplies — force Britain out of the war.

Yet desperation had turned the German C-in-C, Field Marshal Hindenburg, and his chief of staff, Ludendorff, away from their shrewd defensive strategy on the Western Front. The vast cost in men and crucial resources of the March 1918 offensive was forced on them by the Kaiser’s approval of unrestricted submarine sinkings of neutral shipping, together with the madcap scheme to create a diversion in the event of this provoking the United States into declaring war.

In January 1917 Germany had offered Mexico financial support and lands previously lost to the USA, through an alliance “to make war together, make peace together”. But the telegram from Foreign Minister Zimmermann instructing the German ambassador in Washington to relay this proposal to Mexico City was intercepted by British Naval Intelligence and passed to the US State Department. On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to “accept the status of a belligerent thrust upon it”. When the German high command recognised that this meant hundreds of thousands of US troops arriving “over here”, their hopes hung on a successful offensive before enough of them arrived to influence the outcome.

Haig’s generalship, in readiness for the offensive he knew Ludendorff must launch, could hardly be faulted. He positioned his reserves in the north, where the front was 25 miles from the sea at the nearest point, and, anticipating the main German attack in the south, ordered Gough’s 5th Army to give ground but keep his front intact, while striving to maintain contact with the British 3rd Army on his left and the French 6th Army on his right.

Gough was to be made Lloyd George’s scapegoat for the British casualties sustained and the ground lost, but his withdrawal was in exact accord with instructions. He handled his divisions like a flexible chain: when it broke he cobbled it together to grant Haig time to bring the French to his aid over the ground they had until recently held.

On March 28 Ludendorff delivered a new attack with fresh divisions in the north of the BEF front at Arras, bringing him little more than crippling casualties. In his sop to public opinion, Lloyd George insisted that Gough be replaced by General Sir Henry Rawlinson and the 4th Army staff, but by then the worst was over in the south. The BEF had fought six gruelling defensive battles between March 21 and April 5, retreating almost to the gates of Amiens.

Ludendorff then swung north against Ypres and Hazebrouck, where the BEF fought eight more costly battles. The bill for March and April was 40,000 dead, 180,000 wounded and 93,000 missing from every part of Britain, Ireland and the Commonwealth, but the endurance of the survivors had thwarted the breakthrough on which Ludendorff depended.

Foresight, resolve and persistence were rewarded. Ludendorff conceded the BEF was too much for him and turned on the French. Haig began preparations for his ultimately decisive offensive in August in concert with Foch, co-ordinating the Allied effort on the Western Front.

http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/court_and_social/article3553183.ece
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BerichtGeplaatst: 16 Mrt 2010 0:40    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Soldier's Mail - Letters Home from a New England Doughboy 1916-1919

Laigne-en-Belin, France 3/15/1919

Dear Em,

Got a few minutes and here they are. As far as we know now we will move out of this (grave yard) per schedule or the last of the month. We may, understand for orders can change anytime. See by the papers one of the boys got, that there is a grand welcome for us when we get there. I agree with you also when you say that the papers are full of the 26th. Well the boys sure did do their bit while over here and are entitled to recognition whenever the home folks get the opertunity to do so in the way it is mapped out.

As for me Im just the same and trust that all is well back there. The last mail I got from you was dated Feb. 20-24 and from them was glad to learn that you was going to start writing again. At that rate Id ought to receive some mail from you in about a week.

Things are very disinteresting and time very much lagging nowadays although we drill three hours in the morning, the afternoon given over to sports. Sometimes a game of ball gets exciting but oh the mornings and nights. We just sit and talk of about everything and mostly nothing until around eight or nine oclock and then make up our bunks and turn in.

We have a fire going all the time in the fire place being lucky enough to have one of these in our castle. Some nights there are movies at the Y. and if one is lucky he can gain a place to see, but beleive me one has got to get there early. Had a game of ball this afternoon in which one platoon lost somewhere around 10-4. Got a hit myself though some class what? The old mud flies beleive me for we can play on nothing but mud.

