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De vredesonderhandelingen van 1916.

 
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Bismarck


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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Sep 2008 16:11    Onderwerp: De vredesonderhandelingen van 1916. Reageer met quote

The Encyclopedia of World History. 2001.

Peace Negotiations, 1916–1917, and the Intervention of the United States, 1917

From the very outbreak of the war, President Wilson appears to have believed that ultimately the opportunity would present itself for the U.S. government to step in as mediator.

1. 1916, Jan.–Feb

The president's close friend and intimate adviser Col. Edward M. House visited Europe and consulted with leading statesmen. His conferences with Sir Edward Grey resulted in the so-called House memorandum of Feb. 22, which stated that the president was ready, whenever Britain and France thought the time opportune, to propose a peace conference. If the proposal were accepted by the Allies but rejected by Germany, the U.S. would probably enter the war on the Allied side. The terms on which the U.S. would mediate would include the restoration of Belgium and Serbia, the retrocession of Alsace-Lorraine to France, the acquisition of Constantinople by Russia, and the transfer of the Italian-speaking parts of Austria to Italy. Poland was to be independent. Germany would retain some colonies and perhaps be given more.

2. Public opinion in the U.S. was still distinctly divided, but sentiment for peace was prevalent except in the eastern states, where there was some feeling for intervention on the Allied side (influence of British propaganda, etc.). The president was re-elected (Nov. 7, 1916) very largely on a platform of peace, but he applied himself almost at once to the resumption of his mediatory efforts.

3. Dec. 12

The German government appealed to the U.S. to inform the Entente governments that the Central powers were prepared to negotiate peace. Failure of the Germans to mention any specific terms, and the fact that all the advantages were on their side, made it relatively easy for the Allied governments to reject the German advances (Dec. 30).

4. Dec. 18

President Wilson transmitted his own proposals to the warring powers. He suggested that the belligerents state their terms for peace and for arrangements to guarantee the world against renewal of conflict. The German, Austrian, and Turkish governments replied (Dec. 26) in an appreciative way, but reiterated their opinion that the best method would be to call a meeting for exchange of views. No definite terms were mentioned. The Allied powers in their reply (Jan. 10, 1917) named specific terms. These included the restoration of Belgium, Serbia, and Montenegro; the evacuation of French, Russian, and Romanian territory, with just reparation; the reorganization of Europe on the basis of nationalities; the restoration of territory previously taken from the Allies; the liberation of Italians, Slavs, Romanians, and Czechoslovaks from foreign rule; the freeing of subject nationalities under Turkish rule; and the expulsion of the Turks from Europe.

5. The far-reaching nature of the Allied terms, at a moment when the military situation was by no means in their favor, estranged even Wilson, who still stuck by the idea of “peace without victory” (speech to the Senate, Jan. 22). The first step, however, was to elicit from the Germans a concrete statement of aims. These were confidentially communicated to the president on Jan. 29: restitution of the part of Alsace occupied by the German forces; acquisition of a strategic and economic zone between Germany and Poland on the one hand and Russia on the other; return of colonies and the granting to Germany of colonial territory in accord with its population and economic needs; restoration of occupied France; renunciation of economic obstacles to normal commerce; compensation for German enterprises and civilians damaged by the war; freedom of the seas, and so on.

6. Though this program was anything but hopeful, the president and the German ambassador, Count Johann von Bernstorff, continued to negotiate. But these discussions were cut short by the decision of the Germans to begin unrestricted submarine warfare.

7. 1917, Jan. 8

A meeting of the highest military and civil officials of Germany, at Pless, finally concluded that the unrestricted use of the submarine was the only method by which Britain could be brought to its knees. It was understood that the decision would probably mean war with the U.S., but it was felt that the conflict would be over before the full weight of America could be thrown in. The chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, and men like Helfferich were not convinced of the soundness of the policy but offered no other solution. To counterbalance the hostility of the U.S., the foreign minister, Arthur von Zimmermann, sent instructions to the German minister in Mexico to work for an alliance with Mexico and Japan directed against the U.S. (Jan. 19).

8. Jan. 31 The U.S. was notified that unrestricted submarine war would begin on Feb. 1 (See 1917, Jan. 8).

9. Feb. 3. The U.S. government severed relations with the German government. In response to an appeal from Wilson, Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and other Latin American states followed suit. So did China (March 14).

10.
The president had decided not to declare war until the Germans had committed an overt act. Several American ships were in fact sunk during February and March. At the same time the British secret service intercepted and deciphered the Zimmermann note, revealing German plans against the U.S.

11. April 6. The U.S. DECLARED WAR ON GERMANY, following the president's war message to the Senate (April 2). War was not declared on Austria-Hungary until Dec. 7, 1917.

(bron: http://www.bartleby.com/67/1770.html )
_________________
"Setzen wir Deutschland, so zu sagen, in den Sattel! Reiten wird es schon können..... "
"Wer den Daumen auf dem Beutel hat, der hat die Macht."

Otto von Bismarck, 1869
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David V



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BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Sep 2008 21:40    Onderwerp: Versailles Reageer met quote

Een opsomming van historische feiten zonder enige conclusie doet me ietwat denken aan National Geographic reportages: heel suggestief met een gewild, open einde.
Amerika, of liever gezegd Wilson, had niet Versailles voor ogen toen het de zijde van de geallieerden koos, in tegendeel zelf.
Misschien een mooie aanzet om de niet-interventie politiek van de Verenigde Staten ten berde te brengen,

David
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Lingekopf
Bismarck


Geregistreerd op: 19-10-2006
Berichten: 16013
Woonplaats: Binnen de Atlantikwall en 135 km van het WO1-front

BerichtGeplaatst: 07 Sep 2008 22:01    Onderwerp: Reageer met quote

Interessant. Bovenstaand overzicht pretendeert inderdaad een weergave van historische feiten en gebeurtenissen te zijn, zonder historische duiding of conclusies over achterliggende belangen, strevingen of opinies. Als zodanig mogelijk interessant, maar uiteraard geen opiniestuk.
Het is me overigens opgevallen dat de diverse lezingen, zelfs op dit niveau, nogal wat verschillen. Het lijkt een nogal schimmige kwestie, waarbij nogal wat verzwegen lijkt te worden.
_________________
"Setzen wir Deutschland, so zu sagen, in den Sattel! Reiten wird es schon können..... "
"Wer den Daumen auf dem Beutel hat, der hat die Macht."

Otto von Bismarck, 1869
Naar boven
Bekijk gebruikers profiel Stuur privé bericht
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