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8 Januari

 
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2006 16:16    Onderwerp: 8 Januari Reageer met quote

This Day In History | World War I

January 8

1917 Wilson outlines the Fourteen Points


In an address before a joint meeting of Congress, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson discusses the aims of the United States in World War I and outlines his famous "Fourteen Points" for achieving a lasting peace in Europe.

The peace proposal, based on Wilson’s concept of “peace without victory,” called for the victorious Allies to set unselfish peace terms, including freedom of the seas, the restoration of territories conquered during the war and the right to national self-determination in such contentious regions as the Balkans. Most famously, Wilson called for the establishment of “a general association of nations”—what would become the League of Nations—to guarantee political independence to and protect the territorial lines of “great and small States alike.”

Wilson’s principal purpose in delivering the speech was to present a practical alternative both to the traditional notion of an international balance of power preserved by alliances among nations—belief in the viability of which had been shattered by the Great War—and to the Bolshevik-inspired dreams of world revolution that at the time were gaining ground both within and outside of Russia. Wilson hoped also to keep a conflict-ridden Russia in the war on the Allied side. This effort met with failure, as the Bolsheviks sought peace with the Central Powers at the end of 1917, shortly after taking power. In other ways, however, Wilson’s Fourteen Points played an essential role in world politics over the next several years. The speech was translated and distributed to the soldiers and citizens of Germany and Austria-Hungary and contributed significantly to their decision to agree to an armistice in November 1918.

Like the man himself, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were liberal, democratic and idealistic—he spoke in grand and inspiring terms but was less certain of the specifics of how his aims would be achieved. At Versailles, Wilson had to contend with the leaders of the other victorious nations, who disagreed with many of the Fourteen Points and demanded stiff penalties for Germany. The terms of the final peace treaty—including an ineffectual League of Nations convention that Wilson could not even convince his own Congress to ratify—fell far short of his lofty visions and are believed by many to have ultimately contributed to the outbreak of a second world war two decades later.

http://www.historychannel.com
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Hauptmann



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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2006 16:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Die Nachrichten vom 8. Januar

1914

1915
Erfolgreiche Angriffe im Rawkaabschnitt
Der Hirtenbrief des Kardinals Mercier
Ein russischer Angriff in den Ostbeskiden abgeschlagen
Die Verluste Frankreichs
Rückkehr der Regierung nach Paris

1916
Erfolgreicher Vorstoß am Hartmannsweilerkopf
Russisches Trommelfeuer an der beßarabischen Front
Weißbuch über die "Baralong"-Affäre

1917
Focsani genommen
Die Straße Focsani-Bolotesti überschritten
Verfolgung der geschlagenen russischen Armee
Das französische Linienschiff "Gaulois" versenkt

1918
Lebhafter Artilleriekampf im Sundgau
Englische und französische Vorstöße gescheitert
Wiederaufnahme der Verhandlungen in Brest-Litowsk


http://www.stahlgewitter.com/
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Fritz Kempf
Ere WikiMusketier


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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2010 0:48    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote



1918 - Duitse succesvolle vliegende aas Max Ritter von Müller stort neer met zijn Albatros D.Va nabij Moorslede. Zijn toestel vloog in brand en Müller sprong tijdens de val uit zijn toestel zonder parachute, waardoor hij te pletter viel.
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Ypres Salient on Pictures
Discover the Salient - Meet the men


FHSW Wikia
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Finnbar
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2010 19:57    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On the night of 8–9 January, 17,000 British soldiers were evacuated from Helles, bringing the three-week evacuation, and the Gallipoli campaign, to a close. In just over a week, 35,000 soldiers, 3,689 horses and mules, 127 guns, 328 vehicles, and 1,600 tons of stores had been taken off Helles. Approximately 508 horses and mules were slaughtered or left behind.
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:37    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Commercial Boom of 1912-1914: Athabasca Times, 8 January 1914

If Aladdin came to Athabasca, he would throw his lamp away as unnecessary and get to work for himself and thus increase his self respect. There is no town which offers so many opportunities to the man who is willing to work as this good old town of Athabasca . . . In the lobbies of Athabasca hotels you will see trappers and hunters fresh from the wilderness, oil men from California and Pennsylvania, merchants from the north, west, east and south here to purchase stock from the wholesale houses . . . freighters, chauffers . . . and to add color to this, the uniforms of the fine looking officers and men of the famous North West Mounted Police. This scene typifies the varied resources of this wonderful town. There is bouyancy and hope and confidence . . .

http://athabascalanding.athabascau.ca/html/commboom/index.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sorensen, Christense (1885 - 1958)

SORENSEN, CHRISTENSE (1885-1958), hospital matron and army nurse, was born on 5 September 1885 at Sandgate, Queensland, second daughter of Danish-born Conrad Emanuel Sorensen, drayman, and his Norwegian wife Hannah Maria Antonetta, née Jacobsen. Conrad, who spoke seven languages, had been a veterinary surgeon in Denmark. Educated at Sandgate State School, Christense took over the household when Hannah became blind after the birth of her eleventh child. In September 1910 Sorensen commenced training at Brisbane Hospital and registered as a nurse on 8 January 1914. She remained on the staff and that year was successively promoted to charge nurse and sister.

Appointed to the Australian Army Nursing Service, Australian Imperial Force, on 10 November as a staff nurse, Sorensen was posted to No.1 Australian General Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. She was seconded to the Middle East Staff in July 1915 and served on the British hospital ship, Guildford Castle, which transported wounded soldiers from Gallipoli. Promotion to sister followed in December. Sent to the British Stationary Hospital, Poona, India, in October 1916, she nursed soldiers suffering from cholera, dysentery and plague until January 1917 when she returned to Egypt to work at No.14 A.G.H., Abbassia.

Long and arduous service under trying conditions had taken its toll and she returned to Australia in February 1917. Regaining her strength, she was posted to No.60 British General Hospital, Salonika, in August. The hospital was entirely under canvas, with 2000 patients suffering from malaria, blackwater fever and dysentery. Sorensen was made head nurse and then temporary matron on 22 August 1918. Sent in February 1919 to No.3 Australian Auxiliary Hospital, Dartford, England, she took a six-month course in massage at Guy's Hospital, London, before coming back to Australia in January 1920. Her A.I.F. appointment ended in March. Sorensen's distinguished war service was recognized by a mention in dispatches in 1918 and by the award of the Royal Red Cross (1st class) and the French Médaille des Epidémies in 1919. Her brother Thoralf had also served with the A.I.F.

http://adbonline.anu.edu.au/biogs/A120020b.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:49    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sheffield City Battalion | Alphaeus Casey's Diary | January 1915

Friday 8th January 1915

Clear sky, cold wind. Brekker:- fried liver. Refuse bucket orderly. Practised attacking trenches, advancing in column, then line of sections and line by sections. Screened trenches. Formed part of picket.

Dinner:- Usual, Bread Pudding. Very good.

Afternoon. Rifles inspected; pay day. Rained intermittently. Also in evening. Cold worse. If no better, sick parade tomorrow. Read Star and Times in evening. Little news. Lodge Chap. II, I, “Aspects of truth”, “In so far as a thing is perfectly beautiful it corresponds to an ideal in the mind of the Creator”. Truth is an affair of perception. Only poetry and litt accepted by all ages. “A dog in picture gallery, interested in smells and corners, may represent, as in parable, much of our attitude to Universe”. Germans is military standpoint, depending on force.

http://www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/casey_diary01.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:51    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

New York Times, 8 January 1915



http://www.turkishcoalition.org/issues_ar_archive.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:54    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Times - 8th January, 1915

The stories of rape are so horrible in detail that their publication would seem almost impossible were it not for the necessity of showing to the fullest extent the nature of the wild beasts fighting under the German Flag.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWatrocities.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:56    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Stijn Streuvels, In oorlogstijd. Het volledige dagboek van de Eerste Wereldoorlog

8 januari 1915 - De boeren trekken weer met hun peerden naar een gedwongen keuring. Om het aan te zien, is het alsof ze naar een kermis reden, maar ik vermoed wel dat er meer dan één met de vrees in 't gemoed zit in de onzekerheid of hij wel... te paard zal terugkeren?...