There are five combat divisions to sail before we go although we were in France, yes and in the trenches long before any one of them left the States. One of said divisions the 27th has already landed in N.Y. The second (30th) has sailed, the third or (37th) are embarking now so that leaves us third on the list now. The other two divisions are the 85th and 91st or draft. Poor boys they have been away from home so long you know.

Well our time will come sometime anyway and here is to the day. So hoping to see you all sometime after this reaches you I remain

Sam

Samuel E. Avery #69762, Hdq Co. 103rd Inf. A.E.F.

P.S. Best regards to Aunt Madge and the rest.

http://worldwar1letters.wordpress.com/2010/03/14/laigne-en-belin-france-3151919/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 21:28    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

België - Nederland (2-4), gespeeld op 15 maart 1914



De Belgische aanvoerder Armand Swartenbroeks, de Engelse scheidsrechter Schumacher, aanvoerder Leo Bosschart, David Wijnveldt en de Nederlandse grensrechter Mutters bij de toss. België - Nederland (2-4), gespeeld op 15 maart 1914 in het stadion van Beerschot (Het Kiel) te Antwerpen.

http://beeldbank.nationaalarchief.nl/en/images/thema/103/trefwoord/Geografisch_trefwoord/Beerschot

Westra van Holthe, Willem Rudolf (Willy)

(Assen 1888 - Assen 1965) Voetballer.

Lid van de Asser voetbalclub Achilles '94, waar hij uitblonk als rechtsbuiten. Debuteerde op 24 maart 1913 in het Nederlandse voetbalelftal in de wedstrijd tegen de amateurs van Engeland, die in het stadion van de Houtrust in Den Haag met 2-1 door Oranje werd gewonnen. Vier maal droeg hij het Oranjeshirt, voor het laatst in de wedstrijd tegen België op 15 maart 1914. Westra van Holthe was een allround sportman, die naast voetbal ook uitstekend tenniste, hockeyde en aan de atletiek deed. Op 31-jarige leeftijd werd hij getroffen door de Spaanse griep, maar hij overleefde de ziekte. Het betekende wel het einde van zijn sportieve carriè;re. Wegens buitenlands verblijf speelde hij bij Köln '99 en als reserveluitenant tijdens de mobilisatie was hij actief bij Robur et Velocitas. Hij was in zijn werkzame leven directeur van de NV Drentse Houthandel aan de Vaart in Assen.

http://www.encyclopediedrenthe.nl/Westra%20van%20Holthe,%20Willem%20Rudolf%20(Willy)

Aanvulling 2018: hier echt alle gegevens: https://www.11v11.com/matches/belgium-v-netherlands-15-march-1914-222962/
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 15 Mrt 2018 9:32, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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Ilustração Portugueza, No. 473, March 15 1915 - cover



"An English soldier tends to a wounded German soldier".

http://www.flickr.com/photos/gatochy/2393897708/in/photostream/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Huwelijksboekje van Frédérik Louis Marie Bas & Celestina Josephina Henrica Demey - 15 maart 1915



http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/09421/05766EA5A0BDF478A926FFD86E40D30E4BAA6649.html
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S.S. Fingal - 15th March 1915

1562 ton steamer built for the London and Edinburgh Shipping Co., Leith, by W.B. Thompson & Co., Dundee. 280' x 35' x 18', 474 nominal horsepower, 14 knots, triple expansion engines. Torpedoed and sunk 10.50 am. by U.23, 6 miles E. by S. of Coquet Island. Crew of 27, 6 lost.

All the following men and women are Mercantile Marine and are commemorated on the Tower Hill Memorial.

Ordinary Seaman Thomas Gray, aged 19. Son of Thomas and Catherine McDonald Gray, of 41, Sutherland St., Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire.

Able Seaman Walter Lumsden Hogg, aged 31. Son of the late Robert and Catherine Hogg; husband of Anne Hogg (nee Wallace), of 31, Bowling Green St., Leith, Midlothian. Born at Dalkeith.

Able Seaman John Laurenson, aged 48 Son of Martha and the late John Laurenson; husband of Elizabeth Laurenson (nee Gifford), of 2, Taylor Gardens, Leith. Born in Shetland.

Stewardess Nellie McPherson, aged 26. Daughter of James McPherson, of 42, Balfour St., Leith, and the late Christina McPherson.