Te Kortrijk werden 60 mannen opgeroepen om naar 't front te gaan werken. In de optocht zijn er een twintigtal gaan lopen en de overige hebben de Duitsers dan maar teruggestuurd.

http://www.dbnl.org/tekst/stre009inoo02_01/stre009inoo02_01_0011.php
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 21:58    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

St. Andrews Catholic School Burning, 8 January 1915



http://www.migenweb.net/kent/histories/StAndrewsSchool.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:03    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Jan 8, 1916: Allies retreat from Gallipoli

On January 8, 1916, Allied forces stage a full retreat from the shores of the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey, ending a disastrous invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Gallipoli Campaign resulted in 250,000 Allied casualties and greatly discredited Allied military command. Roughly an equal number of Turks were killed or wounded.

In early 1915, the British government resolved to ease Turkish pressure on the Russians in the Caucasus front by seizing control of the Dardanelles channel, the Gallipoli Peninsula, and then Istanbul. From there, pressure could be brought on Austria-Hungary, forcing the Central Powers to divert troops from the western front. The first lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, strongly supported the plan, and in February 1915 French and British ships began bombarding the Turkish forts guarding the Dardanelles.

Bad weather interrupted the operation, and on March 18, six English and four French warships moved into the Dardanelles. The Turks, however, had used the intervening time wisely, setting mines that sank three Allied ships and badly damaged three more. The naval attack was called off, and a larger land invasion was planned.

Beginning April 25, British, Australian, and New Zealand troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula, while the French feinted a landing on the opposite coast to divert Ottoman forces. The Australians and New Zealanders were devastated by the Turkish defenders, who were led by Mustafa Kemal, the future President Ataturk of Turkey. Meanwhile, the British likewise were met with fierce resistance at their Cape Helles landing sites and suffered two-thirds casualties at some locations. During the next three months, the Allies made only slight gains off their landing sites and took terrible casualties.

To break the stalemate, a new British landing at Sulva Bay occurred on August 6, but the British failed to capitalize on their largely unopposed landing and waited too long to move against the heights. Ottoman reinforcements arrived and quickly halted their progress. Trenches were dug, and the British were able to advance only a few miles.

In September, Sir Ian Hamilton, the British commander, was replaced by Sir Charles Monro, who in December recommended an evacuation from Gallipoli. In early January 1916, the last of the Allied troops escaped. As a result of the disastrous campaign, Churchill resigned as first lord of the Admiralty and accepted a commission to command an infantry battalion in France.

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/allies-retreat-from-gallipoli
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finnbar @ 08 Jan 2010 19:57 schreef:
On the night of 8–9 January, 17,000 British soldiers were evacuated from Helles, bringing the three-week evacuation, and the Gallipoli campaign, to a close. In just over a week, 35,000 soldiers, 3,689 horses and mules, 127 guns, 328 vehicles, and 1,600 tons of stores had been taken off Helles. Approximately 508 horses and mules were slaughtered or left behind.


http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:06    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Utrechts Nieuwsblad (08-01-1916)

http://www.hetutrechtsarchief.nl/collectie/kranten/un/1916/0108
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:08    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Chronology of Tunnelling in the La Boisselle Sector in January 1916 (Work in progress)

8/1/1916 Pi Bn 13 History p67

Also in January 1916 chiefly mine warfare continued without disadvantages for the Company. On 8 January NCO Schwarz died from a shell wound.

http://freespace.virgin.net/simon.jones87/Chronology191601.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:18    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Kroniek van Baarle in de Eerste Wereldoorlog (1916)

8 januari 1916 - De Nederlandse minister van Landbouw, Handel en Nijverheid besliste dat de enclaves van Baarle-Hertog voortaan mochten worden bevoorraad vanuit Nederland. (2.073.564 Register van Briefwisseling) Een “Gemengde Commissie van Ravitaillement” (levensmiddelenvoorziening) zou maandelijks vergaderen om één en ander te coördineren. De commissie zou bestaan uit Nederlandse militairen en douanen en uit raadsleden van Baarle-Nassau en Baarle-Hertog. De eerste bevoorrading liet meer dan een maand op zich wachten omdat het volle­dige grondgebied van de dorpskom met een 3 meter hoge en 4,5 km lange omheining in kippengaas moest worden afgesloten. Slechts vier streng bewaakte ingangspoorten en een smalle corri­dor in het station van Baarle-Nassau zorgden voor een verbin­ding met de buitenwereld. De omheining werd bewaakt door patrouillerende Nederlandse grenstroepen die uiterst strenge controles uitvoerden. Zo werd de benzi­ne van de binnen- en buitenrijdende wagens opgemeten om te verhinderen dat ze als brandstof zou worden geleverd voor de generatoren van het telegraaf­kan­toor. (Jan Huijbrechts in “Castelré 1914-1918, Begrensd Overleven”)

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:SrxIpfS6VgkJ:www.amaliavansolms.org/joomla/index.php%3Foption%3Dcom_content%26task%3Dview%26id%3D189%26Itemid%3D47+8+january+1916&cd=56&hl=nl&ct=clnk&gl=nl
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:21    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Section from a letter from Sassoon to his mother, 8 January 1916



Letter to Theresa Sassoon
France, 8 January 1916

This is one of Sassoon’s letters to his mother (whom he addressed as ‘Ash’). It contains light-hearted news of friends, sports and animals, apparently intended to put his mother’s mind at rest about his day-to-day existence, but it makes less convincing fun with precautions against poison gas attacks: ‘You would laugh to see us practising with gas-helmets, like a lot of queer bogies, with goggle-eyes & wide snouts.’ The helmets pictured in the letter were made of grey flannel; in his war memoir Good-bye to All That Robert Graves recalled that the wearer ‘breathed in through the nose from inside the helmet, and breathed out through a special valve held in the mouth.’


http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/exhibitions/Sassoon/captions.html#sportsman
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to Colonel C. E. Wilson

January 8th, 1917

Route notes

On January 2, 1917, I left Yambo and rode across the plain to the mouth of Wadi Agida in five hours. From the mouth of Wadi Agida to the watershed into the Wadi Yambo basin was one hour, and thence to Nakhl Mubarak was one hour; all done at a four miles an hour walk. The lowest third of the ascent of Wadi Agida was over sand: soft, slow going. The upper parts were harder and better: the divide was low and easy, and it gave at once to the eastward, on to a broad open valley, coming from the left with only very low hills on each side (Jebel Agida?), down which the road curved gently into Nakhl Mubarak. The 'Sebil' stands about 400 yards east of the watershed.

The road down to Nakhl looked very beautiful today. The rains have brought up a thin growth of grass in all the hollows and flat places. The blades, of a very tender green, shoot up between all the stones, so that looked at from a little height and distance there is a lively mist of pale green here and there over the surfaces of the slate-blue and brown-red rocks. In places the growth was quite strong, and the camels of the army are grazing on it.

In Nakhl Mubarak I found Feisal encamped in tents: he himself was in his private tent, getting ready to go out to his reception. I stayed with him that day, while rumours came in that the Turkish force had evacuated Wadi Safra. One reported that from Bir Sheriufi to Bir Derwish was one great camp, and that its units were proceeding to Medina; another had seen a great force of camelmen and infantry ride East past Kheif yesterday. We decided to send out a feeler towards Hamra, to
get news.

On January 3, I took thirty-five Mahamid and rode over a dull tamarisk- and thorn-grown plain past Bir Faqir (not seen) to Bir Wasit, which is the old Abu Khalaat of my first trip. We waited there till sunset, and then went to Bir Murra, left our camels with ten of the men, and the rest of us climbed up the hills north of the Haj road up to Jebel Dhifran, which was painful, for the hills are all of knife-like strata which are turned on edge, and often run in straight lines from crest to valley. It gives you abundance of broken surface but no sound grips, as the strata are so minutely cracked that almost any segment will come away from its socket in your hand.