Fireman Walter Reibelt, aged 28. Son of Joseph and the late Janet Reibelt; husband of Jean Wallace Reibelt (nee Dinse), of 2, East Cromwell St., Leith. Born in Australia

First Mate John Harfer Smith, aged 54. Husband of Margaret Wood Smith, of 341, Easter Rd., Leith. Born at Aberdeen

http://www.fusilier.co.uk/boats_planes/fingal.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 21:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 March 1915 what day of the week was it?

Answer: 15 march 1915 was a monday.

Tóch goed om te weten... http://wiki.answers.com/Q/15_March_1915_what_day_of_the_week_was_it
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 21:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Start of the Pershing Expedition, March 15, 1916



http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth11947/m1/1/
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Military Medal



De Britse Militaire Medaille, een van de vele onderscheidingen die deze naam in verschillende landen dragen, werd op 15 maart 1916 ingesteld. Het besluit van Koning George V van het Verenigd Koninkrijk bepaalde dat alle militairen uit het Britse Gemenebest voor de medaille in aanmerking kwamen en hij antedateerde de stichting op het jaar 1914, het begin van de Eerste Wereldoorlog.

Lees verder op http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_Medal
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Edmond Thieffry - Belgisch piloot

Luitenant Vlieger Edmond Thieffry is de derde Belgische aas uit de Eerste Wereldoorlog. Hij haalde tussen 15 maart 1917 en 23 februari 1918 10 Duitse toestellen neer.

(...) Hij behaalt zijn eerste toegekende overwinning op 15 maart 1917, als hij een Duitse tweezitter neerhaalt. Acht dagen later volgt er nog een boven Gistel en op 12 mei een derde te Houthulst. Op 14 juni haalt hij een Albatros D.III neer boven Westende. Het 5de escadrille verhuist begin van de zomer van ’17 naar Moëres en schakelt over op de Nie.23 en op 3 juli wordt Edmond eindelijk een aas als hij zijn vijfde en zesde overwinning behaalt op twee Duitse Albatros D.III van de Duitse marine, ten noorden van Diksmuide.

Dan schakelt hij als eerste piloot van het Belgische Vliegwezen over op de Spad 7. Op 31 augustus echter wordt hij overvallen door twee Duitse jagers. Ltn. Karl Hammes van Jasta 35b slaagt er in om het toestel van Thieffry te beschadigen, maar hij kan zijn toestel achter de Belgische linies neerzetten om terug de strijd te vervoegen. 16 oktober haalt hij dan zijn laatste slachtoffer neer. Op zijn 150ste vlucht echter vliegt zijn toestel in brand als hij een Duitse tweezitter van Flieger Abteilung 227 aanvalt. Hij overleeft gelukkig de crash en word gekwetst gevangen genomen door de Duitsers en naar het ziekenhuis in Kortrijk gebracht.

http://www.aeropedia.be/web/content.php?article.1001378
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:12    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

De legerdienst van Raymond De Baets

Daar België toch sterk verwikkeld geraakte in de Eerste Wereldoorlog, wordt Raymond op 15 maart 1917 in Londen door de rekruteringscommissie in het Belgisch leger opgeroepen in toepassing van de Besluitwet van 21 juli 1916 en bij de hulptroepen (Régiment des Auxiliaires) ingelijfd. Hij krijgt het stamnummer 5.176. Zijn stamboekblad vermeldt : Le 15 mars 1917 incorporé par la Commission de recrutement de Londres pour la formation du contingent spécial 1916.

Hij ondergaat te Londen een medisch onderzoek door de rekruteringscommissie en krijgt er, uiteraard in het Frans, de voorlezing van de militaire wetten.


Inlijvingsbulletin van Raymond De Baets te Londen op 15 maart 1917

http://www.debaets.be/yves/12-2.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:42    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Belgische vluchtelingen in Dordrecht

Uit de volgende voorbeelden blijkt, dat de Nederlandse overheid niet voor Sinterklaas speelde ten opzichte van de Belgische vluchtelingen. Op 24 december 1917 meldt het Comité Dordt voor Onderwijs, Steun en Inlichtingen aan Belgische vluchtelingen, dat een zekere August Richard zonder werk is en dit ook wel niet zal vinden. Men wil hem vandaag nog naar het Vluchtoord Uden laten afvoeren. Op 17 januari 1918 ontvangt de burgemeester een schrijven, waarin is vermeld, dat alhier nog aanwezige deserteurs en andere vreemdelingen naar het Vluchtoord Bergen kunnen worden gezonden.

Op 15 maart 1918 bericht de Rijkscommissaris in het Vluchtoord Nunspeet de burgemeester, dat hij tot zijn spijt de vier kinderen van de geïnterneerde soldaat H. van Baelen niet kan opnemen, omdat er geen toezicht voor de kinderen aanwezig is. Op 18 maart 1918 beklaagt een 63-jarige Belgische schipper zich, omdat hij gekort wordt op de steun, omdat hij twee zoons in het Belgische leger heeft die geld kunnen overmaken.

http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/vluchtelingen/dordrecht.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:45    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Enthousiaste burgers tijdens Hitlers intocht in Wenen op 15 maart 1938, drie dagen na de ‘Anschluss’.



http://www.annefrank.org/nl/Subsites/Tijdlijn/Interbellum-1918-1939/Emigreren-naar-Nederland/1938/Enthousiaste-burger-begroeten-Hitler-tijdens-zijn-intocht-in-Wenen-op-15-maart-1938-drie-dagen-na-de-Anschluss/#!/nl/Subsites/Tijdlijn/Interbellum-1918-1939/Emigreren-naar-Nederland/1938/Enthousiaste-burger-begroeten-Hitler-tijdens-zijn-intocht-in-Wenen-op-15-maart-1938-drie-dagen-na-de-Anschluss/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 March 1918: War Department



WAR DEPARTMENT
THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
WASHINGTON

March 15, 1918

Mrs. Clyde R. Thompson
R.R. #5, Box #51
Crawfordsville, Indinana

Dear Madam:

In reply to your letter of March 11th, I have the
honot to advise that for information regarding letters and
package mail to members of the American Expeditionary Force,
you should write to--

Foreign Mails Division
United States Post Office
Washington, D. C.

Very respectfully,

Austin A. Parker
Adjutant General


http://cdpl.lib.in.us/research/brenneman/1918-03-15-wd.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 14 Mrt 2011 22:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

White Clay Creek Flood March 15, 1919, Atchison, KS

http://www.flickriver.com/photos/7726011@N07/3349360568/#large
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2011 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

War tragedy for Leixlip family
James Durney

Second Lt. Frederick Maurice Wookey was only in France less than three months when his family in Leixlip received the tragic news that he had died of wounds received at St. Eloi on 15 March 1915. He was twenty-seven years of age. He was the son of Frederick and Fanny Wookey, of Weston Lodge, Leixlip. Lt. Wookey was a serving officer with C Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment. At the outbreak of war, in August 1914, the 1st Royal Irish had returned from service in India to join the 27th Division, of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), which arrived in France on 23 December 1914. Lt. Wookey and his men spent the winter in the trenches in the St. Eloi sector of the Ypres Salient where there was little respite from German artillery and infantry attacks. On 14 March 1915 a full-scale German attack captured the village of St. Eloi. The Royal Irish were in reserve and were given the task of recapturing St. Eloi and a 30-foot high spoil heap about half an acre in extent known as the ‘Mound of Death.’ The Royal Irish recovered St. Eloi, but their attack on the Mound was brought to a standstill with heavy casualties. When fighting died down, German and Irish dead and wounded were lying in the street of St. Eloi. Among them was Lt. Fred Wookey, who was seriously injured leading his company in the attack. He later died of his wounds and was buried at Bailleul Communal Cemetery in Nord, France.

http://www.kildare.ie/library/ehistory/2009/12/post_35.asp
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2011 10:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Clara Zetkin, speech at the International Women's Peace Conference (15th March, 1915)

Who profits from this war? Only a tiny minority in each nation: The manufacturers of rifles and cannons, of armor-plate and torpedo boats, the shipyard owners and the suppliers of the armed forces' needs. In the interests of their profits, they have fanned the hatred among the people, this contributing to the outbreak of the war. The workers have nothing to gain from this war, but they stand to lose everything that is dear to them.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERzetkin.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2015 16:15    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Rudolf Steiner - "Ein Atemzug aus der Geisterwelt ist"

Für Marie Steiner zum 15. März 1916. Aus dem Notizbuch NB 7 Rudolf Steiners

Ein Atemzug aus der Geisterwelt ist
Was im Erwachen in den Leib
Was im Einschlafen aus dem Leib
Als Wesen des Ich entströmend
Erlebt sich im Wechselsinn des Daseins.