The top of Dhifran was cold and misty. At dawn we disposed ourselves in crevices of the rocks, and at last saw three bell tents beneath us to the right, behind a spur at the head of the pass, 300 yards away. We could not get round to them to get a low view, so put a few bullets through their top. This turned out a crowd of Turks from all directions. They leaped into trenches and rifle pits each side of the road, and potting them was very difficult. I think they suffered some loss, but I could not be sure. They fired in every direction except towards us, and the row in the narrow valley was so awful that I expected to see the Hamra force turn out. As the Turks were already ten to our one this might have made our getting away difficult, so we crawled back and rushed down into a valley, almost on top of two very scared Turks, who may have been outposts or may have been at their private morning duty. They were the most ragged men I have ever seen, bar a British tramp, and surrendered at once. We took them with us, and bolted off down the valley for another 500 yards. From there we put a few shots into the Turks, which seemed to check them, and so got off gently to Bir Murra by 6.30 a.m. The prisoners could speak only Turkish, so we mounted them and raced up to Nakhl to find an interpreter. They said it was the 5th Coy. of the 2/55th Regiment which was posted on Dhifran, the rest of the battalion and two companies of the first battalion being at Hamra village. The other companies of the 1/55th were guarding the Derb el-Khayaa from Hamra to Bir Ibn Hassani; 3/55th in Bir Derwish; O.C. 55th Regiment, Tewfik Bey.

At Nakhl Mubarak I found letters from Captain Warren saying that Zeid was still in Yambo, and that the Dufferin would wait in Sherm Yambo till I came. As Feisal was just starting for Owais, I changed my camel and rode down with him and the army to the head of Wadi Messarid by 3 p.m. The order of march was rather splendid and barbaric. Feisal in front, in white: Sharaf on his right in red headcloth and henna dyed tunic and cloak; myself on his left in white and red; behind us three banners of purple silk, with gold spikes; behind them three drummers playing a march, and behind them again, a wild bouncing mass of 1,200 camels of the bodyguard, all packed as closely as they could move, the men in every variety of coloured clothes, and the camels nearly as brilliant in their trappings, and the whole crowd singing at the tops of their voices a warsong in honour of Feisal and his family. It looked like a river of camels, for we filled up the Wadi to the tops of its banks, and poured along in a quarter of a mile long stream.

At the mouth of Wadi Messarid I said goodbye to Feisal and raced down the open plain to Yambo by 6 p.m. I was riding Feisal's own splendid camel, and so managed to do the twenty-two miles fairly easily. To my great relief I found the Dufferin had already left for Rabugh with Zeid, and so I was saved a further ten miles' march to Sherm Yambo.

Arab forces

The troops in Nakhl Mubarak were mostly camel corps. There were very many - according to Feisal’s figures, over 6,ooo - but their camps were spread over miles of the Wadi and its tributaries, and I could not manage to see all of them. Those I did see were quiet, and I thought in fair spirits. Some of them have now served six months or more, and these have lost their enthusiasm but gained experience in exchange. They still preserve their tribal instinct for independence of order, but they are curbing their habit of wasting ammunition, have achieved a sort of routine in matters of camping and marching, and when the Sherif approaches near they fall into line and make the low bow and sweep of the arm to the lips which is the official salute. They do not oil their guns - they say because they then clog with sand, and they have no oil handy - but the guns are most of them in fair order, and some of the men know how to shoot. They are becoming separate but coherent units under their sheikhs, and attendance is more regular than it was, as their distance from home increases. Further, they are becoming tempered to the idea of leaving their own diras, and Feisal hopes to take nearly all to Wejh with him. As a mass they are not formidable, since they have no corporate spirit or discipline, or mutual confidence. Man by man they are good: I would suggest that the smaller the unit that is acting, the better will be its performance. A thousand of them in a mob would be ineffective against one fourth their number of trained troops: but three or four of them, in their own valleys and hills, would account for a dozen Turkish soldiers. When they sit still they get nervous, and anxious to return home. Feisal himself goes rather to pieces in the same conditions. When, however, they have plenty to do, and are riding about in small parties tapping the Turks here and there, retiring always when the Turks advance, to appear in another direction immediately after, then they are in their element, and must cause the enemy not only anxiety, but bewilderment. The mule mounted infantry company is very promising. They have got Mulud, an ex-cavalry officer, training them, and already make a creditable appearance. The machine-gun sections were disappointing. They say that the Egyptian volunteers are improving these and the artillery details.
[39 lines on Camp life, here omitted, are virtually reproduced in Seven Pillars of Wisdom.]


Feisal's table talk

Talking one day about the Yemen, as they call anything south of Mecca and Jiddah, Feisal remarked on the great docility and reasonableness of the Southern tribes, compared with the Harb, Juheinah and Ateibah of the North. He said that no Arabs of his acquaintance were so easy to hold and to rule. To imprison an officer, his sheikh had only to knot a thin string about his neck and state his sentence, and the man would henceforward follow him about with protestations of innocence and appeals to be set at liberty. Another good custom is that of naming boy or girl children after a favoured guest. They then belong literally to their name-father, who can dispose their actions as he pleases, to the exclusion of parental authority; they even incur their part-responsibility of the blood feuds of the name-parent. He was down south between Taif and Birk and inland up to Ebhah for months, and says that now whole tribes of boys are called Feisal, and that, over them and indirectly over their fathers, he has wide personal influence. Particularly he spent four months fortifying Muhail for the Turks, and made great friends of Suleiman ibn Ali and his family. He says that, given ten days leave, he would undertake to raise every fighting man in Asir against Muhieddin. Ebhah he says is not formidable to an attacking force with a battery of field-guns. The present bar on action is that Nasir is not weighty enough to counterpoise the Idrisi. The tribes all believe that Idrisi would egg on his friendly sheikhs to attack them in the rear, if they moved openly against the Turks. The presence of Feisal or Abdullah would allay these fears.

Feisal says that Abdullah, though quick when he does move, is rather luxurious in taste and inclined to be lazy.

Stotzingen told Feisal in Damascus that, from the Yemen, arms and ammunition were to be shipped across to Abyssinia, and an anti-foreign war begun in that country. He himself was going afterwards to German East Africa.

Frobenius (calling himself Abd el-Kerim Pasha) turned up in Jiddah one morning by sea from Wejh soon after war had begun, Feisal was in Jiddah, and headed him off from Mecca. British naval activity dissuaded him from going on further south.
Feisal, therefore, got him a boat, and gave him a letter of recommendation, and sent him back north again. When he got to Rabugh, however, Hussein Mubeirik took suspicion of him and locked him up in the fort. Frobenius had some difficulty in getting out, and made great complaints of his treatment when he got back to Syria.

In March, 1916, Jemal Pasha took Feisal to a cinema in Damascus. The star film showed the Pyramids, with the Union Jack on top, and beneath them, Australians beating the Egyptian men and raping the women, and, in the foreground, an Egyptian girl in an attitude of supplication. The second scene showed a desert, with camel-convoys and a Turkish infantry battalion marching on for ever and ever. The third scene returned to the Pyramids with a sudden appearance of the Ottoman Army in review order, the killing of the Australians and the surrender of General Maxwell, the joy of Egypt, the tearing down of the British flag from the Pyramids, and its replacement by the Turkish flag. Feisal said to Jemal: 'Why go on troubling my father and myself for recruits for your army if this film is true?' Jemal said: 'Well, you know it encourages the people. We do not expect or try to conquer Egypt yet. Our policy is to hold the British forces there with the least cost to ourselves; and Germany has promised us that the last act of the war shall be the conquest of Egypt by Germany and its restoration to the Ottoman Empire. On these terms I agreed to join her in arms.'

Oppenheim came to see Feisal in Constantinople in early 1915. He said he wanted to make rebellions. Feisal asked of what and why? Oppenheim said there were to be rebellions of Moslems against Christians. Feisal said the idea was sound. ‘Where did he propose to start them? Oppenheim said, 'everywhere' - in India, Egypt, the Sudan, Java, Abyssinia, North Africa. Feisal said they might consider India first. There was the technical difficulty of lack of arms. Oppenheim said that would be put right by a German-Turk expedition into Persia. He asked if the Sherif would be prepared to co-operate with the Indian Moslem societies. Feisal said his father would want to know whether, afterwards, the Indian Moslems would be independent and supreme, or would Hindus rule them, or India fall to another European Power? Oppenheim said he had no idea: that it was previous to think so far ahead. Feisal said he was afraid his father would want to know all the same. Oppenheim said, 'Very well, how about Egypt? We can arrange to give your family office there, when it is conquered.' Feisal quoted the Koran to the disparagement of Egyptians, and said that he had lately been in Egypt, and had been offered the crown by the Nationalist party. (This took place in Piraeus.) Egyptians were weather-cocks, with no political principle except dissatisfaction, and intent only on pleasure and money getting. Any Egyptian who talked of raising a rebellion in Egypt was trying to touch you for something on account. Oppenheim said, 'Well, then, the Sudan?' Feisal said 'Yes, you are right. There is in the Sudan material to cause a real rebellion: but do you know the Sudan?' Oppenheim said, 'Why?' Feisal said, 'They are ignorant negroes, armed with broad-bladed spears, bows and shields. He, who would try to stir them up against the English and their rifles and machineguns, is no good Moslem. The men, however, are sound material. Give me arms, money and the command of the Red Sea for about six weeks, and I shall be Governor-General of the Sudan.' Oppenheim has hardly spoken to him since.