Im Atmen des Geisterwebens bin ich
Wie Luft im Lungenleibe.
Nicht Lunge bin ich; nein Atemluft
Doch Lunge ist, was weiß von mir:
Erfass ich dies – erkenne ich
Mich im Geist der Welt.


http://www.doehoek.nl/index.php?pg=spreuk&item=112
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2015 16:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Vereinsgeschichte des VfR Groß-Gerau 1916 e.V.

Mitten im Ersten Weltkrieg (15. März 1916) als SC Hassia gegründet, nahm der Club am 25. Januar 1925 den Namen SV an und vereinte sich zwölf Jahre später mit dem TV 1846 zur TSG. 1945 wurde daraus die Kultur- und Sportgemeinschaft, aus der vier Jahre später der VfR hervorging. (...)

http://www.vfr-gross-gerau.de/verein/ueber-uns-historie
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Feldpostkarte von Otto Kems an Walter Naumann vom 15. März 1917

Otto Kems schreibt an seinen Kameraden den Medegänger Walter Naumann. Die Postkarte beginnt mit der euphorischen Zeile: "15. März 1917 Jahr des Friedens und des Sieges." Er beschreibt sein Foto mit scherzhaften Worten: "Umstehendes Individuum ist kein afrikanischer Elefantenjäger sondern dein getreuer Freund und Kamerad Otto Kems weiland Benzin Esel Reiter in der kgl. preuss. F.L.A. 10."

http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/nl/contributions/6435
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 9:38    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

MASSACRES BY TURKS AROUSE GREEKS' FURY
The Dayton Daily News, 15 March 1915.

Athens, March 15 - Turkish soldiers are reported to have massacred 60 Greek families in the village of Yemari in Asia Minor. At Avilik [Ayvalik], Mussulman troops terrorized the town, killing six natives and 40 Greeks. The feeling in Greece today has almost reached the breaking point.

Source: The Daytona daily news. (Daytona, Fla.), 15 March 1915. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers.

Originele artikel te lezen op http://www.greek-genocide.net/index.php/quotes/testimonies/324-panayiotis-nikolaidis
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WWI in the Herald: March 15, 1915 - Newcastle Herald

MONDAY 15 MARCH 1915

A noteworthy feature of the present war, so far as Britain is concerned, is the silence of the public in regard to the progress of the war.

Great successes, whether on land or at sea, are read of thankfully, but there is no boastfulness and no rejoicing.

It is recognised that it is undesirable to make too much of casual victories, and that there is a grim fight still ahead.

The grimness of the British determination to fight until the enemy is defeated is characteristic of the nation.

Still it is permissible to touch briefly upon the recent successes of the Allies on the west front, not only because of the proof they afford of their superiority over their enemy, but because they indicate that the long awaited advance of the Allies either has been begun or is on the point of beginning.

For many weeks the British have been gaining but their advance has been reckoned by yards and feet, but their recent advance in the region of La Bassee was for about a mile and three quarters in one direction and a mile and a furlong in another .

This ground is all trenched, and the fighting must have been of a desperate character. The British were not only able to capture this ground, but to hold it against subsequent counterattacks.

The splendid artillery work of the British forces is no doubt one of the main factors in deciding their engagements, but the courage and enthusiasm of the British and Indian infantry also play their part.

It would now seem that Britain, supported by the brave Belgians, is likely to turn the German forces in Belgian territory, and thence to press the recapture of that territory.

Meanwhile the French are exhibiting magnificent valour, and throwing the enemy back, not by yards, but by miles.

The Germans were compelled by the fierceness of the attacks to retain some of their best troops on this line.

In this way France was enabled to return to Russia the service rendered at the beginning of the war, when a Russian General invaded East Prussia to prevent the enemy from throwing too strong a force against the unprepared Allies in the west.

After this last battle it was stated that 10,000 German dead were found on the field, and that two regiments of the Prussian Guards had suffered severely.

So that while the Prussian Parliament is consoled with the announcement that its “wall of steel extends from the Vosges to the Channel, and from the Baltic to Bukovina," it is permissible to assume that in the west, at least, the great turning point in the war has been attained.

There was a sorry spectacle in Hunter Street, Newcastle, on Saturday night, when three members of the Army Service Corps were doing their best to urge on an obviously unfit horse, which was attached to a military cart, in which was a quantity of camp utensils from the racecourse at Broadmeadow.

It was learned that the racecourse was left at about four o'clock in the afternoon, and at 11 o'clock the cart was in Hunter-street West.

The men did all they could to encourage the horse, but it was evident that the animal was quite unfit to work.

Now and then some civilians would give a push to help the cart to move a bit, and by this means the slow progress made was effected. By midnight the intersection of Hunter-street and Bolton-street was reached, and there then appeared to have been some official intervention to save the horse.

A horse was procured from a cab, and the journey to Fort Scratchley was then quickly completed. The sick horse was then led away, and it seemed scarcely able to walk.

Amsterdam, Saturday.

The German concentration in the direction of Ypres and La Bassee still continues.

All the troops stationed in Northern Flanders have been despatched to that region.

The Germans have mounted heavy guns at Middelkerke, and are endeavouring to destroy the sluices in the canal which runs from Nieuport into France.

A strong German attack has opened south of Dixmude.

Paris, Sunday.

A communique states:-

The latest report regarding operations in the Dardanelles state that two British vessels bombarded Bulnir.

Two battleships bombarded light batteries commanding Morto Bay, at the entrance to the Dardanelles, to prevent repairs being effected. A French division continues operation against Bulair, also against Morto Bay.

Paris, Saturday.

It is officially stated that apart from General D’Amade's force, which is concentrated in North Africa, a portion of a landing force is already en route for the Dardanelles.

Amsterdam, Sunday.

General Podbielski, the president of the German Olympic Committee, now proposes to cancel the Olympiad.

It is feared that few German athletes will survive the war unwounded. It is now proposed to sell the stadium, which cost £2,000,000.

(From Embarkation Rolls)

Private Thomas William Archibald, Minmi, 20th Infantry Battalion

Lieutenant James Anderson Moore, Singleton, 18th Infantry Battalion

Private Percy Henry Thomas, Catherine Hill Bay , 20th Infantry Battalion

http://www.theherald.com.au/story/2941112/wwi-in-the-herald-march-15-1915/?cs=316
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 9:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

15 March 1916 | Centenary of WW1 in Orange

The Leader reports that James Griffin was the victim of “a fierce kissing bombardment” by the ladies at his recent farewell party prior to his departure for the front.

Ranzige Australiers... http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/events/15-march-1916/
Hier meer over de geluksvogel: http://www.centenaryww1orange.com.au/service-men-and-women/james-griffin/

Het staat er trouwens echt!

The party broke up shortly before midnight, when Corporal Griffin was the victim of a fierce kissing bombardment by the lady members, out of which he emerged so well that we opine Kaiser Bill's troops will find a hard nut to crack.

Lucky bastard... https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/117792020/13049722

(Voor wie het nog niet doorheeft... dit is echt een hele leuke site. De doorklikmogelijkheden zijn ein-de-loos!)
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 9:53    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HANSARD 1803–2005 → 15 March 1916 → Commons Sitting → MUNITIONS.

SUPPRESSION OF NEWSPAPER "BRITANNIA."

Mr. BOOTH asked the Attorney-General if a weekly paper called "Britannia," edited by Miss Christabel Pankhurst, has been raided and suppressed; whether it is still published regularly; whether he is aware that this organ gives support to the country in the present conflict; and if he will say why the staff are continually persecuted and if the Government attacked the "Britannia" because of its faithful and devoted pleading of the cause of our Allies the Serbians?