In January, 1915, Yasim, Ali Riza, Abd el-Ghani, and others approached the Sherif of Mecca and suggested a military rebellion in Syria. The Sherif sent Feisal up to report. He found Divisions 25, 35 and 36 ready to revolt, but public opinion less ready, and a general opinion in military circles that Germany would win the war quite rapidly. He went to Constantinople, and waited till the Dardanelles was in full blast. He then came back to Damascus, judging it a possible moment: but he found the well disposed divisions broken up, and his supporters scattered. So he suggested to his father that they delay till England had been properly approached, and Turkey had suffered crippling losses, or until an Allied landing had been effected at Alexandretta.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1917/170108_c_e_wilson.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 22:34    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

T. E. Lawrence to his family

Akaba

8.1.18

In this country one’s movements never work out as planned: in proof of that, here I am in Akaba again after quite a short excursion up country. I wrote to you last from Cairo, I fancy, and prophesied that I would be a long time away! Tomorrow perhaps we will get off about midday, to go up towards the Dead Sea, on the East side. It is beautiful country, but too hilly for pleasure. Today I'm busy buying some new riding camels, and saddles and saddle-bags. I looked through the last few letters received, but I don't think there is anything requiring answer. Newcombe, about whom you asked, has been taken prisoner, and is now probably in Asia Minor. He was working with the army in Palestine when he was caught.

Posts have been a little disorganized lately, for the last letters from England are dated November 9: however one knows that had there been anything wrong there would have been telegrams about. It is only good news which is not worth spending money on: you hear the bad too soon.

This Akaba is a curious climate. On the coast we have a typical Red Sea winter, which at its worst is like a fine October day, and at its best is like summer weather. No rain to speak of, not much wind, and persistent sunshine. If you go thirty miles up country at once you get into cold wet weather; with white frosts at night. If you go 20 miles further East you find yourself in miserable snow-drifts, and a wind sharp enough to blow through a sheepskin. Next day you are in Akaba again, and thoroughly warm.

I'm sending you a photograph or two with this letter: none of them are very interesting, but some day we may be glad of them. The Arab Bureau, to which Mr. Hogarth belongs, has a wonderful collection of Arabian photographs, of which I want a few published in the Illustrated London News. They include a rather impressive snap of Feisul himself, getting into a car at Wejh, and some of his bodyguard, taken by me from the saddle, as I was riding in Wadi Yenbo with them and him. It would take a great painter, of course, to do justice to the astonishing life and movement of the Bedouin armies, because half the virtue of them lies in the colours of the clothes and saddle trappings. The best saddle-bags are made in the Persian Gulf, on the Eastern shore of Arabia, and are as vivid and barbaric as you please.

One of the prints to appear, showing the Sherifian camp at dawn, in Wadi Yenbo, was taken by me at 6 a.m. in January last, and is a very beautiful picture. Most sunrise pictures are taken at sunset, but this one is really a success.

There, I have an article to write for an Intelligence Report published in Egypt, and much else to do. Don't expect any letter from me for a time now. I'll be very busy, and quite away from touch with Egypt.

N.

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1918/180108_family.htm
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Remembering Today - 8 January

On this day in the First World War, these three men from the Isle of Lewis lost their lives in the service of King & Country. RIP.

Private DONALD MACKAY



Last address in Lewis: 3 Back,
Regiment or division: 2nd Gordon Highlanders
Service number: 3/5956
Date of death: 8 January 1915
Killed in action
Interred: Rue-Petillon Military Cemetery, Fleurbaix
Memorial reference: I. C. 41.
Lewis Memorial: Back

Leading Seaman ALLAN MACKINNON
Last address in Lewis: 18 Brue,
Son of Malcolm and Christina MacKinnon (nee Matheson), of Brue, Barvas, Lewis; husband of Effie MacKinnon, of 61, South Bragar, Barvas, Stornoway, Lewis.
Regiment or division: Royal Naval Reserve, SS Torcello
Service number: 3322C
Date of death: 8 January 1917 at the age of 37
Died of dysentry in Alexandria
Interred: Alexandria (Hadra) War Memorial Cemetery
Memorial reference: A 25

Private MURDO MACKAY



Last address in Lewis: 48 Carloway,
Son of Malcolm and Marion Macleod MacKay, of 48, Carloway, Isle of Lewis.
Regiment or division: 1st Cameron Highlanders
Service number: 6896
Date of death: 8 January 1915 at the age of 34
Killed in action at La Bassee
Had served with the Camerons in the South African war and rejoined from Canada in 1914
Served in Egypt with 3rd Bn. Seaforth Highlanders.
Memorial: Le Touret, Panel 41 and 42
Lewis Memorial: Carloway

http://atlantic-lines.blogspot.com/2009/01/remembering-today-8-january.html
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Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005
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Calderdale Companion

Monday, 8th January 1917 - 21 people were injured when an electric tram ran down the hill from Wyke to Bailiff Bridge. The driver had left the tram in order to deliver newspapers to a shop when a strong wind set the tram off down the hill, where it ran into another vehicle. The woman conductor of the second vehicle was among the injured

http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~calderdalecompanion/c813-1900.html
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37th Division

On 8 January 1917 the 37th Division was ordered to board southbound trains, in order to take over the front line near the Swiss border from the 8th Landwehr Division. According to plan the division was transferred via Mülhausen and Altkirch, detrained at Waldighofen and then marched through the medieval German county town of Pfirt (Ferrette) - crowned by the ruins of its magnificent castle - to the almost untouched villages of Niederlarg, Moos and Dürlinsdorf (Durlinsdorf) just behind the front.

http://www.westernfrontassociation.com/wfa-publications/118-wfa-stand-to/1420-stand-to-no-89-august-september-2010.html
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Hilmer Sonnemann to William and Emma Sonnemann, 8 Jan 1917



http://www.tim-mann.org/gallery/old/postcards/img151.jpg.html
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The History of the Canterbury Mounted Rifles 1914-1919

Of the Battle of Rafa and the First Crossing of the Boundary into Palestine.

The Division received orders to move on the evening of the 8th January, 1917, to attack the enemy at Rafa at dawn next day. This time the Division was to be accompanied by the Camel Brigade (with its Hong Kong and Singapore Mountain Battery) and by the 5th Brigade (Yeomanry) with a battery of the Honourable Artillery Company (18-pounders). The whole force was to be under the command of Sir P. Chetwode.

Lees verder op http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WH1CMRi-t1-body-d10.html
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Primary Documents - Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points" Speech, 8 January 1918

U.S. President Woodrow Wilson outlined the United States' war aims in a speech given to Congress on 8 January, 1918, in which he outlined what was to become known as his "Fourteen Points". He believed the enactment of these would form the basis for a just, lasting peace.

They were however considered as controversial by America's Allies in the war, and were resisted during the subsequent Paris Peace Conference, although they had formed the basis for Germany's surrender in November 1918.


Gentlemen of the Congress:

Once more, as repeatedly before, the spokesmen of the Central Empires have indicated their desire to discuss the objects of the war and the possible basis of a general peace. Parleys have been in progress at Brest-Litovsk between Russsian representatives and representatives of the Central Powers to which the attention of all the belligerents have been invited for the purpose of ascertaining whether it may be possible to extend these parleys into a general conference with regard to terms of peace and settlement.

The Russian representatives presented not only a perfectly definite statement of the principles upon which they would be willing to conclude peace but also an equally definite program of the concrete application of those principles. The representatives of the Central Powers, on their part, presented an outline of settlement which, if much less definite, seemed susceptible of liberal interpretation until their specific program of practical terms was added. That program proposed no concessions at all either to the sovereignty of Russia or to the preferences of the populations with whose fortunes it dealt, but meant, in a word, that the Central Empires were to keep every foot of territory their armed forces had occupied -- every province, every city, every point of vantage -- as a permanent addition to their territories and their power.

It is a reasonable conjecture that the general principles of settlement which they at first suggested originated with the more liberal statesmen of Germany and Austria, the men who have begun to feel the force of their own people's thought and purpose, while the concrete terms of actual settlement came from the military leaders who have no thought but to keep what they have got. The negotiations have been broken off. The Russian representatives were sincere and in earnest. They cannot entertain such proposals of conquest and domination.

The whole incident is full of significances. It is also full of perplexity. With whom are the Russian representatives dealing? For whom are the representatives of the Central Empires speaking? Are they speaking for the majorities of their respective parliaments or for the minority parties, that military and imperialistic minority which has so far dominated their whole policy and controlled the affairs of Turkey and of the Balkan states which have felt obliged to become their associates in this war?

The Russian representatives have insisted, very justly, very wisely, and in the true spirit of modern democracy, that the conferences they have been holding with the Teutonic and Turkish statesmen should be held within open, not closed, doors, and all the world has been audience, as was desired. To whom have we been listening, then? To those who speak the spirit and intention of the resolutions of the German Reichstag of the 9th of July last, the spirit and intention of the Liberal leaders and parties of Germany, or to those who resist and defy that spirit and intention and insist upon conquest and subjugation? Or are we listening, in fact, to both, unreconciled and in open and hopeless contradiction? These are very serious and pregnant questions. Upon the answer to them depends the peace of the world.

But, whatever the results of the parleys at Brest-Litovsk, whatever the confusions of counsel and of purpose in the utterances of the spokesmen of the Central Empires, they have again attempted to acquaint the world with their objects in the war and have again challenged their adversaries to say what their objects are and what sort of settlement they would deem just and satisfactory. There is no good reason why that challenge should not be responded to, and responded to with the utmost candor. We did not wait for it. Not once, but again and again, we have laid our whole thought and purpose before the world, not in general terms only, but each time with sufficient definition to make it clear what sort of definite terms of settlement must necessarily spring out of them. Within the last week Mr. Lloyd George has spoken with admirable candor and in admirable spirit for the people and Government of Great Britain.

There is no confusion of counsel among the adversaries of the Central Powers, no uncertainty of principle, no vagueness of detail. The only secrecy of counsel, the only lack of fearless frankness, the only failure to make definite statement of the objects of the war, lies with Germany and her allies. The issues of life and death hang upon these definitions. No statesman who has the least conception of his responsibility ought for a moment to permit himself to continue this tragical and appalling outpouring of blood and treasure unless he is sure beyond a peradventure that the objects of the vital sacrifice are part and parcel of the very life of Society and that the people for whom he speaks think them right and imperative as he does.

There is, moreover, a voice calling for these definitions of principle and of purpose which is, it seems to me, more thrilling and more compelling than any of the many moving voices with which the troubled air of the world is filled. It is the voice of the Russian people. They are prostrate and all but hopeless, it would seem, before the grim power of Germany, which has hitherto known no relenting and no pity. Their power, apparently, is shattered. And yet their soul is not subservient. They will not yield either in principle or in action. Their conception of what is right, of what is humane and honorable for them to accept, has been stated with a frankness, a largeness of view, a generosity of spirit, and a universal human sympathy which must challenge the admiration of every friend of mankind; and they have refused to compound their ideals or desert others that they themselves may be safe.

They call to us to say what it is that we desire, in what, if in anything, our purpose and our spirit differ from theirs; and I believe that the people of the United States would wish me to respond, with utter simplicity and frankness. Whether their present leaders believe it or not, it is our heartfelt desire and hope that some way may be opened whereby we may be privileged to assist the people of Russia to attain their utmost hope of liberty and ordered peace.

It will be our wish and purpose that the processes of peace, when they are begun, shall be absolutely open and that they shall involve and permit henceforth no secret understandings of any kind. The day of conquest and aggrandizement is gone by; so is also the day of secret covenants entered into in the interest of particular governments and likely at some unlooked-for moment to upset the peace of the world. It is this happy fact, now clear to the view of every public man whose thoughts do not still linger in an age that is dead and gone, which makes it possible for every nation whose purposes are consistent with justice and the peace of the world to avow nor or at any other time the objects it has in view.

We entered this war because violations of right had occurred which touched us to the quick and made the life of our own people impossible unless they were corrected and the world secure once for all against their recurrence. What we demand in this war, therefore, is nothing peculiar to ourselves. It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression. All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us. The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:

I. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

II. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.

III. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.

IV. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.

V. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.

VI. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.

VII. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.

VIII. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.

IX. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

X. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.

XI. Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.

XII. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.

XIII. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.

XIV. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

In regard to these essential rectifications of wrong and assertions of right we feel ourselves to be intimate partners of all the governments and peoples associated together against the Imperialists. We cannot be separated in interest or divided in purpose. We stand together until the end. For such arrangements and covenants we are willing to fight and to continue to fight until they are achieved; but only because we wish the right to prevail and desire a just and stable peace such as can be secured only by removing the chief provocations to war, which this program does remove. We have no jealousy of German greatness, and there is nothing in this program that impairs it. We grudge her no achievement or distinction of learning or of pacific enterprise such as have made her record very bright and very enviable. We do not wish to injure her or to block in any way her legitimate influence or power. We do not wish to fight her either with arms or with hostile arrangements of trade if she is willing to associate herself with us and the other peace- loving nations of the world in covenants of justice and law and fair dealing. We wish her only to accept a place of equality among the peoples of the world, -- the new world in which we now live, -- instead of a place of mastery.

Neither do we presume to suggest to her any alteration or modification of her institutions. But it is necessary, we must frankly say, and necessary as a preliminary to any intelligent dealings with her on our part, that we should know whom her spokesmen speak for when they speak to us, whether for the Reichstag majority or for the military party and the men whose creed is imperial domination.

We have spoken now, surely, in terms too concrete to admit of any further doubt or question. An evident principle runs through the whole program I have outlined. It is the principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities, and their right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety with one another, whether they be strong or weak.

Unless this principle be made its foundation no part of the structure of international justice can stand. The people of the United States could act upon no other principle; and to the vindication of this principle they are ready to devote their lives, their honor, and everything they possess. The moral climax of this the culminating and final war for human liberty has come, and they are ready to put their own strength, their own highest purpose, their own integrity and devotion to the test.

http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/fourteenpoints.htm & http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/President_Wilson's_Fourteen_Points
_________________

"Omdat ik alles beter weet is het mijn plicht om betweters te minachten."
Marcel Wauters, Vlaams schrijver en kunstenaar 1921-2005


Laatst aangepast door Percy Toplis op 07 Jan 2011 23:03, in totaal 1 keer bewerkt
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1918 World War I Allies Counter Attack

8th January, 1918 : French, British, and Italian forces were reported on this day to be in the process of preparing a counter attack along the Piave River in Italy during World War I. This battle was to be delayed for some time, however.

The Germans attempted once again to gain control over the Western Front of the Piave River in March of this same year (1918). This was considered one of the German Army’s last effort to win the war. After the end of the Battle of Piave in 1918, the Austrian and Hungarian armies that fought along with the Germans direction had disintegrated. This battle that took place along the Piave River was the beginning of the end of World War I.

By the way, allied forces of France, Russia, the United Kingdom, Italy, and the United States all helped defeat the Central Powers. The Central Powers included the Germans, along with the armies of Austria, Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, (Turkey) and, Bulgaria, and Belgium. The United States did not actually participate in World War I until the year 1917. This was the same year that Russia had withdrawn after signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers (German, Austrian-Hungarian, Belgium, Ottoman, and Bulgarian Armies).

http://www.thepeoplehistory.com/january8th.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:10    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Italian Reparti d'assalto (Assault Units) of the First World War



On 4 September 1917 the I Reparto d'assalto attacked Austrian-Hungarian positions at San Gabriele, again in the Bainsizza Plateau sector of the Isonzo front. The attack was an enormous success with 3,100 prisoners taken (including one general) along with 55 machine guns and 26 artillery pieces. Various Reparti d'assalto performed rear-guard actions during the retreat from Caporetto with good results often in the face of heavy casualties. These early successes impressed the Italian High Command and on 08 January 1918 the number of Reparti d'assalto was expanded.

http://www.worldwar1.com/itafront/arditi.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:32    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

On the Historical Necessity of Wikileaks
04 December 2010, Lawrence Davidson

Historical Precedent

Given the ahistorical nature of the public mind, few people will recall that as the United States prepared to enter World War I, American citizens were quite exercised over the issue of "open diplomacy." Indeed, at the time, President Woodrow Wilson made it the number one issue of his fourteen points–the points that constituted U.S. war aims, and so the ones for which some 320, 518 American soldiers were killed or wounded in the subsequent year. Here is how the president put it while addressing Congress on 8 January 1918. “The program of the world’s peace…is our program” and among the fourteen prerequisites to peace is “1. Open covenants of peace must be arrived at, after which there will surely be no private international action or rulings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.”