The SECRETARY of STATE for the HOME DEPARTMENT (Mr. Herbert Samuel) The Attorney-General has asked me to reply to this question. Steps have been taken with regard to this paper, by order of the military authority under the Defence of the Realm Act, and I am informed that it is now only published as a leaflet. The copies I have seen contain statements which are absolutely untrue, and which are calculated to prejudice our relations with our Allies.

Mr. HOGGE Will this paper, "Britannia," which is sent to me regularly by post, be allowed to bring an action against the Government in respect of its suppression?

Mr. SAMUEL I should like notice of that question.

Mr. BOOTH Is my right hon. Friend aware that, however misguided some of the statements are, it is a paper loyally attached to this country, and is it to be suppressed because it criticised a member of the Government?

Mr. SAMUEL It is ostensibly loyal, but undoubtedly it is most mischievous.

Mr. KING Has my right hon. Friend read the constant attacks which are being made on his colleagues and on officials in the Foreign Office who are unable to defend themselves by this infamous paper?

Mr. SAMUEL Yes, I have read many of the attacks. Of course, criticisms on members of the Government are quite 2082 legitimate so long as they are based on truth, but many of the statements in question are absolutely false.

Mr. PRINGLE Why is the editor of this paper not prosecuted?

Mr. BOYTON
Will the right hon. Gentleman, as a member of the Government, refute the gross charges which are brought against Sir Eyre Crowe?

Mr. SAMUEL
That does not arise out of the question.

http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1916/mar/15/suppression-of-newspaper-britannia
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 9:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Birmingham Daily Post - Thursday 15 March 1917 - BEQUESTS TO BIRMINGHAM CHARITIES.

Mr. Joel Cadbury, of Tudor Hill, Sutton Coldfield, manufacturer, whose death occurred on December 20, left estate valued £38.063. Testator left £1,000 in trust for his adopted daughter, Julia Henrietta Wilson; 1,000 ordinary shares in Green and Cadbury, Ltd., each to his son Joel and his daughter Margaret Christabel; £2,030 and household effects to his wife; £200 to the Birmingham Medical Mission; £50 to the Home of Rest, Sutton Coldfield; £50 to the Midland District Committee of the Incorporated Seamen and Boatmen’s Friend Society; £100 to the Birmingham Eye Hospital, the Birmingham Ear and Throat Hospital, the Birmingham General Hospital, the Birmingham Women’s Hospital, and the Friends’ Foreign Missionary Society. The residue of his property he left in trust for his wife for life or widowhood, and the ultimate residue to his two children.

http://www.voicesofwarandpeace.org/2017/03/15/on-this-day-15-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:00    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Captain EDWARD BARNARD BILTON - died 15 March 1917

Age: 29
Regiment/Service: 1st/1st Highland Cyclist Battalion, Army Cyclist Corps attd. 2nd/5th Bn. King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry
Awards: Mentioned in Despatches
Cemetery: ADANAC MILITARY CEMETERY, MIRAUMONT IV. E. 27.

He was a barrister & member of the Inner Temple Commissioned as 2nd Lieut, in the Highland Cyclist Battn. 14 Nov. 1914; was promoted Lieut. 31 March. 1915, and Capt. 16/June 1916. when he was attached to the 2/5 The King’s Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry and served at the Battn. HQ as Intelligence Officer ; served with the Expeditionary Force in France and Flanders from Jan 1917 and was killed in action near Albert 15 March following, while making a reconnaissance towards the enemy during an advance.

His Commanding Officer wrote : He was my Intelligence Officer, and did extraordinarily good work all the time, and will be quite impossible to replace. We, both officers and men. were devoted to him. He died a hero’s death; none in the war have done more. He is a fine example to us all. A brother officer wrote He was a very valuable officer. He acted with splendid courage and judgment in our last operation. He was on duty in a dangerous situation for 30 hours, was slightly wounded but carried on undaunted, and gave us very valuable information, saving many lives.

He was mentioned in despatches [London Gazette 25 May, 1917] by General Sir Douglas Haig. for gallant and distinguished service in the field

Fotootje op http://eyewitnesstours.com/captain-edward-barnard-bilton-died-15-march-1917/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:04    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

HONGKONG LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL - 15TH MARCH, 1917.

Met daarin onder meer: Anglo-Portuguese Treaty

THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL moved the second
reading of the Bill intituled, "An Ordinance to make
such provisions as are necessary to enable the AngloPortuguese
Commercial Treaty to come into force as
regards the Colony of Hongkong." In doing so he said:

It is proposed that this Colony shall, with other
parts of the Empire, signify its adherence to the recent
Anglo-Portuguese Commercial Treaty, and one article
in the Treaty requires that adherents shall restrict the
use of the terms "Port" and "Maderia" to wine which
is the produce of Portugal and Maderia respectively.
The Bill is founded on the corresponding English Act,
and provides for the necessary legislation.
THE COLONIAL SECRETARY seconded, and
the Bill was read a second time.
Council then went into Committee to consider the
Bill clause by clause.
The Bill passed through Committee without
amendment, and, on Council resuming,
THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL moved that it be
read a second time.
THE COLONIAL SECRETARY seconded, and
the Bill was then read a third time and passed.

't Is maar waar je je prioriteiten legt...
http://www.legco.gov.hk/1917/h170315.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:09    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Paris-Manchester 1918 - Conservatoires in time of war - Musicians at the front, musicians on the home front - Frank Merrick and Hope Squire

15th March 1918 (Hope Squire) - Hope tells Frank of her students’ progress at the College. She is confident that their love for one another will help them stay strong in these difficult times.

Lees de hele brief op https://www.rncm.ac.uk/paris-manchester-1918/musicians-front-musicians-home-front/frank-merrick-hope-squire/15-march-1918/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:11    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Third Army - Panorama No. [number] 578 made on 15 March 1918 from Beaurains

[includes references to Tilloy, Telegraph Hill, Monchy, Arras Cambrai Rd, Dury Poplars, Vis, Marliere, Hope Farm, Wancourt, Dury-Hendecourt Rd, Wancourt Tower, Fife Tree, The Rookery, Neuville Vitasse and the Hindenburg Line Wire]
CATEGORY: photograph
PRINCIPAL CREDIT: Printed by Army Printing and Stationery Services, No. 3 Advanced Section
FORMAT: b&w print TYPE: silver gelatin STATUS: preservation material

Foto... https://discoveringanzacs.naa.gov.au/browse/records/448470
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:14    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Republica de Chile, 5 pesos, 15 March 1918

Serial number 894745, black on brown underprint, Gen. R. Freire at right, view of Santiago at left.

Bankbiljet uit de tijd dat geld nog 'mooi' was. Verkocht voor $300... https://www.spink.com/lot/338000196#
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:17    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kemmis, C.T., Diary, 15 March 1918

Friday, March 15th 1918.
Identified Messers Dent, Ogden, & Dingwall, also found the residences of each.
Weather, fine but windy.
C.T. Kemmis Pte.

Sluit aan op die van gisteren... spannend! http://digitalcollections.mcmaster.ca/pw20c/kemmis-ct-diary-15-16-18-march-1918
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BerichtGeplaatst: 15 Mrt 2018 10:19    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

REMEMBER: ON THIS DAY - 15 March 1918 - Flg Karl Lanzhammer

Flg Karl Lanzhammer, FEA 1b (Fliegerschule - Schleißheim). - Born in Munich, Bavaria, on 21 September 1896 (residing in Dingolfing), Karl was a Kriegsfreiwilliger who enlisted into the Army (Kgl Bay Res-Inf-Regt16 ) in September 1914. A messenger on the regimental staff, Karl was a colleague (and friend) of a certain Adolf Hitler and served with him throughout many engagements from Ypres to the Somme. In September, 1917, Karl transferred to the flying school at Schliessheim (where Hitler frequently wrote to him). A holder of the Iron Cross 2nd Class, Karl was killed in a flying accident at Feldmoching on 15 March 1918 during a test flight; he is now buried in his home town of Dingolfing.

http://westfrontassoc.mtcdevserver.com/great-war-people/remember-on-this-day/1744-15-march-1918-flg-karl-lanzhammer.html#sthash.VJj0VGHr.dpbs
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