Why did Wilson make this number one on his list of war aims? Because those Americans who paid attention to such issues did not trust the European style of international relations. They thought it was corrupt and tainted by narrow interest that seemed always to lead to conflict. This was one of the beliefs that encouraged American isolationism. However, Wilson was not an isolationist. He wanted the United States to engage in the world and take a leadership position. He imagined that America was a morally superior nation and its involvement in international affairs would make the world better. "Diplomacy proceeding frankly and in the public view" was his first move in the effort to assert that idealistic American leadership. So what would Woodrow Wilson, or for that matter the educated and aware American citizen supporting him in 1918, say about Secretary of State Hilary Clinton and other U.S. officials and "pundits" running about and insisting on the absolute need for secret diplomacy, while calling those who defy that standard criminals? What indeed?!

Historical Need

The truth is that there has always been a gap between the interests of the general citizenry and interests as they take shape at the level of state policy. It is within that gap that secret diplomacy thrives. One can see this most clearly in the case of dictatorships. For instance, if you travel about the Middle East, say to Jordan or Egypt, everyone takes it for granted that there is no connection between the business of the people and the business of the state. The state is run by narrow elites who make policy according to their own needs and the public plays no role and is given little consideration. Its fate is to be lied to and manipulated. So, of course, those elites are going to operate from back rooms and behind censored media. The person on the street knows this to be so and accepts it because, if he or she protests, the "security" services will come after them. They will be charged with endangering the state or framed for some other crime. And their lives will be ruined.

But what about democracies? Well, the truth is that they too are run by political and economic elites whose interests are rarely the same as the general public. That is why, when the government uses the term "national interest," one should always be suspicious. When it comes to foreign policy this can be most clearly seen in the policies long adopted toward places like Cuba and Israel. A very good argument can be made that the policies pursued for decades by the US government toward these two nations is no more than product of special interest manipulation with no reference to actual national interest or well being. Indeed, in the former case it led to an illegal invasion of Cuba by US backed forces in 1961 and no doubt encouraged the Cubans to allow Soviet missiles on their territory in 1962. The latter has contributed to numerous disastrous actions on the part of the US in the Middle East out of which came the attack on September 11, 2001. None of this is in the interest of anyone other than the elites whose semi-secret machinations lead to the policies pursued.

The difference between dictatorships and democracies are ones of style and, in a democracy, the option to shift emphasis in terms of elite interests served, each time there is an election. Democratic elites have learned that they do not need to rely on the brute force characteristic of dictatorships as long as they can sufficiently control the public information environment. You restrict meaningful free speech to the fringes of the media, to the "outliers" along the information bell curve. You rely on the sociological fact that the vast majority of citizens will either pay no attention to that which they find irrelevant to their immediate lives, or they will believe the official story line about places and happenings of which they are otherwise ignorant. Once you have identified the official story line with the official policy being pursued, loyalty to the policy comes to equate to patriotism. It is a shockingly simple formula and it usually works. Given this scenario, Woodrow Wilson and his notion of open diplomacy represents an historical anomaly. When, in 1919, he arrived at Versailles for the peace conference the representatives of Britain, France and Italy thought him a hopeless idealist. And perhaps he really was.

Incompatibility with Democracy

Whether Wilson was or was not an idealist cannot affect the fact that secret diplomacy almost never represents the public interest. It cannot affect the fact that an honest assessment of secret diplomacy, an honest look at what most of the time it has historically wrought, leads to the conclusion that it is harmful. It often leads to unnecessary conflict and it undermines the democratic process because it denies the public’s right to know what is being done in its name. And, in a democracy, it cannot be sustained without the help of massive state lying and propaganda.

So, what does that say about those American leaders railing against Wikileaks and crying for Julian Assange’s head? Does it mean, to use Noam Chomsky’s characterization, that they have a "deep hatred for democracy"? I doubt they have thought it out that far. Some of them, such as Sarah Palin, who wants Assange hunted down like Osama bin Laden (which means, I guess, hunted down ineffectively), Newt Gingrich, who likens Assange to an "enemy combatant," and Bill Kristol who wants the government to kidnap and then "whack" Assange, are personalities of the extreme right who essentially advocate the policies of dictators. It is not hard to identify these folks with a particular ideology and elite interest group. Others, like Senator Joseph Lieberman, have done their utmost to shut down Wikileaks through pressuring on-line operators such as Amazon who, until recently, have cooperated with the whistle blowing website. Lieberman has taken it upon himself to use his political clout to determine what the entire American population can and cannot know. Is Joe Lieberman doing all this for the public good? It is unlikely. He does declare, with a lot of righteous indignation, that the information Wikileaks has made public is "stolen." Yet, as Daniel Ellsberg has suggested, Julian Assange and Wikileaks are "serving our [American] democracy and serving our rule of law precisely by challenging the secrecy regulations, which are not laws in most cases, in this country." In other words, Lieberman is on shaky legal grounds when he throws around a word like "stolen." But, I suspect he cares little about this and his real motivation is probably special interest driven. Given Liberman’s history as an obsessive devotee of Israel, would he be so fixated on Wikileaks if the Zionist state was not embarrassingly involved in recent revelations?

Conclusion

Woodrow Wilson had it wrong about America. The United States is not a morally superior nation and its elites have always been just as corruptible and obsessed with secrecy as any in Europe. His plea for open diplomacy never had a chance on either side of the Atlantic Ocean. If Wilson’s idealism was seriously wounded at Versailles, it was killed outright by the Republican majority in the Senate which refused to ratify the peace treaty he brought home. Why? Largely because of the desire to frustrate and ruin a Democratic president. Sound familiar?

Can one imagine circumstances in which diplomatic interaction necessities secrecy? I am sure one can. However, those circumstances should be exceptional. They should not constitute the norm. And, there should be clear criteria as to what constitutes such circumstances. Arriving at those criteria should be part of a widespread public debate over a seminal right– the right to know what your government is doing in your name. At this point you might ask, what widespread public debate? Well, the one that supporters of Julian Assange and Wikileaks are trying desperately to begin.

http://mwcnews.net/focus/editorial/7045-historical-necessity-of-wikileaks.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:36    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

3d Military Police Company

Constituted 12 November 1917 in the Regular Army as the 3d Train Headquarters and Military Police, 3d Division

Organized 8 January 1918 at Chickamauga Park, Georgia

Consolidated 14 May 1921 with Headquarters Troop, 3d Division and redesignated as Headquarters and Military Police Company, 3d Division

http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/mp/0003mpco.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:39    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 January 1919: War Department



WAR DEPARTMENT
THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE
WASHINGTON

January 8, 1919

201 (Brennerman [sic], Amos D)CD

B. F. Brenneman,
Epes, Ala.

Sir:

The latest information received at this office
shows that Private Amos D. Brennerman, Company C, 167th Infantry,
was severely wounded July 26th.

For more information concerning him, you should write
to

Bureau of Communications
American Red Cross,
Washington, D.C.

Respectfully,

Austin A. Parker

Adjutant General

http://www.cdpl.lib.in.us/research/brenneman/1919-01-08-wd.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:43    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Laurence McKinley Gould, Koblenz, Germany, Jan. 8, 1919



While serving in the army of occupation.

http://apps.carleton.edu/campus/library/now/exhibits/gould/youngmangould/?image_id=256778
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T. E. Lawrence to B. E. Leeson

London

8.1.19

Dear Leeson,

I'm just off to Paris, ('peace work', they call it) and if I don't reply to you before I go, nothing will happen.

As for jobs this time: it is too soon to say. In the Hejaz there is nothing for Jidda isn't a white man's country! In Syria everything depends on the conference. We may find ourselves shut out, or let in, or on the same ground as the rest of the earth. And till the end of the conference I cannot tell you.

At present everything is evenly balanced.

If anything is possible, I'll do what I can - easily, as I'm not a competitor myself.

If Goslett is still in your orbit, please salute him from me.

Yours,

T. E. Lawrence

http://www.telawrence.net/telawrencenet/letters/1919-20/190108_leeson.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:47    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The sinking of the Iolaire, 1st january 1919

Two investigations were subsequently held regarding the tragic loss of the Iolaire. The official Naval investigation was downgraded immediately from a Court Martial to a Court of Inquiry, due to the Navy's fear that the findings of a Court Martial might imply blame was being accepted by them. The Naval Inquiry was held in private, on 8th January 1919 - and the findings not released into the public domain until 1970… They had apparently ruled that due to the non-survival of any of the officers on board the Iolaire "no opinion can be given as to whether blame is attributable to anyone in the matter." File #693: The Iolaire Inquiry gathered dust in the Admiralty vaults for over 50 years.

http://www.siol-nan-gaidheal.org/iolaire.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:52    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Hugo Junkers

Germany emerged from the horrors of the 1914-18 war a thoroughly defeated nation, yet was quick to recognise the potential and benefits aviation would bring in peacetime.

Immediately after the air ministry approved civil flying on 8 January 1919, easing wartime restrictions, Professor Hugo Junkers set to work on the design of the world's first dedicated transport aircraft, which flew just five months later, on 19 June. Although little known and remembered by few, the six-seat F 13 played a major role in the development of air transport worldwide and paved the way for today's all-metal cantilever monoplanes.

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2009/01/02/320370/flight-100-history-1919-1939.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:55    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

The Star - Christchurch - January 1919 - War News

Wednesday 8 January 1919

Major Newman WILSON
Major Newman Wilson DSO, MC who left with the 2nd reinforcement as Lieutenant and served on Gallipoli before going to France been wounded 6 times -- youngest son of Mr R.L.Wilson of Waimate --- one brother killed on Gallipoli another returned invalided out --- Mrs Wilson, who has been residing with her mother (Mrs Taylor) in Dunedin ------

Returning Home - RYAN
News has been received by Mrs Ellen Ryan, 198 Worcester st, her son Gunner Len Jervis Ryan will arrive home next week, having left with the 32nd NZFA ----- invalided twice to hospital in France ---- was for 12 years a member of the Fire Brigade ---- more ----

PEARCY - J. son of Mrs W.Pearcy, 26 Berry st, is returning to NZ with draft 204 arriving in a few days.

WILSON - Lieutenant Vivian, son of Mrs J.H.Wilson, of Garden rd, Fendalton is on his way back, left with 18th reinforcements, twice wounded ------

http://homepages.ihug.co.nz/~ashleigh/War%20Snippets/1919.Jan.Star.Christchurch.War.News.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2011 23:59    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Air crash made waves at Muizenberg in 1919.

Mail cards and Christmas greetings were flown from Mr Youngs field to the green Point Common on the 23rd and 30th December. On these two occasions the plane did not land and Sergeant Way attempted to bomb the red post office van parked on the Common. He missed but did force the two post Office officials to take cover. Lieutenant Gearing and Sergeant Way made one last flight on 8th January 1919. The purpose of the flight now seems obscured by what followed. the aircraft named Rio de Janeiro No. 2 (serial No. 3110) was watched by a large crowd of bathers at the Muizenberg Pavilion as it approached at about 5 pm. The crowd were delighted to see the plane sweep low over their heads, and many returned the wave by Sergeant Way. The smiles gave way to gasps as the biplane struck a tall light standard, causing the pilot to lose control of the machine which dived into the surf about 15 meters from the beach. The crowd surged forward and helped the dazed occupants from the wreck. Lieutenant Gearing escaped with a few bruises and a salty dunking. Sergeant Way was less fortunate, he suffered severe facial injuries to the mouth and was taken to the military hospital in Wynberg. The crowd helped the police to remove the wreck from the water to above the high water mark.

http://www.zandvleitrust.org.za/art-history-Aviation%20at%20muizenberg%201900.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 0:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Cabinet Conclusion 5. Utilisation of National Factories. 8 January 1919

http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-23-9-wc-514-19-5-1.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 0:05    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Second Lieutenant F. T. D. Gulley, No. 6 (Training) Squadron, AFC

Crashes and fires were everyday hazards for the First World War flier. Second Lieutenant Frederick Gulley suffered both when trying to land his aircraft in England on 17 October 1918. Gulley was on a cross country flight and struck a post whilst attempting to land in a field close to Tidworth Barracks, Wiltshire. In the resulting fire Gulley’s clothes, harness, face and hands were burnt. He was taken to Tidworth Hospital with superficial burns to his face, neck and both hands, including all fingers.

Gulley was eventually discharged on 8 January 1919, as his burns had healed, but details included in his service record indicated he was still suffering from:

Considerable deformity of face – cicatrization around both eyes and both edges of his mouth. Thickening of scar on upper lip, the skin of both hands is ill nourished and there is cicatriculae of the little finger of his right hand which prevents extension of the digit.

http://www.awm.gov.au/blog/2008/03/17/second-lieutenant-f-t-d-gulley-no-6-training-squadron-afc/
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 0:13    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Theodore Roosevelt, October 27, 1858 - January 6, 1919

Wednesday, January 8, 1919

A little before noon a private funeral was held in the trophy room at Sagamore Hill. About 75 people were present. The casket was closed and draped with the American flag. The Rev. Talmage read the 91st Psalm and several collects of the church. When the brief service was completed the casket was carried from the residence by the undertaker's assistants while Mrs. Roosevelt retired to her private bedroom. She would not accompany the family to the church.

Meanwhile, under the brown rafters of the church, the invited guests were gathering people in uniform and civilian clothes, people supreme in the fields of endeavor, and people from the common rank and file. The funeral party from Sagamore Hill arrived at the church seven minutes before 1 p.m. Presently, the Rev. Talmage, in surplice and stole entered from the vestry. He was followed by Bishop Frederick Burgess. Outside, Johnson's hearse rolled slowly up to the church. The mounted police under the command of Capt. Edward J. Bourke wheeled to one side and raised their night sticks in salute. Twenty-five New York City police were also there to direct traffic and crowds.

In the church, all was still. The Rev. Talmage walked slowly down the aisle reciting the Order of Burial for the Episcopal Church. The casket was carried by six men and on the casket was the American flag and upon that a wreath and two banners, one the regimental standard of the Rough Riders and the other the national standard of the Rough Riders. Behind the casket came the Roosevelt family. Extra pews had been installed to hold 50 and the funeral home had set up an additional 60 folding chairs. There was no public address system in the church so not everyone was able to hear the service.

In New York City, Wall Street closed at 1 p.m. The New York City school system suspended in the afternoon as did the courts, and the post office held a one minute silence at 2:15 p.m. The bells at historic Trinity Church tolled in mourning. The church was decorated with laurel, which had been left since Christmas. The chancel was covered with flowers. One of these was a wreath of pink and white carnations sent in accordance with cable directions from President Wilson in France. A large wreath in the foreground bore a wide ribbon marked �United States Senate� in gold letters. A bunch of pink and white carnations was sent by the officers of the Battleship Indiana. Ex-president William Howard Taft, who had reconciled with Roosevelt, was there but had taken a seat in the back of the church. When Archie Roosevelt saw this, he went and got Roosevelt's old friend and took him to the front by the family.

The sounds of the congregation rising swept through the church as Talmage walked down the aisle. As they placed the body before the chancel, the sun came out full and strong. Faint shadows of scarlet and blue and gold from the stained glass covered the interior of the church. On the rear wall of the church were two sheets of foolscap, under glass, on which were written with pen and ink, the names of 98 members of the parish who had entered the national service, four of the names being Roosevelt. One of the 98 names was distinguished by a gold star, Quentin Roosevelt. There was no music, only the ritual of the church read to the accompaniment of the drip of snow melting from the roof. The collect for grace was inserted and instead of music the Rev. Talmage recited Roosevelt's favorite hymn, How Firm a Foundation.

Some 500 people were in the church, Americans and foreigners. Some were devoted and cried openly. Others were there because of political or business relationships only. Men from all corners of the land came to say farewell. In the little church the crowd of mourners was small, outside the crowd of mourners was worldwide. Toward the close of the service the Rev. Talmage recited Cardinal Newsman's prayer: �Oh, Lord, support us all the day long of this troublous life until the shadows lengthen and until evening comes and busy world is hushed, our fevered life is over and our work is done. Then, of Thy great mercy grant us a safe lodging and a holy rest and peace at the last through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

At the end of the funeral the undertaker's assistants carried the body from the church and placed it in Johnson's hearse, which started on the two-mile trip to the Young's Memorial Cemetery. The hearse was escorted by blue-coated police horsemen as outriders. Above, the bell at Christ Church tolled, as did the bell at the Presbyterian Church in response. Those inside the church moved slowly outside into a clear area about the church which had been secured by the New York traffic policemen. Up and down the streets in Oyster Bay, about 4,000 people lined up to watch the funeral procession. The first automobile in the funeral procession was Roosevelt's own and was driven by his personal chauffeur, Charles Lee, who took the family to the cemetery.

At the cemetery all the cars stopped at the entrance, but the hearse proceeded to within 50 or 60 feet of the grave. The grave was surrounded with banks of flowers. Up the steep hill to the grave the people went. The grave mound was covered by flowers. On one side of the grave stood 50 solemn children, pupils from the Cove School. On the other, statesmen, soldiers, and sailors arranged themselves to complete the circle. The wreaths and banners had been removed from the casket but the great American Flag remained. Young's Cemetery was originally part of the old Young's farm. Roosevelt particularly liked the birdlife that made its home in the cemetery and for this reason selected the site for his burial. Slowly, the casket sank down into the grave whose sides had been lined with laurel, as the Rev. Talmage read the committal service. The president's honor salute of 21 guns was fired at Camp Upton, Long Island, at 3 p.m., by two platoons of infantrymen of the 42nd Regiment. A picture of grief, William Howard Taft stood near the grave with his head bent forward and tears in his eyes. Roosevelt's two daughters were overcome with grief also. That evening and for the next week, men in uniform watched the grave as an honor guard. From 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. a detail of four mounted guards watched over the grave as a mark of the respect they bore for the great, late Theodore Roosevelt.

Beyond the grave of Roosevelt the steel blue waters of the Long Island Sound stretched away and to the right and left. Above his resting place rose the beloved hills. Thus, on a quiet hillside of a small cemetery, Theodore Roosevelt slumbers.

http://www.lifefiles.com/libraryArticle.php?i_messageid=965260200
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2011 0:16    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Sidney Reilly's reports from South Russia, December 1918-March 1919.
John Ainsworth

The destination this time was to be South Russia.

At the time, this region was home to a variety of anti-Bolshevik elements. Prominent among them were
the thousands of officers, officer-cadets and Kuban Cossacks who together comprised the Volunteer
Army commanded by General Anton Denikin. The Don Cossacks too, led by their Ataman, General Peter
Krasnov, constituted a substantial part of this anti-Bolshevik movement. Krasnov and Denikin were bitter
rivals for overall leadership of these forces in the quest for victory over the Bolsheviks and, ultimately,
the restoration of a united Great Russia. This dispute would soon be settled though, with Krasnov's formal
submission to Denikin as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of South Russia following their
meeting at Torgovaya station on 8 January 1919. In addition to the Volunteers and Don Cossacks in the
anti-Bolshevik camp, there were members of the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets) active in
politics in the Crimea and with Denikin, vociferous separatists among the Kuban Cossacks, forces of the
Ukrainian Directorate led by Simon Petlyura operating in the vicinity of Odessa, and many others besides
striving to have their voices heard and wishes realised in a climate of civil war in South Russia. This was
the situation on which Reilly was to report to London.

http://eprints.qut.edu.au/2165/1/ainsworthreilly2.pdf
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2012 8:29    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Finnbar @ 08 Jan 2010 19:57 schreef:
On the night of 8–9 January, 17,000 British soldiers were evacuated from Helles, bringing the three-week evacuation, and the Gallipoli campaign, to a close. In just over a week, 35,000 soldiers, 3,689 horses and mules, 127 guns, 328 vehicles, and 1,600 tons of stores had been taken off Helles. Approximately 508 horses and mules were slaughtered or left behind.


1916 dus

En de bron was: http://www.anzacsite.gov.au/5environment/timelines/100-events-gallipoli-campaign/january-1916.html
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2012 9:27    Onderwerp: On This Day - 8 January 1915 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 8 January 1915

Western Front

French carry Hill 132, north of Soissons, and capture Perthes (Champagne).

Germans retake Burnhaupt-le-Haut.


Bron: firstworldwar.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2012 9:56    Onderwerp: Armenian Genocide Timeline: 1915 Reageer met quote

8 January 1915

Turkish and Kurdish chetes (Halil Pasha's "First Corps") attack Armenian and Assyrian villages in northwest Persia. They remain around the city of Tavriz (Tabriz) and the city of Urmia from January 8 until January 29, 1915. From Urmia alone, more than 18,000 Armenians, together with many Assyrians and even Persian Muslims, flee to the Caucasus.


Bron: genocide1915.info
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2012 10:07    Onderwerp: L'affaire de Soissons (du 8 au 13 janvier 1915) Reageer met quote

L'affaire de Soissons (du 8 au 13 janvier 1915)

C'est chez les politiciens de l'époque que la bataille de Crouy prit le nom de "L'affaire de Soissons". En six jours, les Allemands avaient mis hors de combat 161 officiers et 12.250 hommes et Paris se mettait à trembler de nouveau à l'idée d'une percée allemande. A la base, les Français avaient décidé, dès le 25 décembre 1914, de lancer une attaque sur les positions allemandes dominant Crouy afin de les dégager du plateau et de prendre également position sur la route menant à Laon (l'actuelle N2). Mais l'assaut échoua malgré l'utilisation d'armes nouvelles destinées à détruire les rangées de barbelés (chariots porteurs de bombes et tringles porteuses de pétards). Par une contre-attaque allemande lancée le 12, le peu de terrain gagné fut perdu et les troupes françaises furent rejetées au sud de l'Aisne, devant Soissons. C'est en souvenir de ces terribles combats qu'Henri Barbusse dédia son livre, "Le feu", à ses camarades tombés à ses côtés. Des combats auxquels auraient assisté l'empereur Guillaume II, venu "en visite" au château de Pinon.

Côté français, c'est la 55ème division d'infanterie qui participa à la bataille. Elle était composée des 204ème, 282ème, 289ème - celui d'Albert Tastu, inhumé là où il est tombé, sur les hauteurs de Crouy - 231ème - celui d'Henri Barbusse où il était soldat avant de devenir brancardier - 246ème et 276ème régiments d'infanterie. Cette 55ème D.I. fut soutenue le 13 janvier par la 14ème. Parmi les chefs de cette dernière, le général Nivelle qui, en avril 1917, associera à jamais son nom à celui du chemin des dames situé à une poignée de kilomètres au nord.



Bron: picardie1418.com
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2013 20:18    Onderwerp: On This Day - 8 January 1916 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 8 January 1916

Eastern Front

Severe fighting in Galicia.

Southern Front

Evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula completed; one casualty.

H.M.S. "King Edward VII" sunk by striking a mine; crew saved.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1916_01_08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2013 20:20    Onderwerp: On This Day - 8 January 1917 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 8 January 1917


Eastern Front


Heavy fighting south of Lake Babit; no material change of positions.

Russians recover island in Dvina near Glandau.

Enemy advance in Casin and Susitsa valleys (Moldavia), capture Focsani, with 5,500 prisoners, and make progress near Fundeni.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1917_01_08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Jan 2013 20:21    Onderwerp: On This Day - 8 January 1918 Reageer met quote

On This Day - 8 January 1918


Western Front


Strong enemy local attack near Bullecourt repulsed.

French make successful raid on large scale near Seicheprey (Woevre).

Sir Douglas Haig's fourth Despatch published.


http://www.firstworldwar.com/onthisday/1918_01_08.htm
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BerichtGeplaatst: 08 Jan 2015 20:41    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

8 January 1918 – Wiring party in the snow – Ypres

Foto... http://www.c3iopscenter.com/currentops/2015/01/08/8-january-1918-wiring-party-in-the-snow-ypres-2/
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